Ethnography is a systematic study of cultures and people.






Ethnography is a systematic study of cultures and people. The focus of the analysis is to explore a cultural phenomenon. A researcher observes the target population from the subject study point of view. The analysis involves an attempt to understand the cultural context. An ethnography involves representing a culture of target group graphically and in writing (Hegelund, 2005). Researchers use ethnography as a means of examining the behaviour of subjects in a particular social situation. A researcher also focuses on understanding the behaviour interpretation.

In the ethnographic analysis, information is filtered through the personal notions and biases central   to the theoretical reference point, personal background, and social status. To eradicate such biases, one starts by determining the biases that can affect study integrity (Tappen, 2016). For instance, if the research paper is on Christianity and then information is collected from Christians then the provided analysis will be biased and not fully representative of all possible experiences. After identifying them, it would be easier to avoid them. Additionally, considering personal beliefs that can lead to bias in the research is useful in avoiding the influence of such beliefs in the research (Hegelund, 2005). In the analysis, acknowledging there is bias in the research helps in giving extra credit to the study. Other people can also help identify language bias in the paper.

To remain objective and avoid being subjective in the ethnographic analysis, the researcher will avoid close relationships with participants in the field. For instance, if a researcher engages in a research and makes conclusions based on personal opinion then the findings will be subjective. Maintaining a standard relationship will help reduce subjectivity.  In case a close relationship is established, the subjectivity will be acknowledged and examined to promote a greater degree of objectivity to the analysis findings (Hegelund, 2005). Promoting objectivity in the research will help in providing a quality ethical ethnographic analysis.


Hegelund, A. (2005). Objectivity and Subjectivity in the Ethnographic Method, Vol.15, No.5,            pp.647-668.

Tappen, R. (2016). Advanced nursing research: From theory to practice (2nd ed.). Sudbury,     MA: Jones and Bartlett.