The Foundation of the Reinforced Soil
Reinforced soil foundation
The foundation of the reinforced soil has been applied in the engineering departments especially in the geotechnical to improve the soil bearing capacity and reduce the footing the settlement potential. Due to these, the Geosynthetic materials were created and employed to be used by the departments to improve the bearing capacity of the soil. However, the use of the Geosynthetic Materials drew a lot of attentions, and these led to the development of research studies to implicate how these materials are useful. The studies were done or conducted through the field study and laboratory research on the effectiveness of the materials. These materials have been applied in the road pavements, the shallow foundations, and the slope stabilizations. Additionally, the first study to improve the soil bearing capacity strip footing by using the metallic strip was conducted and applied to some extent. However, another research was carried out to improve the load bearing capacity of the shallow foundations supported by some sand combined with reinforced materials such as the geogrids, metallic strips, fibers and perhaps the geocells. Therefore, we can say that the characteristics of the foundations can only be changed by the improvements on the reinforced materials (Sharma & Yoon, 2009).
The Recent Advancement
There has been several progress and development in the reinforced soil. One of the advancements that were so effective is the use of fiber materials for the purposes of improving the state of the reinforcements. These choices were because the fiber has shown some promising effects on the repair of the foundation’s solutions. The material has shown some positive effects on the stabilizations to the thin soils and the localized repair and maintenance of the failed slopes in the construction departments. The randomly distributed fibers can enhance the strength isotropy and remove all the existing points of weakness planes that have the possibility to develop parallel continuous planar reinforcement’s elements. The design and the modeling of the fiber reinforced soil have been performed typically using the composite approach where the fiber materials are used as the major homogenized single material (Sharma & Yoon, 2009). Moreover, the fiber-reinforced soil has worked well to the extent that no non-conventional research and as a result an implication by the engineering departments.
However, there have been several advancements or the proposed models to explain the behavior of the randomly and evenly distributed within the soil mass. The mechanistic model prepared and developed by Gray qualifies the strength of the fiber-reinforced soil as a functioning role of the composite sheer forces that was critically developed during the failures of the past reinforced soils that brought a lot of uncontrolled damages as some bridges made from the other materials were prone to breakage. Consequently, before the advancement, the walls or the foundations that were built by the engineers were prone to shear breakage as the foundation had the signs like some cracks as a result of the poor reinforcement materials done thereby leading to a constant repair (Sharma & Yoon, 2009).
Overall, the performance of the founder bridge structure based on the observed and recorded behavior indicated a short and long term performance. Specifically, the controlled practices were relatively smaller than those expected in the design and were allowed by the many performance requirements. Ideally, there were no signs for the developments of the bump at the bridge that were observed in the recent past before the advancement of the structural foundations using some weak reinforcement. The improvement procedures and levels were conducted due to the non-satisfying reinforcement materials that did not qualify the expectations of the customer or the clients especially the engineering departments.
Background of the Reinforced soil
The inclusions have been used since the prehistoric times in the construction industries for the improvement and developed of the ground strength. For example, the use of the straw to improve the brick quality was dated back in then to the earliest human times. During the 18 century, the French settlers along the Bay in Canada were using sticks to enhance reinforcements of the soil structure such as the mud dikes. Some of the examples of the human-made soil reinforcement in history include the dikes of the earth and tree branches that have been used in China for as long as a thousand years. The recent and modern developments of the soil reinforcements were done by a French engineer known as Henri Vidal as a result of the several types of research he carried out. The first wall to use the technology in the United States was built on the California state highway 39. After this, several roads were constructed using the reinforced structures globally from one nation to another. These led to the development of the technology that was spreading so much to the other parts of the country (Sharma & Yoon, 2009).
The polymeric geogrids for the soil enforcements were developed and put into practice in the year 1980. The large production of the geogrid materials started three years later by the United States of America. The geotextile materials were put into effect after the advancement and improvement of the past developments. The improvements continued until the recent events of the fiber materials for the soil reinforcement technology. The material has proved too great extents in the engineering works and departments on the reinforced soil techniques that have experienced a lot of improvements in the recent times. The technology has led to the building of stronger and durable bridge, or other construction works such as the highway building technology systems.
The engineering department has shown great concern about the reinforced soil structures by conducting numerous studies to affect the efficiency of the performance. The materials developed from one stage to the other have to some great extent improved the high consideration. The background to the reinforced soil has managed to show clearly the development stages and the application of technology of the engineering department. These factors led to the sprout of many highways globally and thus the improvement based on the technological grounds (Sharma & Yoon, 2009).
The reinforced soil structure has a lot of benefits compared to the conventional one. The reinforced soils have the ability, and it’s relatively flexible in the absorption of deformations due to the poor quality of the sub-soil in the foundations that is usually used in the construction sectors. Due to this, the reinforced soil has enhanced a standard of the materials even with the utilization of the poor quality soil structure. More to these, on the areas that have recorded a powerful seismic influence, the reinforced soil has significantly shown a higher resistance to the loading (Sharma & Yoon, 2009). Perhaps, with the strength to the force of the external forces, the reinforced soil has made sure that there is no interference to the foundations that have been set on the roads and other construction works.
The reinforced soil uses straightforward and rapid constructions which do not need large equipment. The construction works globally have been known to use very special machines in the events. However, the use of the reinforced soil has reduced the task force by allowing the use of small equipment in the foundation set-ups that is opposite to the other works like using the concrete. Additionally, the use of the reinforced soil structure has offered the cost advantage with the soil nailing structures for the excavation process. These reduce the cost of constructions on taking the contracts from the governments. Due to the cost advantage, the governments, as well as other stakeholders nationwide, have made possible the constructions of many highway roads and good bridges for the nations. The engineering departments, on the other hand, have been able to get some job opportunities through the ease of getting the contracts due to the cost regulation. The factor has led to the improvement of the infrastructure especially in the United States of America. Moreover, the reinforced soil does not require experienced artisans with specially trained skills in the construction sites. The more the employment of skilled artisans in the construction site, the more the payment they will request from the engineering departments. The reinforced soil has made it easy for the engineers to work with other staffs who are not as costly as the experienced ones. Due to these, the engineers will be able to work smoothly and efficiently compared to the conventional one. These have led to the improvement of the road networks across the universe for the great developments (Sharma & Yoon, 2009).
The reinforced walls offer an advantage to the conventional one, retaining structures on the sites with the poor construction ability (Shin & Atalar, 2002). The result can provide a reduction in the cost of production on the construction sites. The reinforced structure had the ability to conquer the technologies in regards to engineering works. This medium has yielded a positive evaluation concerning the development system that has been happening globally. The role is seen in the robust of various construction sites that have been taking place around the cities of the United States of America. The reduced cost effect has made it possible for the engineers responsible for the management of the construction works around.
This medium involves the construction of the buildings and all the other working stiffs like the roads and the bridges using the concrete materials. This medium is the opposite of the soil reinforcement discussed above. The purpose of any construction company and engineers are to make sure that the materials for use in the construction sites are the best and durable to ensure that the clients don’t complain. However, using the conventional way has brought a lot of challenges in the recent times because the walls made from these materials do not stay longer especially in the case where there are seismic forces that sometimes lead to breakages. However, there has been a way out for the use of the concrete as the materials by creating or the addition of some materials that can reinforce the walls by reducing the concrete from cracking as a result of the sheer tension that is usually from the external forces. The engineers studying the use of these materials have stated clearly that, to promote the utilization of the concrete materials. The steel reinforcement’s bars are needed to remove all the availability of the sheer tension that might exists and therefore leading to problems that are sometimes difficult to solve and may result in the case of the repair (Shin & Atalar, 2002).
The reinforcement is treasured in the case of resisting the cyclic earthquake loads. This is because the load may cause compression and which may then reverse and hence leading the creation of tension happening in the same location. The tension as stated earlier according to the geotechnical engineers will create some line of weakness on the walls that will automatically lead to some consequences that are very tricky to handle hence the need of repair to all the walls along the line. In the case of the bridge, the all bridge will be brought down to ensure that a new wall has been created with a better reinforcement. This media will cost the company a lot if they don’t follow the similar techniques that are required. The conventional constructions require a well-trained works to make sure that it is done according to the instruction that has been outlined by the Department of engineers. The workers will, therefore, require some costly material for the proper working systems. This is very different with the other type of the construction materials. The fiber soil reinforcement is very effective in the cases where the support is needed, and it is very effective to the other concrete one due to its ability to withstand the seismic forces and therefore having the long term effect. Unlikely, the conventional one is costly since it involves the use of many materials and the labor force as well. Therefore, the engineering department, especially in the geo-technical, should consider using the soil reinforced foundations probably in almost all their construction works.
The significant advancement
The ground improvement technique has grown considerably over the last decades. The advancement has been concentrating on the methods and the new materials that will lead to a stronger generation ahead of the construction works (Sharma & Yoon, 2009). When we look at the present construction work, we remember the various works that have been taking place for over some decades now when the first inventions were started by the first workers of clay to perform some jobs that existed by then. Due to reinforcement, its application over the last two decades has matured the technology over the last years. However, the emergence of the new materials to be used in the construction and the advancement in the new technology has led to the advancement in the current technology to the facts that we are leading today in the construction sites. The materials that have been developed are the use of the fiber reinforcement together with other advancements like the durability criteria and others.
Regarding the durability, many questions have been asked to find out the long term of the materials (Rowe & Skinner, 2001). Many people have shown great interest in the materials long term use to avoid constant replacement and unnecessary repairs that do not bring profit but constant failures. The experience and the research on the geosynthetic have clearly shown that the construction performed using these materials have stayed for over 100 years and above. This can be linked to the significant studies that have been performed to over the times now to verify the durability of the structures. These were able to be analyzed by improving the materials that are used in the reinforcement of the walls used in most foundation works that are performed by the constructions workers. The improvement has led to the development of several structures in the construction sites. These services have led to the significant advancement in the material use for all the building works.
The use of the filtration and separation technologies have been applied in the development in most of the construction works around the United States of America and other nations globally. Due to these several modest have been put in place and have led the developments of various technologies like the evolution of advancement in the geogrids (Hatami & Bathurst, 2006). For example, some land designers coming up with the build-up of some micro-organism that has been used in the creation of some materials like the geotextile. The materials have been used in most cases in the soil reinforcement modules to strengthen the walls that have been employed in the building of some walls of bridges and other highway road constructions around the United States of America.
The emerging stabilization of the technologies has been applied substantially in the development systems to a great extent. The stabilization refers to the idea of reinforcing support to the dynamic roads that are related to the rapid construction of the roads over some soft soils. Most of the clients especially in the cases of the road constructions where long term contracts are involved, the construction works must be stable to ensure the objects last as long as possible. The recent trend in the use of geosynthetic materials in the construction of roads has posed some simple creation leading to the betterment of the existing routes. The material has been applied to some great deal ensuring that the roads are stable and withstand the external forces like the world experiencing some tremors, for example, the common cases of earthquakes.
The foundation of the soil reinforcement has been applied in most of the construction industries. The developments regarding the use of the materials to make sure that the foundation is very strong and cannot be affected by the waves that have led to a destruction of most roads in some countries (Chen, 2007). The geotechnical engineering department, especially in the United States of America, has gone to some extent to the use of various techniques to make sure that the foundations are very strong and durable to make their work easy and efficient. The department should continue to create more improvement in the reinforcement of the soil since the soil that is used in the construction network is feeble and soft and cannot withstand the pressure from the external forces.
Chen, Q. (2007). An experimental study on characteristics and behavior of reinforced soil foundation (Doctoral dissertation, Tongji University, China, 2000).
Hatami, K., & Bathurst, R. J. (2006). A numerical model for reinforced soil segmental walls under surcharge loading. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 132(6), 673-684.
Rowe, R. K., & Skinner, G. D. (2001). Numerical analysis of geosynthetic reinforced retaining wall constructed on a layered soil foundation. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 19(7), 387-412.
Skinner, G. D., & Rowe, R. K. (2005). Design and behavior of a geosynthetic reinforced retaining wall and bridge abutment on a yielding foundation. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 23(3), 234-260.
Sharma, R., Chen, Q., Abu-Farsakh, M., & Yoon, S. (2009). Analytical modeling of geogrid reinforced soil foundation. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 27(1), 63-72.
Shin, E. C., Das, B. M., Lee, E. S., & Atalar, C. (2002). Bearing capacity of strip foundation on geogrid-reinforced sand. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 20(2), 169-180.