zone of frontonasal ectoderm regulates patterning and growth
You should aim for a word limit of 1000. (Around 10% either way
is fine. There is no direct correlation between the length of the
essay and the score you will receive.)
The word limit does not include the title and references listed in
the bibliography but does include the citations in the text itself.
It also includes figure legends but does not include any
annotation that you add to your illustrations.
Font size should be Arial, 11 point.
The simplest and best way to avoid plagiarism is to never ever
copy any sentences or part sentences from any paper or textbook
or website or any other source.
Read the paper or other source carefully, try to understand it and
then without looking at the original document write down the
important points in your own words. This will not only help you
avoid plagiarism, it will also help you understand the work.
You shouldn͛t really have to check your essay for plagiarism on
Turnitin because you should already know that you have written it
all in your own words, but you should check anyway.
In your own words
It is always a mistake to make your sentences so long containing multiple
points and clauses that they cannot be easily understood without rereading
them multiple times and this will annoy your reader and almost certainly end
up with a low mark or a negative feedback comment, which nobody wants.
Short sentences are better than long ones. They are easier to understand,
so you͛ll get better marks.
Always reread your own work. Is it easy to understand? If not, write it again.
Ask a friend if they can understand it.
Keep your reader/examiner happy, make sure its easy to understand.
You have to persuade us that you understand what you are writing.
You may well understand something, but if you do not explain it clearly
we will not know that you understand it.
We can only mark what we read. So make sure it is clear.
Try to build logical arguments.
Your essay should be in the format of an essay! i.e. not bulletpointed highlights and not a shortened version of a research paper.
It should NOT be in the format of a scientific paper.
We have provided an example of the format we expect. This is a
‘Dispatch article͛ published in Current Biology
Your title should attract the reader͛s attention and hint at the main
conclusion from this paper
The title will be followed by a two to three sentence abstract that
sums up why the paper is important and what has been found.
The main body of your essay will start by giving some of the relevant
background to the study. You will then move on to discuss what your
paper has discovered. You will outline the approaches that were
taken and the results that were found. Your last paragraph will
discuss why the results of this paper are significant and what they
It should include an introductory section that sets the scene
and says why the topic is important.
There should be an account of the major experiments and
their results and their implications.
You have to decide which of the experiments in the paper to
prioritise as may be too many to include them all in your
You could use subheadings, as these generally make the essay
easier to read.
We do expect a brief mention of the most important
This should NOT be a separate section but incorporated into
the main text.
We are more interested in knowing that you understand
which questions the researchers were trying to answer, and
what their results were, than how they did the experiments.
But some brief account of the experiments will usually help.
Many experiments will include some important Control data.
A brief mention of the control data is expected.
You should generate one figure that graphically displays the
main finding of the paper.
We strongly recommend that you create your own illustrations
(either using a drawing programme or by drawing by hand) as
this demonstrates that you have thought how best to illustrate
the important points.
Cutting and pasting illustrations does not show any
understanding (it just shows you can copy and paste).
Your illustrations do not have to be artistic, they just have to be
clear. Make them a reasonable size.
Your illustrations must be annotated and have a Figure legend.
You must cite the source of your illustrations, e.g. ͞Adapted from
Smith and Jones ϭϵϴϰ͟ or ͞Copied from Smith and Jones ϭϵϴϰ͟.
You should have no more than 10 references ʹ the references will
support the statements that you have made in your essay. Many of
these will be relevant to the introductory part of your essay
Use in-text referencing with name and date (not numbering) using
the Harvard style of citation (details can be found here:
They should look like these examples (Bell 2011, Bell and Logan
2014 or Logan et al 2015) depending on whether there is only one
author, or if there are two authors or if there are more than two
Referencing in the text