President Abraham Lincoln declaring all slaves staying in territories rebelling against the federal government free announced emancipation proclamation on January 1, 1863. However, the emancipation proclamation never applied to all slaves living in Border States fighting the Union or those already under control of the union in the southern side. According to the University of Groningen (2012), rebellious states failed to obey orders from President Lincoln but the emancipation was issued to end slavery among Americans and the world. The 13th Amendment of the constitution and the Emancipation proclamation helped end slavery in America.
The executive government of United States, the military and naval authority was responsible of maintain freedom of freed persons. They would not repress such persons in any way to limit their freedom. The freed persons were ordered to abstain from violence unless in circumstances of self-defense. They were to labor for appropriate wages. Abraham Lincoln declared that freed persons demonstrating suitable conditions would be deployed in the army to garrison forts and stations (University of Groningen, 2012). They will be responsible of protecting vessels in the service.
President Abraham Lincoln issued the Gettysburg address during the dedication of a cemetery, set apart to bury those dead in union, in Gettysburg Pennsylvania. It was to remind the public, the reason for the fight was to win civil war and obtain freedom. Thecivil battle poured most blood of the military since over 45,000 men were killed; some were injured while others went missing (Basler, 2016). The battle was a turning point of the war where general Robert was defeated causing a retreat in Gettysburg. It was a mark of the last invasion by the Northern territory and a beginning of the decline of the southern army. Seventeen acres of land were turned into a cemetery to bury over 7500 police officers who died in battle. The speech indicated that the civil war was meant to save the union and struggle to attain freedom and equality to all men. Lincoln explained that the living are left with the work of achieving freedom. The government shall be for the people, by the people and of the people and that; it shall not end from the earth.
13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of slavery (1865)
The 13th Amendment to the U.S Constitution was meant to end slavery in United States. The congress passed it on January 31, 1865. It was later ratified on December 6, 1865. It provided that no slaves or involuntary servitude duly convicted will exists in United States or places subject to jurisdiction, except those under punishment of committing crimes. The 13th amendment was passed to terminate civil war before restoring southern states to the union. Moreover, the states should have passed the congress (The library of congress, 2015). The 13th amendment together with 14th and 15th expanded American civil rights thus ending slavery.
Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural address (1865)
In his second inaugural address, President Lincoln concentrated on mutual forgiveness between Northern and southern states. He asserted that charity nature of a country determines the true mettle in a nation. Lincoln explained that the war was a punishment from God because of enslaving innocent persons (Bredhoff, 2001). However, he declared his hope and prayer that the war is over after little time. He added that if it were the will of God for it to continue then it would continue until those drawn through the sword will repay the blood of those drawn using lash. He was careful to indicate that the Lords judgments are righteous and true. He ended his speech by urging everybody to practice charity, righteousness according to ability given by God (Bredhoff, 2001). He stressed that all people should strive to finish their work of binding wounds of the nation. All living citizens must care for widows left, orphans and those in battle in ensuring peace to all people in the nation.
14th Amendment to the constitution (1868)
The 14th Amendment to the constitution gave citizenship to people born in United States or having naturalized citizenship. In addition, it assures the citizens of liberty, life and property and protection from the law. However, it is limited to those convicted by the law. The 14th amendment expounded on civil rights protection to Americans (The library of congress, 2015). It addresses rights of American citizens such as rights of protection, rights to be protected from racial discrimination, rights to reproduce, and participate in election. The amendment assures people protection against gender discrimination and racial quotas in education. No law shall hinder privileges and immunities of American citizens. Representatives shall be apportioned according to number of persons in various states (The library of congress, 2015). The amendments furtherstates that no person shall become a senator, congress representative, vice president and president or become a holder of any office if at one time they rebelled against the same or comforted their enemies.
15th Amendment to the constitution (1870)
The 15th Amendment was ratified in 1870 giving African American men voting rights. It stated that right to vote is a right among citizens living in United States and shall not be denied according to color, race, and servitude among other barriers. It removed voting barriers such as poll taxes, intimidation, and literacy tests (The library of Congress, 2016).
The 18th Amendment act was a combined effort from temperance movement and Anti-saloon league. It was stated as a great cause of problems and decline of morals in the society. The two organizations led campaigns to national levels prohibiting its consumption. Alcohol was linked to immorality and crime. Section one of the 18th Amendment prohibits sale, manufacture, and transport of intoxicated liquors alongside with their importation and exportation in United states. Section 2 appropriate legislation enables several states to exercise their power on liquors. Alcoholic beverages are prohibited except for religious and medicinal purposes (Cornell university law school, 2016).
The Homestead Act
The Homestead Act was signed into law in May 1862.it allowed Americans and freed slaves to claim for 160 free acres of federal land allowing them to settle in the Western United states. The ACT opened settlements in Western United States for small-scale farmers. There were 15,000 claims on homestead as civil war ended. At the end, over 1.6 million individual claims were approved where almost ten percent of the government owned property totaling to 420,000 square miles. The Homestead Act indicated that adult citizens heading families qualified to be granted 160 acres of land after payment of little registration fee. The owners were allowed to use the land for five years.
The approval of the Chinese Act happened on May 6, 1882 and became the first law to restrict immigration to United States. The Congress passed the Chinese Act and president Chester A. Arthur. The exclusion Act offered paused immigration of Chinese labor for ten years. The federal law banned of ethnic groups on basis that it threatened the order oforiginal localities. Few non-laborers were allowed by the Chinese Act to seek immigration certificate from Chinese government indicating their qualifications to migrate (National archives, 2016). Most Chinese laborers skilled and unskilled were employed in mines.
The Chinese exclusion Act added that every Chinese deciding to leave the United States must seek certifications to reenter the country even if they were once in the country. Chinese resident aliens were denied citizenship rights by the state and federal courts through the congress. Chinese citizens could be deported due to failure of registration and certification. People living on the West coast were prone to reduced wages and economic ills. Chinese was ineligible for naturalization without success to establish discriminatory acts (National archives, 2016). Finally, population of Chinese people in United States declined due to strict immigration rules, which declared immigration illegal for ten years. In addition, it prohibited Chinese people from being US citizens.
Teller and platt amendments
Senator Henry Teller proposed U.S. amendment in April 1898 declaring war against proclaiming denial of United States to establish total permanent control over Cuba. Teller Amendment explained that United States citizens disclaims disposition of exercising jurisdiction, sovereignty and control over quoted island. The government and management of the island was to be left to its people. Senator Orville Platt introduced Platt Amendment in February 1901. Teller Amendment was succeeded by Platt Amendment, which involved the United States being given rights of intervening to preserve independence of Cuba (Library of congress, 2011). Moreover, it permitted the government that would protect life, individual liberty, and property.
Wilson fourteen points
President Woodrow Wilson delivered a fourteen-point speech in 1918 to the congress. The speech included ideas intended to form American backbone of foreign policy at a time when the nation attained super power in early 20th century. The First World War declared unavoidable relationship existing between American national security and international stability. Wilson stated that citizens must ensure that the world is fit for living by making it peaceful and safe. He added that individuals like living their lives and determining theirsituations. All citizens desire right judgments and fair deals from other people and dislike war, force, and selfish aggression. His fourteen-point strategy ensured peace and national security. The points included free trade, freedom of seas, reduction of arms, and national sovereignty of former Europe colonies, which weakened its empires.
Wilson urged the United Nations to establish an international body responsible of governance in the United States added with territorial integrity towards small and great states. Moreover, Wilson address causes of war such as abolition of secret treaties and adjusting aims of colonists. He proposed for a removal of economic barriers between nations and promised self-determination among oppressed minorities. The last point was a proposition on the introducing League of Nations with an aim of guaranteeing political independence and integrity in the territory, which will be similar to great and small states.
The Kellogg-Briad Pact, 1928
The Kellogg-Briad Pact was introduced against war, which was signed on August 27, 1928. Its aim was to prevent emergence of world war although it did not prevent world war 11.U.S officials among other private citizens put much effort guaranteeing the nation free from other wars. Focuses on disarmament including naval conferences, which began in Washington in 1921, and cooperation with League of Nations and world court (United States department of state, 2016). Kellogg entered into a bilateral agreement with the two nations involved in war, which was positively received by the world.
Pact established points on wars of aggression but not acts of self-defense from the military, which was signed by many nations. Pact aimed at minimizing conflicts by avoiding harm to all people. There was an agreement of clausessuch as outlawing war as national policy instrument and calling signatories to settle disputes by ways of peace (United states department of state, 2016). The Pact was signed on August 27, 1928 by fifteen nations including United States, France, Canada, New Zealand, India, Belgium, Germany, Japan, Italy, and Poland.
Tennessee valley Act
Tennessee valley Act aimed at improving navigability and control flood of Tennessee River. It had a goal of reforestation and appropriate use of available marginal lands located in Tennessee valley. There would be industrial development and agriculture in the valley and national defense would be availed in the valley through creation of government property operation neat Muscle shoals located in Alabama State (Library of Congress, 2016). The Act gives authority to the board to donate and sell plant products for equal distribution in the county agency, agricultural colleges and demonstration agents. The products are for use in experimentation and education to get information regarding their best use and value.
The Act shall provide compensations to United States employees who incur injuries while on duty and employing persons under the Act. The board has the power to attain real estate to construct dams, transmission lines, reservoirs, powerhouses among other structures (Library of Congress, 2016). All properties that hinder operations of the board in the Tennessee valley shall be eliminated. The board has authority from the government to contract with various commercial producers of fertilizers and make arrangements with farmers on usage of fertilizers to gain economical returns.
Donations are made by the board to be equally distributed through county agencies and agricultural colleges. TVA project aimed at pulling greater productivity from fragile lands. There was plowing, planting of hillsides and valleys along Tennessee valley to plant tobacco, cotton, and corn (Library of Congress, 2016). As a result, land erosion was experienced which prompted the board to teach farmers on effective methods of farming to improve their yields. Plants such as alfalfa and clovers were introduced to increase nitrogen content in the soil.
Social security Act
The social security Act was enacted on August 14, 1935. It formed social security system in United states. Its original aim was to assist people with working difficulties. President Franklin, D. Roosevelt signed the Act while the Congress passed it. The Act aimed at limiting dangers existing in the lives of modern Americans during states of unemployment, poverty, old age, widowhood, and orphans. Under the Act Roosevelt was the first in advocating federal assistance to elderly people (The independence hall association, 2016). Through the ACT, the unemployed, retirees get benefits with beneficiaries of the dead benefiting the most. A payroll tax finances current retiree’s payments where half the money is paid by as tax by current workers and half paid directly by the employer.
The Act gives financial assistance to the state to assist the aged with insurance on unemployment. It aids families attending dependent children, victims of industrial accidents, dependent mothers and children, physically handicapped, supports maternal and child welfare Act, public health services and blind persons. The Act created a solution to old age Americans to access pensions and assisted unemployed persons to start vocational training programs among other family health programs (The independence hall association, 2016). The Act permitted the board to register citizens receiving benefits, administer contributions to the government and sending of payments to recipients.
Espionage Acts of 1917
Espionage Act of 1917 is a federal legislation, which prohibited people from speaking against the government, which would interfere with military activities during World War 1. The Act was enacted on June 15, 1917 while sedation Act was enacted on May 16, 1918. According to the espionage Act, individuals could not publish their opinions interfering with efforts of the military towards defeating Germany and its allies (Dashiell, 2015). The U.S. congress later amended the law with 1918 sedation Act prohibiting writing and speaking on critical things regarding involvement of America in war. The espionage Act had punishment to spies and sabotage as well as methods of protecting shipping.
The Act violated the rights of speech among those opposing the military draft.it was a crime to convey false information to U.S. war since it would interfere with their efforts. Moreover, it was an offense to obstruct recruitment and enlisting processes, or mutiny and disloyalty. It was illegal to criticize the U.S. government, flag, the military, and their uniform. The government could punish persons displaying German flag, speeches, and activities that obstructed selling U. S. bonds (Dashiel, 2015). Fines included ten thousand dollars along with twenty years imprisonment. The postmaster had authority to ban mailed letters, sale of German language newspapers, pacific publications, and distribution of pamphlets among other packages. In addition, nobody could print details about the war. Sedition acts led to arrests of more than twothousand persons.Immigrants were also convicted. However, the government allowed pass of clear and current information on upcoming danger.
Arthur Zimmerman wrote Zimmerman note in 1917 to Mexico. The telegram was intended to propose an alliance with the military against United States. This was a time of conflict between European nations. British cryptographers delivered the telegram from German foreign minister Zimmerman delivered a telegram to German minister Von Eckhadrt with an offer of territory of United states to Mexico to joining the German cause in return. However, the note changed the course of war by bringing United States closer into the war. The news of the war was published by the American press leading to a declaration of the war towards Germany and allies (The national archives, 2016). The telegram was presented to Woodrow Wilson on February 24 to guard the intelligence of detection and capitalize on growing sentiment of anti-German. Zimmerman ordered Ambassador Count Johann Von Bernstorff to give financial support to Mexico in case it agreed to involve in U.S. German conflict in the future. If the plan would succeed then Germany could restore lost Texas territories, Arizona and New Mexico to Mexico.