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French and Indian war

French and Indian war

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French and Indian war happened between the years 1754-1763 and was fought between the colonies of British and France. This research paper will take a deeper look at the facts of the French and Indian war. It will mainly focus on the reasons as to why the war happened and the consequences of it. The paper will look into the people who started the war and the reasons that they started the war. The paper will also go deeper into how the war actually happened and what it involved, who were involved and what exactly happened during the time of the war.

The French and Indian war is considered to be bloodiest war in America on the 18th century. According to Adam M. Kravertz,[1] the magnitude of the war had never been witnessed before. Kravertz notes that the number of troops witnessed were numbers that had never been witnessed before in any human history. In the early 18th century, the North America, British colonies started to became more and more densely populated in the area. The citizens of these colonies started to move towards Appalachian Mountains for in order to settle and grow themselves economically.[2]

However, the French claimed the ownership of Mississippi and St. Lawrence Rivers and were not happy with the fact that the British were intruding. This led them to setting up some forts which included Crown Point and Ohio in the various Rivers. The British were not left behind, because they also built their own Oswego and Halifax.[3] This as it is, caused a land dispute between the two sides. They tried to solve this by holding talks between the British and French representatives who met in Paris in 1750. These talks however did not bear any fruits and since no solution came from it.

Marquis Duquesne who was made governor-general of New France in 1752, had instructions to take over possession of Ohio valley and also remove all British citizens from the area. In retaliation the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia at that time, Robert Dinwiddie, also started allocating land to his citizens in the same area of the Ohio Valley. This obviously sparked the war between the two countries and led to the French Indian war.[4]

In 1754, the British started building a fort named Fort Prince George in a region between Allegheny and the Monongahela in Ohio. When the French realized this, they came and displaced them. The French completed the fort and renamed it to Fort Duquesne. [5]The first undeclared war of the French and Indian war was when George Washington learnt of a plan to attack his colony and started a fight against the French.  In 1755, the British Army Commander, Edward Braddock, met with governors from North America and planned an attack on the French. Braddock was however killed during this time after his defeat by the French. However, war was not officially declared until 1756 despite of a lot of military actions in the last two years.[6]

During the war the French were outnumbered by the British because of their numbers. The British had large number of men fighting against those few numbers of the French territory. However, the French people were helped by the number of forts that had already been put up and the small army that had been put into place.

Comparing the British and the French arrangements of their respective military during the war it is quite clear that the French were more organized than the British and this led to the victory of the early wars against the British. French troops got their orders from their central government while the British got their orders from Britain which a little bit far away leading to unnecessary delays.[7]

In 1957, the British government fell. This came at a time when the French did not want to use huge convoys and did not want to risk the use of these either and William Pitt took over the leadership of the British government. Pitt increased the resources of the military while France concentrated their power elsewhere. This weakened the French which led to not so good results in the years that followed.

In 1758, the luck of the British was overturned and they started making friends with Indians. The British started using war tactics that were used by the French using their friendship with the Indians to get information on these strategies. Around the same time the French lost of their allies from the Indian side to the British.[8] In 1758, the British won their first battle in Louisbourg which is near the St. Lawrence River. Following all these circumstances, the French were defeated by the British at the Fortress of Quebec in 1759. This led to the British controlling the whole of North America in 1960 when the war officially ended.[9]

The treaty of Paris was signed in 1763 and it set terms that were quite unfavorable to the French. France was forced to surrender all her American possession to the British and the Spanish. [10]The war had effects on the economy, government, politics and the social relationships of the three European powers. The France experience a lot financial burden pertaining to the just ended war where they had used a lot of money. This weakened the France monarchy which led to the eventual French Revolution in 1789[11]

Among the negative effects that the war had is that the relationship between England and the Native America was badly affected. They remained hostile to the British for a long time. The political and cultural influence of the French people in North America was officially ended. This means that the influence that had been built for so many years by the French went to waste when the war ended and the British took over.[12]

England on the other hand gained a lot of land and occupied lot of land of the continent. It the added to the number of colonies they had and this lead to increased the power to rule all round. Even if the war increased the number of colonies that it had, the relationship between England and its colonies worsened. The war also cost a lot of money to England which led to lot of debt in regards to the England government.

Due to the debts that were incurred the England government had to get back all the money that they had spent during the war. They therefore had to tax the colonies in order to get back all the money that they had spent on the war. They also had to revive the East India Company for the same reason of recovering all the money they had used. This was met by resistance from the colonies. According to Anderson (2005) this is what led to the revolutionary war[13].

The French removal from North America gave a chance to the British to colonize the whole population. Instead of colonizing the colonies, the decided to start a movement for controlled population,[14].  This prohibited settlement of anybody along the crest of the Alleghany Mountains and they deployed an army of 10,000 officers.

The war did not have all negative effects. The colonialist learnt to work as one. [15]Age Mooy notes this when he wrote, “the colonialists had learnt to unite against a common foe.” Mooy notes that before the war the colonies lived in distrust of one another and did not find a common ground and therefore disagreed on many terms.[16] They now worked together as one and when they noted a common enemy, they worked together towards it and made sure that they defeated the enemy.

The reasons as to why the French and Indian war was started were due to the Land issues and tangles between the British and the French. The people who were concerned were the people in power who included the officer George Washington. It is therefore clear that the war that what caused the seven years war was wealth and land possession where one of the two participants wanted to bow down. The consequences of the war were not so good for the French territory having been defeated by the British.[17] This led to them losing their possessions to the British and the Spanish after a tiring war of more than seven years. This was a big loss to France even and had undergo the French revolution.

References

Anderson, Fred. The Real First World War and the Making of America, America Heritage 2005

Anderson, Fred. The War that Made America: A Short History Of the French Indian war. (New York: Viking, 2005)

Cave, Alfred. The French and Indian War (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2004)

Jerremy, Heinemann. The Indian War: A biography. (London: Routledge, 2004)

Kravetz, Adam The French and Indian War’s Impact on America, 2009. Retrieved from www.let.rug.nl/usa/essays/before-1800/the-french-and-indian-wars-impact/development-of-the-war.php

Mooy, Age French and Indian Wars, 2013. Retrieved from www.let.rug.nl/usa/essays/before-1800/french-and-indian-wars/effects-of-the-war.php

Schwartz, Seymour. The French and Indian war 1754-1763. The imperial Struggle for North America Edison (New York: Greenwood Press, 1999)


[1] Kravetz, Adam The French and Indian War’s Impact on America, 2009. Retrieved from www.let.rug.nl/usa/essays/before-1800/the-french-and-indian-wars-impact/development-of-the-war.php

[2] Kravetz, 1

[3] Kravetz, 1

[4] Jeremy, Heinemann. The Indian War: A biography. (London: Routledge, 2004), p.6

[5] Schwartz, Seymour. The French and Indian war 1754-1763. The imperial Struggle for North America Edison (New York: Greenwood Press, 1999), p.11

[6] Jeremy, p.34

[7] Schwartz, p.108

[8] Schwartz, p.90

[9] Schwartz, p.41

[10] Anderson, Fred. The Real First World War and the Making of America, (New York: America Heritage, 2005), p.57

[11] Cave, Alfred. The French and Indian War (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2004), p.35

[12]  Anderson, p.47

[13] Anderson, Fred. The War that Made America: A Short History Of the French Indian war. (New York: Viking, 2005), p.14

[14] Mooy, Age French and Indian Wars, 2013. Retrieved from www.let.rug.nl/usa/essays/before-1800/french-and-indian-wars/effects-of-the-war.php

[15] Mooy, p.1

[16] Mooy, p.1

[17] Mooy, p.1

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