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Relationships between ethics and feelings

Discussion: Relationships between ethics and feelings

Student’s name

Institution

Case one readings review

In the book “Ethics at work,” Daniel investigates Lockheed Martin’s ethical concerns. To begin with, the defense industry has the broadest and most sustained series of ethics programs of the American business. Lockheed Martin, which majors on high technology products and services for the US government, has improved its formal ethics and business conduct program since its inception (Terris, 2005). Daniel spent about two years investigating Lockheed Martin’s materials while interrogating its ethics officials and ordinary staff. The study starts with a survey of American attitudes towards ethics in business, raising the question of whether ethics can be established genuinely in a modern corporation.

Daniel lauds Lockheed Martin’s ethic initiatives as democratic based on their responsibility for every staff for the ethical framework of his or her actions. However, Daniel believes that the broad-based ethical focus in the organization tends to shift attention from the ethical responsibilities of top management as well as the moral complexities of collective decision-making. While Daniel hails the zeal of the program, he determines that the corporation’s focus on ethics is personal behavior instead of the impacts of the corporation’s policies on the global communities. The resultant effect of the program could be to build a more ethical business environment but at the expense of the public interests.

Ethical issue I experienced at work

Ethical issues are common in most corporations, particularly where the management has the least ethical practices. There are cases where the company decides to take action without including other partners, especially the junior staff. I worked in an organization that was supplying electronics, namely tablets, computers, laptops, and smartphones, among other accessories. The organization has a project intended to support needy children, specifically those coming from marginalized areas. Unfortunately, the company took advantage of the situation is getting more funds from donors, which were used to improve the condition of the company instead of helping the needy children. The issue affected me greatly, and I felt like resigning so that I detach myself from the issue. I was saddened by the organization’s decision to use the funds meant to support the needy children.

References

Terris, D. (2005). Ethics at work: Creating virtue in an American corporation. UPNE.

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The Charletton Accord failed due to various reasons. To begin with, reforms that were proposed after 1982 became too challenging and complex as they presented a lot of reform ideas.

Question 3

The Charletton Accord failed due to various reasons. To begin with, reforms that were proposed after 1982 became too challenging and complex as they presented a lot of reform ideas. They also caused adoption of too many structures of political nature whose effects to the nation were uncertain. The constitutional reform program after 1972 did not meet either condition of a high popular understanding degree or a low degree of popular fear. Clearly, by 1992, Canada had been frustrated and fatigued by the previous decades’ events, which led to a need to find them again.

Certain key events led to the demise of the Charletton Accord. For instance, personalities had a great influence on the failure. Various constitutional reforms, both the successful ones like the 1982 reform and the accord that later failed were all driven by the constitutional reform zeal. This was done by two ministers, namely Brian Mulroney and Pierre Truedeau. Each of them had tangible reasons supporting their commitment. For instance, the latter preferred Canada to have a regime of minority and individual community rights. The former emphasized on overcoming the political isolation by Quebec in the constitutional reform of 1982. However, the last two initiatives at the constitutional reform failed perhaps due to a popular segment that fully recognized the political risks aspect in minority rights within the community. Despite these rights being important in the nation’s stabilization, they also fractured the nation a lot. In fact, the particular benefits of the group that gave definition to both the Charlottetown and Meech agreements appeared to be in betrayal of the conventional nature of the Charter of Rights benefits. That clearly explains the ever waning enthusiasm for reform of the constitution.

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The constitution Act of 1982 was different from the BNA Act of 1867 in various ways

Question 2

The constitution Act of 1982 was different from the BNA Act of 1867 in various ways. Canada’s constitution of 1982 talked about all kinds of things. These included the definition of official languages and the citizen’s individual rights. This constitution worked together with the country’s legal system to make up the country’s rules. Also, it indicated the definition of provinces that make up Canada and the powers of those respective provinces. For instance, provinces have jurisdiction over the environment and education. However, territories on the other side are made by Federal Law. That implies the territories’ power is a bit less than that of provinces. They are still represented in the federal government, but do not have governments at the provincial levels. However, there exists a huge difference that, the provinces usually vote on constitutional changes, but the territories are not capable of doing so.

            On the other side, the BNA Act of 1867 was based on the decision by Queen Victoria. She held that it would be in the best interest of every citizen participating to be involved and support the parliament format within Canada. Such a parliament was responsible for making Canadian laws and decisions. Just like the Great Britain, it has a Senate and House of Commons. Unlike the Constitution Act of 1982, the BNA Act of 1867 gave power to the representative of the Queen, known as the Governor General to disallow. That gave him mandate to revoke any government law within 2 years after its enactment. Under his mandate, assent could be withheld from a bill for duration of 2 years ultimatum. That further prevented it from becoming a law.

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The federal government regulates the economy in various ways. Similarly, every country’s government takes

Question 1

The federal government regulates the economy in various ways. Similarly, every country’s government takes steps in assisting the economy to achieve specific goals of full employment, price stability and growth. The United States’ government influences the country’s economic activity by use of two approaches, namely fiscal and monetary policy. By use of monetary policy, the government exercises its power in regulating the interest rates level and supply of money. Fiscal policy helps it use its power in taxing and spending.

Specifically, monetary policy is usually done by the Federal Reserve System, well known as the Fed. It has the power to take certain actions towards reducing or increasing the supply of money and increase or reduce interest rates in short-term. That makes it easier or harder to borrow funds. Upon believing that there is inflation problem, it uses contractionary policy in decreasing the supply of money as well as raising rates of interest. When there are higher rates, borrowers are forced to pay more for their borrowed money. Also, the banks become quite selective in giving loans. In the case of recession, expansionary policy is used by the Fed in increasing the supply of money and reducing rates of interest.

Concerning fiscal policy, the power of government to spend and tax is applied. Both government spending and taxation is used in increasing or reducing the total money supply in the economy. That implies the total amount that both consumers and businesses have to spend. During recession, the government increases spending, or reduces taxation. Both can also be applied at once. These actions put more money in the hands of consumers and businesses, this encouraging expansion of business and purchase of more goods and services by consumers. Upon application of contractionary measures for reducing business and consumer expenditure, prices go down, thus easing inflation.

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Introduction to Philosophy, fall 2019

Introduction to Philosophy, fall 2019

Student’s Name

Institution

Introduction

Plato in “The Republic” sets up an argument on why we should be moral and just. To begin with, Plato provides the three parts of an individual’s soul, namely the appetitive part, spirited, and rational part. Individual justice is about keeping these parts of the soul in balance, where reasoning rides over appetite. The other section of the paper explores why it is better to be just than unjust using Plato’s analogy of the just city and the soul. Plato starts his argument of justice by having Socrates suggest the notion of the creation of a perfect magic city. In this paper, I will give Plato’s argument that the soul has three parts, as well as show how the soul should be just rather than unjust.

An argument for Three Parts of the Soul

According to Plato, there are three parts of the soul; rational, appetitive, and spirited. The three parts of a soul constitute the ranking of a just society. A person should keep the three parts of the soul in a balance and ensure that the appetite part submits to reasoning. To begin with, the appetite part of the soul includes an individual’s desires for different pleasures, comforts, and physical satisfactions (Plato 428C [83]). The group considers the desire for things needed to stay alive such as thirst and hunger. In regards to this, Plato claims that a person can be directed by thirst or hunger for something instinctively. Therefore, there is a need for a balance in the three parts of the soul for an individual to be just.

On the other hand, the rational soul is the thinking aspect of all humans that decide what is real and unreal and judges what is true and untrue (Plato 428B [83]). The rational soul is part of an individual that thinks, evaluates, focus ahead, weighs alternative rationally and tends to measure what is best and effective. The spirited soul is part of an individual that gets annoyed when it perceives, for instance, that injustice was done. The spirited soul is where a person loves to encounter and override great problems (Plato 428B [83]). In addition, the spirited soul is a part of an individual that loves success, challenge, and respect.

Why it is better to be just than unjust

The analogy between city and soul is applied to show the value of justice over injustice. According to Plato, all aspects of a soul will get satisfaction if reason rules or controls. Contrary to other parts of the soul, reason understands the legitimate desires of other elements and seeks a balanced plan of life that operates for the benefit of the entire soul. In Plato’s analogy, rulers operating in the just city are ruling based on the interest of everyone and not their own. Plato presents a distinction between the just city and unjust city based on superiority of the balance and harmony. To achieve this, Plato compares an individual whose soul is harmonious to one whose soul is in conflict.

According to Plato, justice results in the happiness of the entire soul, whereas injustice results in sadness. Unlike a just city that results in harmony and peace, the fruits of the injustice are like; oppression of citizens by the rules for their interest. In addition, like a just city, a just soul is balanced and harmonious, while the unjust city is attributed to disharmony and war. Plato says, “if his inward parts do severally their proper work, will, in virtue of that, be a just man, and doer of his proper work” (Plato 441C [93]). The unjust soul is usually possessed by lust, where it sacrifices all other aspects in vain to satisfy their desires. In regards to this, Plato showed that nothing good that comes with being unjust.

Plato transforms injustice to the quality of a person’s soul. It is no longer a personal behavior but an internal status. Plato affirms that the performance of unjust actions will affect the balance and peace of the soul that is important for happiness. Plato uses an individual whose soul is not harmonious. He claims that an individual whose soul is balanced can control and suppress unnecessary desires from influencing their decision. However, Plato defines an individual whose soul is not harmonious as an erotic person with extreme desires and usually unhappy in life.

Conclusion

In the “Republic,” Plato presents a strong argument on why a healthy soul results in happiness. Plato begins the argument by describing the three parts of a person’s soul, namely rational, spirited, and appetitive. Using the analogy of the just city and the soul, Plato argues that an individual whose soul is harmonious pursues justice, which leads to happiness while an individual whose soul is not harmonious seeks injustice, which makes the person unhappy. The injustices that people commit ends up in being unhappy because of the internal conflict. Therefore, real fulfillment and happiness are attained when the soul is just and does the right thing.

Reference

Cooper, J. M., & Hutchinson, D. S. (Eds.). (1997). Plato: complete works. Hackett Publishing.

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Homework 3 Assignment

Homework 3 Assignment

Student’s Name

Institution

Homework 3 Assignment

Part 1: Psychosocial health

a) The four dimensions of health, forming our psychosocial health are mental, emotional, spiritual, and social health. Mental health is the thinking section of psychosocial health. It involves how an individual responds to issues in life. In addition, it is about an individual who relates to other people. Emotional health means how an individual feels. It includes anger, love, hate, joy, and jealousy, among others. It responds to situations, particularly the negative ones, in a positive way (Leitão & Greiner, 2017). However, an unhealthy individual uncontrollably responds to issues with extreme rage. In emotional health, there exist emotional intelligence, which is the ability to understand and handle an individual’s emotions as well as those of others.

Spiritual and social health also form part of psychosocial health. Social health is the ability to form meaningful relationships with other people and relate healthily and positively. It involves the way an individual connect or relate to the people around them, adapt to different social situations, and experience a sense of belonging all share to an individual’s social health. Spiritual health is an aspect of psychosocial health that relates to an individual having a sense of meaning and purpose and a feeling of connection with others as well as with nature (Leitão & Greiner, 2017). It is achieved when an individual feels at peace with life. Besides, it is when an individual can find peace and hope even at hard times.

b) Among the four dimensions, my current strengths are mental and social health. I recently determined that my mental health make me strong. It makes me realize how strong I can be. In regards to this, I can think and make informed decisions about important issues in life. When experiencing a dilemma in life, I would think through and come up with a positive solution without any regrets. In addition to my mental strength, I am strong socially. I can make a meaningful relationship with other people. I am always aware and understands my feelings and thoughts and the feelings of the people around me. I usually learn very first what makes other people happy.

Part 2

a) While fostering happiness, there are often small changes to an individual’s mindset as well as mindsets that can boost their mood and will not feel like a chore. In case an individual feels himself or herself sinking into a bad mood or wants to be like others around them who seem to burst with positive regardless of situations. It is important to record some of the habits that might be holding them back and understand that there are plenty of feel-good activities to incorporate into your routine. Here are some five mood-boosting healthy habits;

  • Practice gratitude– there will be some situations to appreciate regardless of their potential impact on an individual. Being grateful even when things are not positive will help boost an individual’s mood
  •  Exercise daily-consider the benefits of endorphins that are released from something as simple as 30 minutes of workout daily. Regular exercise will assist boost one’s mood
  • Prioritize on having enough sleep time– regular sleep patterns can assist a great deal in boosting an individual’s mood and energy levels.
  • Meditation– about 15 minutes of still, quiet time especially in the morning can aid in eliminating stress and boost one’s mood
  • Get mad– when you are low, do not overlook your feelings. Release the anger and move through your episodes of emotions to release the negative energy and create a space for a better mood

b) In regards to the above mood-boosting strategies, I currently practice gratitude, exercise, and meditation. To begin with, I usually create time for contemplation and appreciation of aspects of life. I often think of the things that I am grateful for by focusing on what is good and positive. I tend to focus more on the positive things that I have attained in life and anticipate good things, even when situations are not good or fair. Second, I often engage in meditation as a way to boost my mood. I take up a relation practice to reduce the overall stress levels by engaging in deep breathing, mindfulness meditation every morning for about 15 minutes, and deep breathing when I feel anxious.

c) Exercise is among the best strategies that I consider as means of reducing stress levels and boosting my moods. I take it as an initiative that improves my overall health and sense of well-being, which puts more energy in my daily operations. Exercise is part of my daily routine, where I created a culture of working-out for about 20-30 minutes. I usually alternate different types of exercise, such as running, swimming, weight lifting, and cycling, depending on the one in my schedule. However, as recommended by the Department of Health and Human Services, I try to maintain a weekly workout of 150 minutes minimum. This has helped me eliminate stress to boost my mood and overall health.

Among the five strategies for mood boosting, I can try out on having a good sleep every night. Normally, I engage in a series of tasks that can stretch to late hours. I do not like pushing forward tasks; hence, I always make sure that tasks are completed even when it means sleeping for less than 5 hours. In addition, I was brought up in a family that believes that excessive sleep is attracting poverty. However, I think having an inadequate sleep has contributed to some levels of stress and anxiety that I partly experience. Based on this, I must try out having enough sleep time daily.

d) Everyone understands how vital physical activity is for keeping us physically healthy. However, it is interesting to know that physical activity can also aid in maintaining us mentally healthy. Research has proved that people who exercise regularly have better mental health as well as emotional well-being and reduced cases of mental illness (Patel, 2014). Physical activity seems to lower the risk of developing mental illness. It aids in treating some cases of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. For instance, for mild depression, the study suggests that physical activity can be as efficient as anti-depressants or other treatments such as behavioral therapy.

Physical activity is not just about aerobic capacity and the size of muscles. Physical activity can promote physical health and physique. People who exercise constantly tend to do so since it gives them a great sense of well-being. It results in immense benefits such as energy throughout the day, sleeps better, and have a sharper memory. Interestingly, constant exercise can also boost the overall mood of an individual. It has been proved that regardless of age or level of fitness, an individual can learn to apply physical activity as a powerful tool to feel better.

Part 3

  1. My wellness score is 107 out of 125.

b) Common thinking traps; every person can always fall into unbalanced thinking traps. One is most likely to distort their interpretation of things when they feel sad, anxious, depressed, or angry. One is more prone to thinking traps when they are neglecting themselves, such as not eating well or sleeping well. Examples of thinking traps that we normally experience are overgeneralizing things, black and white thinking, fortune telling, emotional reasoning, labeling, and mind-reading. For example, black and white thinking involves seeing things as good or bad, terrible, or perfect. In most cases, people who think in black and white see small faults as a complete failure.

Among the above listed thinking traps, my most challenging one is fortune telling. Fortune telling is about predicting that something will be bad or good without any tangible evidence. Sometimes, I would think that something bad would happen to me for not doing something vital in life. For instance, I normally think that I will end up depressed for not having enough sleep. In addition, there is a time when I had studied hard for my exams, but there was still a feeling that I was going to fail. This thinking trap has drastically influenced my reasoning at times, especially when preparing for an important event such as exams.

c) Healthy thinking is not just about positive thinking since no one can think all the time positively. In some cases, bad things occur, such as having an argument with parents or failing in an important exam. In regards to this, it is normal and healthy for an individual to be upset and have adverse thoughts when negative things happen. Healthy thinking involves looking at the positive, negative, and neutral part of the entire situation to conclude. Alternatively, healthy thinking means looking at life and the entire world in a balanced way. Having a balanced thought system is healthy.

A healthy thinking worksheet is an important tool that aids an individual in understanding himself or herself as far as health is concerned (Patel, 2014). First, in the situational section, it helps one recall a certain event in life and determine whether it had a negative influence on them. It also helps one to record their reaction to the situation, which is important for future decision-making when such an event occurs. Second, in the reasoning section, one is expected to evaluate themselves and record their thoughts. This part helps an individual in understanding the level of thought and reasoning capabilities.

A healthy thinking worksheet is important because it assists one in determining their challenging thinking traps in life. It has a guide that allows one to make informed decisions regarding their thinking traps. Through this, an individual can determine whether they have a problem or not to seek a tangible solution. The first to find a solution to issues such as mental health is to accept that there is a problem. The worksheet leads an individual in not only identifying that there is a problem but also in understanding the exact problem.

Part 4

a) Explanatory style is the manner in which an individual perceive or explain events in their lives. It is a situation where an individual explains the bad things they experience in life.

b) Some researchers believe that explanatory style will be changed. Seligman thinks that explanatory style will not stay the same but change into different forms.

c) A technique that uses ABCDE mnemonic comprising of adversity, belief, consequences, dispute your negative belief and energize your self

d) Negative impacts of pessimistic explanatory style on physical health are; regular health problems whereas positive impact is that it has stressors.

e) Positive impact of optimistic explanatory on physical health are; less illness, and ability to recover quickly while negative impacts are ignoring or responds slowly to serious health issues

f) Negative impacts of pessimistic explanatory styles on mental health are prone to depression cases. Positive impacts are; not vulnerable to negative events in life and making sound decisions.

g) Positive impact of optimistic explanatory style on mental health are less stress, which contributes to a positive mood even in bad times. It also results to long life. Negative impacts are; prone to negative events in life and risk of miscalculation or making unsound decisions.

References

Leitão, S., & Greiner, B. A. (2017). Psychosocial, health promotion, and safety culture management–are health and safety practitioners involved?. Safety Science, 91, 84-92.

Patel, V. (2014). Why mental health matters to global health. Transcultural psychiatry, 51(6), 777-789.

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Cognitive, socio-cultural and information processing approach

Cognitive, socio-cultural and information processing approach

Student’s Name

Institution

Cognitive, socio-cultural and information processing approach

Cognitive is a process of understanding or a mental operation that make use of idea development, memory, and reasoning. Also, it involves the acquisition of knowledge, creation of values and attitudes, as well as solving issues. Cognitive activities are like attention, actions and problem-solving. In regards to this, an individual will display cognition through focus, and making decisions that are based on thoughts. Therefore, it involves the ability to reason, develop information and distinguish issues.

Socio-cultural is a combination of both social and cultural aspects. It is used to describe the variations that exist between groups of people relating to a given social class and culture where they live. People come from different social set-up and cultural backgrounds that are characterized by values, and norms. It is a more distinct judgment that would need a special evaluation of the inter-relations that exists between ethnic aspects, socio-cultural and determination variables.

Information processing approach is a process that involves the use of cognition that tends to de-align the steps applied in the thinking process and how the steps are linked. Primary to the approach is the cognitive process of thinking and memory. It focuses on the fact that children manipulate information, checks and strategize it. Through the approach, children develop an increasing ability for processing information which enables them to obtain complex knowledge and skills continuously.

 In the study of human development, cognitive development increases with age as children increase their awareness of the processes of thinking as well as their thoughts. On the contrary, this decreases during old age where thinking becomes challenging affecting memory and focus. In regards to the socio-cultural aspect, a child can understand and learn other people’s perspective and communicate effectively with them despite the cultural differences. However, adults are unable to understand and learn about other people’s perspective and communicate effectively. Thus, children become more social than adults. In regards to the information processing approach, adults tend to have an effective processing ability compared to the children. Based on this, information processing ability increases during human development.

Information processing approach

I believe that among the three perspectives, information processing approach is more accurate and useful in the study of how people develop. The approach uses aspects that can be understood and learned easily to explain human development through information processing. The approach compares information processing in adolescent and adult. For instance, an adolescent’s ability changes in the ability to think and show hypothetical-deductive reasoning, there information processing capacities that occur during childhood through adolescence advances. The improvements influence various aspects of information processing like attention, memory, and speed.

In addition, adults are more efficient in information processing that affects their decision-making ability than adolescents. To begin with, greater control over focus allows adolescents to use it selectively majoring on stimuli. With advances in attention, adolescents are better capable of holding materials in working memory while processing new materials. On the other hand, it is apparent that the changes in thinking and solving issues in adulthood are affected by their ability to information processing. The changes in focus, working memory, and the speed of processing affect how adults interact with the world and improve problem-solving skills. Therefore, the information processing approach elaborates more on human development.

Reference

Sage edge (2019). Cognitive change; information processing approach; Retrieved from; file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/Library_20190426_144653.pdf

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Child development psychology

Child development psychology

Student’s Name

Institution

Annotated Bibliography

Colwell, C., Memmott, J., & Meeker-Miller, A. (2014). Music and sign language to promote infant and toddler communication and enhance parent-child interaction. International Journal of Music Education, 32(3), 333-345.

The authors of the article are Colwell, Memmott, and Meeker-Miller. Cynthia Colwell is a professor of music therapy and education at the University of Kansas. Memmott is a director of career and professional affairs while Anne Meeker-Miller is a Ph.D. holder and the founder of love language for babies program. The authors wanted to determine the relationship between music and sign language in promoting parent to child relationship and communication. The aim of this research was to identify the value of using music or sign language to advance early childhood communication as well as improve parent to child interactions. Various participants were chosen to take part in the study to find out the possible relationship between the variables. 

According to the authors, every group used in the research was assigned a care-givers, parents and a child. The groups were; music only, sign language only and music and sign language combined. The interventions in the study were play-based. However, after data collection and analysis, it was determined that the result does not align with the use of music and sign language. In regards to the research, the readers should be able to understand that there is more to aspects that result in a parent to child interaction than music and sign language. It is apparent that there exist other contributing factors to the parent-child interaction during child development.

Fitzpatrick, E. M., Stevens, A., Garritty, C., & Moher, D. (2013). The effects of sign language on spoken language acquisition in children with hearing loss: a systematic review protocol. Systematic reviews, 2(1), 108.

Elizabeth Fitzpatrick is a professor and a specialist in a speech-language program whereas Adrienne Stevens is a senior clinical research associate at Ottawa Hospital research. Chantelle Garritty is a research program manager at Ottawa hospital research while David Moher is an associate professor as well as a community medicine at the University of Ottawa. The authors provide a systematic review of the effect of sign language on the acquisition of spoken language in infants with a hearing issue. The review offers the impact of applying sign language tailored with therapies in oral communication for creating spoken language in children who have hearing issues detected early.

The review is a vital information tool for parents and caregivers, as well as scholars who require new evidence found as a result of newborn screening and early interventions results. It contributes to a better understanding of treatment effects and the introduction of most efficient programs that are tailored to parents’ desired results for their children. Besides, it is important for parents and caregivers to involve various therapeutic interventions and program to promote a positive outcome on spoken language acquisitions. Therefore, in the case of early hearing problem detection among children, it is key to involve a therapist in the area of sound to assist the child master vital communication aspects.

Donoghue, E. C. (2014). Sign Language and Early Childhood Development (Doctoral dissertation).

Ellen C. Donoghue is among the professors at the University of Arkansas in the department of psychology. The focus of this study is to identify the extent at which early childhood professional from different occupations understands early childhood language development to be influenced by sign language. According to Ellen, specialists of early childhood such as teachers and a speech-language pathologist were requested to take part in the study. Among the people requested to participate, about 79 feedbacks were sampled. An electronic questionnaire which includes demographic information and question on the contribution of sign language to language development was structured from the source. A survey monkey was used to share the questionnaire electronically.

According to Ellen, apart from the typical development trends of children with the normal hearing system, children with hearing issues normally do not speak during their developmental phases. The children who have hearing issues do not have a way of understanding what an auditory language sounds as well as how to imitate. However, it is important for the parents and caregivers to start teaching their child sign language to aid in developing their communication. The study determined that sign language can also be helpful for children hearing issue especially to be applied as expressive communication before their first word. The study is important because it offers insight on how parents can promote a child’s development.

Parenting source (2016, Feb 25). How to Support Your Child’s Communication Skills. Retrieved from; www.zerotothree.org/resources/302-how-to-support-your-child-s-communication-skills

The parenting source in the article offers a different progressive framework to aid parents assist in the enhancement of communications skills in infants. The ability to communicate involves the capability to link with others through the exchange of feelings and information using verbal and non-verbal communication. From this article, most of the children learn to pass information to meet certain needs or to create and keep interactions with the people who are close. Babies usually communicate through sounds and gestures immediately from birth. For instance, moving their legs in distress or happiness. They also tend to cry a lot when in pain or wants some needs met. Thus, it is important to note that children’s communication skills improve through leaps and bounds during the first years of development.

The readers especially the parents learn a lot from the article. First, the parents and care-givers learn that it is important to respond to the baby’s gestures, sounds as well as appearance. For instance, when the baby puts his or her arms up, pick him or her up to communicate to the baby that his or her communication skills are effective and important. Second, as a parent and care-givers, it is important to understand and recognize the feelings of a baby. It is apparent that they are more likely to share their feelings and ideas in cases where they understand that they will not be judged or teased. Therefore, as a parent and care-givers, it is significant to learn how to communicate and respond to a baby’s communication signs and signals.

Mueller, V., Sepulveda, A., & Rodriguez, S. (2014). The effects of baby sign training on child development. Early Child Development and Care, 184(8), 1178-1191.

Vannesa Mueller is a Ph.D. holder in speech and hearing science and assistant professor at the University of Texas at El Paso. Amanda Sepulveda is a Ph.D. holder in educational psychology and is currently an associate professor of English while Sarai Rodriguez is an assistant professor of psychology. They both performed a study to determine the impacts of baby sign training on child development. According to the authors, though the baby sign is becoming more popular, there is a gap of study which supports usability. The study that has been conducted in this field is contradictory. However, in the current research, about nine families with children from age six months to 2 years and five months took part in a baby sign workshop.

According to the authors, a test framework was used to evaluate the impact baby sign training have on the communication, adaptive behaviors and cognitive. It was determined that baby sign training has a positive effect on the development of children. Thus, the use of the baby sign to promote a child’s development was supported. The primary purpose of the article is to educate and enlighten readers on the value of baby sign training during developmental stages. It is important for a parent or caregivers to subject their children to early baby sign training for positive cognitive development.

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Implications of Aries Reading

Assignment 2: Implications of Aries Reading

Student’s Name

Institution

Summary

According to Aries, the childhood that we know today did not exist before during the medieval age. There is a clear distinction in the way children were being treated before as compared to this modern age. In the past, children were little adults who participated in the same work and play activities that adults did. It is apparent that there were no toys and games for children. The children were perceived as economic assets rather than a symbol of love for their parents. It was very challenging to attach emotional value to children since the death rate was very high. Aries claims on the state of the children were based on modern letters, diaries, and other documents as well as the manner through which children were depicted during the medieval age.

Also, Aries argues that middle-class attitudes started to change during this period. It is perceived that during this period, there is a growth of maternal and paternal love as a result of the fall of infant mortality rate. In the 19th century, the children were exempted from working in the mines where the majority of the people have been injured. Therefore, Aries contribution influences the understanding of how children were being handled within two periods.

In light of this, we can deduce that parents in the medieval age were not caring for the development of their children which contributed to a variety of behaviors and attitudes. It is also evident that children became adults at a younger age because they were being treated as young adults. Aries idea on this, contradicts Piaget stages of development in children, by showing that it is possible for a child to jump some stages of development due to the environment where they are placed.

References

 Ariès, P. (1965). Centuries of childhood: A social history of family life.

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Differences between Mercantilist and dialectical

Differences between Mercantilist and dialectical

Student’s Name

Institution

Introduction

Psychologists have significant progress in their attempts to illustrate how development takes place among human beings. Over time, a developmental psychologist has been engaged in controversies in their understanding of development as progressive, or stage focused. For instance, Riegel analyzes the different understanding of human development from Mercantilist and dialectical interpretations (Riegel, 2013). Mercantilist posits an understanding of the economic aspect of human development while dialectical talks about the mental development of human beings as they develop. The paper explains the difference between Mercantilist and dialectical. 

There are differences between the mercantilist and dialectical understanding of human development. First, mercantilist expounds on the growth in human capital which is the very essence of development encouraging the government to increase its reliance on monopolies (Issac, 2013). On the other hand, dialectic operations are the basis of cognitive development. According to Reigel, Piaget got it right when he stated that dialectic was at work in the early stages of human mental development, but he was wrong when he said that the theory was consistent as individual ages and developed. In light of this, it is evident that mercantilist majored on the explanation of human development in regards to human capital whereas dialectic majored on the mental aspect of human development. 

Conclusion

The two human development interventions have been challenging to define as a theoretical system. However, it is apparent that the approach to explaining human development among the two interventions differs. For instance, mercantilist tends to focus more on the capital aspect of human development while dialectical interventions tend to focus more on the mental aspect of human development. Moreover, it is evident that dialectic interventions tend to contradict Piaget’s theory of human development while mercantilist does not.

References

Issac, J. (2013). Economics of migration. Routledge.

Riegel. Ideological basis of developmental psychology. Retrieved from; file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/Required%20-%20Riegel%20-%20Ideological%20basis%20of%20developmental%20psychology.pdf

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Ted Bundy personality using Eysenck Personality Theory

Ted Bundy personality using Eysenck Personality Theory

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Introduction

Eysenck’s personality approach goes around aspects of nature and nurture combined with how the two determines individual behavior. Eysenck affirms that the interaction of biological predispositions with constant socialization and conditioning forms the foundation of personality. These personalities range from extroverts to introverts, Neuroticism to stability, Psychoticism to superego function which is tailored with unique attributes (Eysenck, 2012). Eysenck tends to explain why individual preferences change based on biological differences. Bundy, who was a serial rapist and a killer of about 36 people requested for an interview with a radio presenter on the eve of his execution. The paper will explain Bundy’s personality through the lens of Eysenck’s biological trait theory.

Three traits of Eysenck’s personality theory

Extraversion

Extraversion is a trait that tends to be displayed in aspects such as being talkative, outgoing, as well as behavior that is based on energy. Individuals who are extroverts are sociable, desire excitement and change hence can be bored easily. These people tend to care less about issues, they are always optimistic and impulsive (Eysenck, 2012). In addition to this, they can easily take risks and are extreme seekers. According to Eysenck, extroverts display this characteristic because they inherit under-stimulated nervous systems; hence they search for stimulation to recover the degree of maximum stimulation. 

Neuroticism

An individual’s level of neuroticism is identified by the reactivity of their sympathetic nervous system. A person having a stable nervous system tends to be less reactive to stress-based situations, maintain calmness as well as level headed. On the other hand, an individual who is high in neuroticism tends to be unstable and can easily react to issues (Eysenck, 2012). It is apparent that an individual with this trait is prone to fear, anger and worry. For instance, once they are upset, it is very difficult to calm them down. 

Psychoticism

Psychoticism is a personality trait that is displayed by being aggressive, lacks empathy, lonely, interpersonal hostility and troublesome. These people tend to be anti-social, insensitive, to issues and violent (Eysenck, 2012). A high degree of this trait was believed by Eysenck to be connected to increased vulnerability to cases such as psychosis. In addition, Eysenck believed that a close relation of psychotic would display a high degree of this personality which suggests a genetic link to the trait. 

Bundy’s Personality

Extraversion to introversion

As for the extraversion score, Bundy displayed himself as an extravert based on his behavior. For instance, he used to attract the ladies, rape and kill them. The ability to attract ladies required extraversion personality. More to this, Bundy was talkative which is displayed in his interview with a radio reporter. He was able to answer the questions with adequate explanations combined with some element of interception to clear up his point. However, Bundy tends to have some traits of introversion. To some extent, he appears to have had a good plan to have executed his actions of raping and killing people.

Neuroticism to stability

In regards to Bundy’s conversation with the reporter, he displayed being remorse for his actions especially for killing 12-year-old Kimberly Leach. More to this, he does not seem to be a neuroticism trait because he was more relaxed and was not likely to be anxious about anything. In the whole interview session, he is stable and not even his coming execution seemed to have disturbed him much. Bundy claimed that killing him would not bring back the beautiful ladies whom he killed.

Psychoticism to superego function

The trait is displayed by an individual’s show of lack of empathy and aggressiveness. Bundy seems to fit this character traits because of his behavior of being insensitive, violent, and aggressive (Eysenck, 2012). The ability to carry out more than 36 rape and killings his lack of empathy, insensitive to what people’s feelings. In addition, his violent behavior is displayed when he began watching soft pornography, but he began to desire more violent kinds. It is important to note that this was a reflection of his actual behavior displayed in rape and killings. 

How biology contribute to these traits

Eysenck introduced the theory of personality in regards to biological factors. He believes that individuals usually inherit a kind of nervous system that influences their ability to learn as well as fit to the environment (Eysenck, 2017). It has been disclosed through research that Bundy suffered abuse when he was a child from people close to him such as the parents, maternal grandfather, and uncle. It was also disclosed that Bundy’s maternal grandmother received electronic shock therapy treatment (Stav, 2018). Therefore, there is a possibility of a genetic contribution to Bundy’s behavior.

Conclusion

Eysenck introduced three significant theories of personality; extraversion/Introversion, Neuroticism and psychoticism to assist determine individual behavior. He made sure that in all the three models, it is a continuum that people are dealing with and that most of the people will not be at the extremes but around the middle. However, even with these measures, Bundy was at the extreme. For instance, he had a high degree of psychoticism as a result of attributes such as aggression, insensitivity, and antisocial behavior among others.

References

Eysenck, H. J. (Ed.). (2012). A model for personality. Springer Science & Business Media.

Eysenck, H. (2017). The biological basis of personality. Routledge.

STAV DIMITROPOULOS (2018, April 16). Ted Bundy’s Childhood: Lonely Boy to Window Peeper to Serial Killer. Retrieved from; www.aetv.com/real-crime/ted-bundy-childhood-turned-into-serial-killer

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Assignment Questions

Assignment Questions

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Question 1

The philosophical method involves a commitment to an argument with logic to support it for people to believe. Philosophy as a discipline depends on a given method of enquiry to advance our understanding of the world and our place in it. The method is normally based on rigorous logical analysis and their components to make up a cohesive conclusion. A good philosopher is one who can bring out an argument, support the argument with logical analysis and introduce a conclusion that is full of merit.

On the other hand, scientific methods have a different approach. In this approach, a good argument originates from empirical testing of theory. It involves a systematic investigation of scientific theories and hypothesis. As opposed to the philosophical method, a theory or hypothesis is subjected to empirical testing and investigation to prof. Therefore, an argument will be confirmed true or false based on the result after empirical testing.

There are three characteristics of a philosophical question. First, the questions tend to be general. Based on this, they are not always specific when referring to some subjects or something. For example, what makes people happy? As opposed to what makes Sandra happy? Second, the progress of philosophical questions normally requires some analysis or investigation. For example, does good exist? Third, the philosophical questions are designed to seek fundamental feedbacks about a society. Therefore, they are normally important based on what they address.

Question 2

In the Apology, Socrates is put on trial for being an atheist and corrupting the youth. Based on the allegations, he is offered an opportunity to defend himself against the accusers. During his defense, he refuse to adhere to the notion of death as evil or punishment. According to Socrates, death is less to be feared compared to committing an injustice against the Gods. Despite his ignorance of life after death, he knows that it is wrong to corrupt an individual soul by committing an injustice. Moreover, Socrates does not consider death as a bad thing. He brings in different arguments to support the fact that death is good. For example, in his statement “and let us also reflect upon how good a reason there is to hope that death is a good thing” (p.51), he portrays death as being a good thing.

That said, Socrates also views death as an unconscious state or rather sleeping without dreams. In regards to this, Socrates tends to prefer death to being unjust while living on Earth. He believes that since death is an unconscious state, it will assist him to escape from the pains of the unjust society and world. Therefore, Socrates arguments on death are persuasive. First, it is true that death relieves an individual from the pains of the world. In death, it is believed that an individual will not be able to feel any pain. Second, death is good because it offers an individual the ability to see the other side of life commonly knowns as the afterlife.

Question 3

The arguments we considered for God’s existence are as follows. First, Christians state that everything with a beginning needs a cause hence; that cause is God. Second, the living creatures all over the universe display a form of design. Thus, since they must have a designer, that designer is God. Third, the Bible confirms that God exists which is his words to the people on Earth. Therefore, since the Bible is true, then the existence of God must also be true. Fourth, according to Anselm, the fact that God exists in people’s understanding confirms the fact that God exists in reality. God is described as omnipresent, omnipotent, eternal and omniscient, which makes him the greatest conceivable being.

On the other hand, arguments against the existence of God are also diverse. First, according to Gaunilo, if something is considered the greatest conceivable thing in the mind, does not confirm its existence. He confirms the argument by suggesting to the readers to think of an Island that is the greatest conceivable Island. In regards to this, God does not exist. Second, according to Atheist, even if it is true that everything with a beginning requires a cause, the cause does not have to be God. Therefore, why not believe that the universe was as a result of something else yet to be discovered. In regards to this, the Atheist believes that there is no God.

Question 4

Rene Descartes was a French mathematician. He differed with his predecessors on the mode of establishing ideas. According to him, predecessors established ideas based on what he considered to some extent uncertain and had an unstable foundation. To arrive at his conclusion, he decided to use various candidate. The first candidate; sensory perception guides us to the truth. He considered the principle unreliable because of the possibility for our senses to lie to us in making some decisions. As a result of this, he introduces another principle.

The second candidate; sensory perception, in ideal condition can guide us to the truth. In this principle, he considers human senses in ideal condition. However, he disregards the principle based on the fact that there is a possibility of doubt even in ideal conditions. As a result, he introduced another principle. Third candidate; non-sensory reasoning like arithmetic or geometry is true whether when we are asleep or awake. After a series of reasoning, he considers the last candidate true hence can be used as a foundation for knowledge. According to him, the principle cannot be doubted, and people cannot be deceived about it. Thus, since arithmetic is stable and no one can change the facts its present, it can be used as a foundation for knowledge.

Question 5

It has been a challenge to determine the relationship between the mind and the brain. The reasons for thinking the mind is just the brain are as follows. First, it appears that what occurs in consciousness relies on what happens in the brain. For example, if an individual stubs his or her toe, he or she will feel pain. Another example, if someone is hit on the head, the person will automatically pass out. As a result of this, it is apparent that for anything to occur in someone’s mind, something has to occur in his or her brain. Therefore, the relationships of these aspects provide the reasons as to why the mind is just the brain.

However, there are various factors that generate questions on whether the mind is something different from the brain. Considering the fact that a scientist opening a patient’s brain would only be able to view a grey matter with some complicated neuron system but he or she would not be able to find various aspects such as pain, or tastes of objects. Thus, since tastes or pain cannot be seen or viewed, while the grey matter in the brain can be seen, then the mind is something more than the brain. As a result of this, it can be said that brains are objects while the mind is some feelings.

Question 6

Free will is the ability of an individual to decide without any external interference. Under the state of free will, an individual is allowed to make decisions based on his or her conscience. Free will is the ability of an individual to have full control over what he or she wants to do or has done it already. Besides, it can be said that free will is connected to aspects such as responsibility and other judgment actions that may apply to the unlimited actions that an individual is allowed to make. For example, if an individual wants to travel, he or she can decide to change or continue freely without any influence from a third party.

There exist a various version of the idea of freedom. Freedom is divided into two; surface freedom and deeper freedom. Surface freedom is based on fulfilling an individual’s desires. It is the ability for one to act based on their desires without any external interference or hindrance. On the other deeper freedom is described as the ability of self-determination. It is where an individual has various choices that are not decided or forced on them by other people around. Therefore, deeper freedom involves an individual ability to determine their cause of actions for themselves without any hindrance.

Question 7

Time is like space due to various reasons. Space and time are considered as universal forms of existence of matter. The universality of these aspects depends on the fact that they are forms of existence of all the objects and processes that have existed or will exist. Besides, it is not only the events of the outside world but also the thoughts occur in space and time. It is apparent that, in the world of materials, everything has extension and duration. Therefore, time seems to be space.

On the other hand, there exist reasons as to why time is not space. Space has three dimensions; length, height, and width while time has a single dimension; from the past to the present and then to the future. Besides, it is believed that time takes us through some forms of seasons and durations while space has no significant impact because it is motionless. The parameters for the existence of time and space are different. Therefore, time is not space.

The ordinary conception of time, once an individual begins to think about it, it seems to make no sense. We consider the time to be like a river that flows, flies and goes on. Also, time waits for nobody, and it moves without any influence of human beings. In regards to the aspect that time moves, Sider claims that if an object moves with respect to time, then time also should move concerning time. For example, just like people say that a vehicle was in a place at some time, the same should also apply to time.

Question 8

  1. Ethical egoism

Ethical egoism theory is a moral principle that people should act to advance their interests exclusively. The theory is normally linked with selfishness, and disregard to other people’s interests in favor of one’s interests. An argument for the theory is that it can make consistent and correct even when proven false whereas arguments against are that the theory tends to contradict ethical institutions such as what it means to be just or friendly.

  1. Utilitarianism theory

According to the theory, the best action is one that maximizes on utility. The idea is tailored to the fact that all actions that are considered as right bring happiness while the ones that are considered to be wrong brings sadness. In this theory, happiness is a state of being happy or absence of pain while unhappy is the state of displeasure and pain. The reason for is that the theory tends to foster a world with happiness whereas reasons against are that the theory hinders speculations for the future.

  1. Divine command theory

According to the theory, what makes something right is that God desires it to be done that way. The theory is based on the idea that ethical actions are considered to correspond to God’s will. Thus, God’s command is deemed to be ultimate and that people should follow all that is described in the Holy Bible. The reason for is that the theory support what is considered right by most people in the society whereas reasons against is that the theory does not allow room for possible human misinterpretation of the Bible. 

Question 9

Stealing as an ethical issue. It is the act of taking an individual’s property without his or her permission. It is unethical for an individual to steal another person’s property. In regards to this, it is wrong for someone to take another person’s property without asking. From the Bible, it is clearly stated “Thou shall not steal,” which means that God does not want us to steal other people’s properties. Moreover, from the Utilitarian point of view, stealing is wrong because it results in a state of unhappiness. For example, it makes the other party sad. Based on these aspects, stealing is unethical, and people should avoid it.

However, from another perception or moral standpoint, stealing is not wrong. In this direction, it can be considered based on the motive behind stealing the property. If an individual steals with a positive motive to assist another person or to solve some basic needs, then other people cannot consider that as wrong. For example, police who kills an armed gang does not always go to prison because the action is sometimes regarded as necessary.

Question 10

The best configuration for society is one that is surrounding by logics. Logic is the ability of people to apply correct reasoning to issues before making decisions. A society with people who can apply logic to reason to make appropriate decisions on the contexts that is true and free from any influence. Logical reasoning allows people to foster effective thoughts on critical issues such as ethical dilemmas to make concrete decisions that are supported with effective decisions. Therefore, it allows individuals to display their state of being responsible for all the actions they perform.

Among the four possibilities, the best society is one that promotes ethical behavior that is supported with facts. It is apparent that most of the moral concerns are driven by beliefs and values that were passed on to the present society. However, society should allow people to exercise some thought process to make appropriate decisions on the best thing to do concerning convincing factors.

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Media Proposal Assignment

Media Proposal Assignment

Student’s Name

Institution

Influence of media

Media departments such as magazines, promotion operations, and TV programs depict the use of alcohol as well as other illicit drugs as a familiar aspect. According to Atkinson, et al. 2011, these media operations influence the way a child or a youth considers the use of drugs in the society which can have a consequential influence on their relationship with these substances. It is apparent that advertisement and media have advanced substance abuse in children and youths as a result of how they display these substances. Through the media, the children and youths understand that these substances can be used resulting into their involvement in the consumption of these illicit drugs. Thus, it becomes a significant issue to correct the behavior because the influence originates from socially trusted means of public communication like the media.

In the US television shows, alcohol and cigarette are among the drugs that are depicted. The smoking and drinking scenes of cigarettes and alcohol respectively in the music videos make the youths perceive that it is normal to drink or smoke without any consequence that follows suit. Moreover, alcohol is normally linked to parties, fun moments and celebrations which most of the youths would consider to try out when they are involved in some of their celebration (Atkinson et al. 2011). For instance, some programs in American TV have displayed young people pretending to drink, are among the programs that affect children to abuse drugs. It is also not enough for the Motion Pictures Association of American (MPAA) to rate these films or programs to require parental guidance (PG). These programs should be discarded from the media departments to maintain sanity in the industry.

Reference

Atkinson, A., Elliot, G., Ellis, M., & Sumnall, H. (2011). Young people, alcohol and the media.

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Article; those tolls you pay on Miami’s highways could come to an end if this bill passes

Article Summary

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Article; those tolls you pay on Miami’s highways could come to an end if this bill passes

Summary

On Tuesday, two Miami law-makers Bryan Avila and Senator Manny Diaz filed a bill In Florida House to dissolve the Miami-Dade Expressway Authority that is mandated to levy tolls on various expressways. The bill would change the design of Miami-Dade’s regional transportation planning organization, and it would force counties to use all transportation surtax money on fixed rail and busways and also gives the county three years to get rid of the money it uses from 2002 halfpenny referendum in the name of subsidizing operations. According to Avila, the MDX had become more of a financial burden than a benefit to the society as anticipated when it was established. However, MDX board chairman Gimenez defended the organization stating that it brought in about $260 million concerning revenue from the rolls and fees. He further claims that the primary purpose of MDX was to maintain the Miami tax dollar in the region in support of the County highways.

There is a possibility for MDX being abolished should Miami law-makers pass the filed bill which wants to end tolling over the five highways such as Dolphin Expressway. I think the main issue in this article involves a fight to abolish tolling by MDX. Avila believes that the organization does not meet its purpose of planning and spending on mass transit but instead has majored on giving incentives on road expansion and other priorities. Therefore, I want to say that it is essential for MDX to be restructured other than being ripped. MDX plays an important role in revenue collection at Miami, and this should not stop for whatever reason. Besides, it is not stated in the article that Miami does not have good roads as a result of the mismanagement of MDX. Therefore, lawmakers and MDX leaders should meet and strike an understanding to solve the issue.

Reference

https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/community/miami-dade/article224903915.html
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An Activity from everyday life

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Professor’s Name

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Course

Date

An Activity from everyday life

Audience plays a significant role in the making of a theatrical event. The creation of theatrical event can be considered a daily activity, cultural experience or special occasion. In light of this, the manner through which people live their lives is at times illustrated as theatre activities. Acting is considered part of our day to day life. In many occasion, we say that a person is melodramatic based on the feature presented. The adumbration of theatre is applied to describe the day to day life operations where the link between real life and art is illustrated (Mantia 45). The actors and actress copy behavior that either happened or is happening within the society. For instance, when people carry on with their daily lives, they play various mandates that can be implemented in theatre. The roles could be a romantic partner, a colleague, a friend, and many others.

Every day activity’s depiction in theatre has different aspects. There exist performers and spectators and perhaps the roles to be played with costumes and scripts to manage the performance. In fact, this is what makes draws the line between real life and theatre since every day’s activities are impetuous. For example, a case where a lady and her classmate gets to a relationship. However, she romantically gets involved with a friend and boyfriend gets to know the situation while talking to her. They end up causing a scene drawing the attention of the people around. This aspect assists in building up a theme with an audience using different aspects of theatre.

The performers, stage, script, costume, scenery, and audience are important aspects in acting. With the increase in technology and the emergence of a film in a theatre, the audience has been minimized to a passive function. On the media, we can see a variety of exciting offerings that have a distinct counterpart in theatrical prototypes. In most situation, the audience has an indirect role in the production of art (Mantia 56). Besides, with daily task, there is nothing like editing scenes contrary to a theatre where there is a lot of rehearsals for playing the roles. Daily life in institutions is distinct, life and instant with an appropriate script, actors and directors can be included in theatre.

It is interesting when an individual directly interacts with the actors and actress perform live compared to watching them on films and other Media. When one watches a film either in public or at home, it has been completed and is final. Based on this, the audience plays a significant role while watching because the feedback they give after watching the films is vital as they display their emotions thus the actors and actresses can determine their work. The relationship between a performer and audience creates an environment where they can exchange information. In light of this, this gives the theatre a piece of instant information for making sure there is quality work (Mantia 36). The audience participates through their heart and mind especially through imaginations an individual can understand the reality of what they are watching and by using their heart they can feel in regards to the presentation. 

Theatre contributes to various aspects of our daily lives and has played a significant role in impacting the entertainment we want. It goes through our daily lives as it connects people especially those taking different roles in the play. In learning institutions, Churches, government, and homes, it is important to note that there is a great impact of theatre. Moreover, the audience varies from one another irrespective of the place. In tracing the history of theatre, it is determined that make-up of audiences varies from time to time and from place to place (Mantia 77). The difference is characterized by ages, occupations, and educational backgrounds. The performance targets typically races, nation, religion, and audience feedback influence the achievement of participants in various ways. Moreover, the size of the audience relies on the size of the theatre hall.

Conclusion

An activity from everyday life represents the tasks that are carried out within the society and have much resemblance to a theatre. These activities are like clothing, eating, solving disputes, playing, and learning among others. It is essential to note that these activities become the elements to be displayed at the theatre. The actors and actress use these day to day activities to make a performance real and connected to the audience. The audience will be able to relate the performance hence making it interesting. In addition, the different audience in the society is also included in the performance.

Work Cited

Mantia, Cherise Louise. Developing an understanding of the imaginative and creative processes utilized in theatrical costume design. San José State University, 2016.

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Budgeting, variance analysis, and performance evaluations

Budgeting, variance analysis, and performance evaluations

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Institution

Enterprise and Corporate Performance Management

The corporate performance management is a subsect of business intelligence which is linked with management and monitoring an organization through the use of Key performance indicators. It assists the leaders of an organization to manage the success of an organization. One can think of corporate performance as a collective achievement, various success, and failures of an organization. Additionally, it is also important for each organization particularly the ones that are seeking to restructure their budget, lower costs, improve align key performance indicators, advance their organizational strategy and modify the financial planning process (Kenny & Bourne, 2015). That said, I did discover that some people confuse corporate performance management as a strategy of managing the performance of an organization.

In addition, it is essential to understand that corporate performance management is not a strategy but a kind of business intelligence when implemented. Through the adoption of corporate performance management, an organization will have an opportunity to improve the rate of investment, revenue and reduce the cost of operation. Similarly, it will also ensure that efficient objectives are set, effective budgeting and planning, appropriate performance evaluation, appropriate reporting and consolidation of outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand that corporate performance management has a role of making sure that all aspects of adopted for purposes of success.

Behavior Change management

Behavioral change management is a system that is used to facilitate change from one state to a different state by learning the habits and behaviors leading to the present practices, approaches and systems and adapting the behaviors or creating new ones to help achieve the desired practices (Andrews & Johnson, 2016). As the rate of change quickens and demands in the market increases, most organizations are under pressure to change operations, systems and job purposes smoothly. On the other hand, issues like inconsistent methodologies, rivalry projects, resistance to change and internal conflicts can affect the success of change initiative. Therefore, leaders have to learn to communicate with relevant stakeholders and the workforce efficiently. For instance, if an organization wants to ensure co-existence in an organization, they must have the ability to understand behavior change mechanisms. Moreover, to make real and sustainable change, it is essential to have an overview of the impact of organizational models on workers behavior.

The balanced score card

The balanced scorecard is a strategic management tool that links organizational objectives and vision to business operations within the organization to measure performance against its strategic objectives. The important aspects of adopting the strategy are having a well-designed mission and strategy and proper execution. Besides, other than the three key issues, the strategy also needs a strong initiative and leadership from the top of the organization (Kenny & Bourne, 2015). It is imperative that a lack of good leadership, there is a capability that the system will fail to be implemented fully. Therefore, considering the organizations I did interact with, most of them had issues implementing the tool fully within their system.

There is nothing wrong with the implementation of the balanced scorecard. The primary issues are that it does not give real guidance for deployment and many leaders perceive it as a quick fix which can be implemented in their organization. However, the adoption of the balanced scorecard is an evolutionary process and not a one minute task. Thus, failure to understand the procedure and process results to disappointments. Due to this, I have heard people saying that BSC is not a good tool for measuring performance while others say that it is the most appropriate tool to use where performance matrix is concerned.

Goal Congruence

Goal congruence is described as an agreement between an individual’s objectives and the organization’s objectives. Fostering goal congruence takes a number of steps. The initial phase is involving the entire internal stakeholders to promote unity within the organization. Secondly, there should be an appropriate reward and motivational systems to understand the parties and teams that attain the set goals. Moreover, the goals adopted should be measured and realistic to achieve a common point (Kenny & Bourne, 2015). Training should be done to achieve the goals of the organization. Most organizations strive to achieve goal congruency to make sure that employees are aligned to the set goals.

References

Andrews, R. N., & Johnson, E. (2016). Energy use, behavioral change, and business organizations: Reviewing recent findings and proposing a future research agenda. Energy Research & Social Science, 11, 195-208.

Kenny, G., & Bourne, M. (2015). Performance Measurement. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 1-3.

Walther, L. (2017). Chapter 21: Budgeting—Planning for Success.

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Institute of management accounting

Discussion and Responses

Student’s Name

Institution

Discussion

Institute of management accounting

The Institute of management accounting is an association of experts from accounting and various financial fields. From the videos, it is evident that the field of management accounting is going through a fluctuated shift in a more progressive method and practice. For instance, business analytics being embedded in enterprise performance management. It is imperative that there is a lot of research that is being carried out in accounts to improve the services delivered to the customers. Based on this, I have experienced a similar trend in two of my banks. The banks are trying to get information from the clients and using the feedback to improve the existing services. For example, we had talked about a certain issue in banking in the customer portal and in less than a month the idea was already under implementation.

References

7 Trends in Management Accounting – Introduction. Authored by: IMA. Located at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRyW2_Ay2Cw. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License

7 Trends in Management Accounting – Trend 1. Authored by: IMA. Located at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRyW2_Ay2Cw. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License

Responses 1

Hello Adrienne,

It is important that you participated in the discussion on the seven trends in management accounting. It is true that the video speaks about how most organizations in the society operate since there is no single organization without an accounting system. Besides, I like your goal of selling food and the evaluation of the ready market which you set. Again, it is thoughtful to connect this example with what is happening in the market by stating that most companies use previous years to predict their supply and demand.

Response 2

Hello Jerel,

First, I want to thank you for your contribution to the trends in management accounting. It is important to note that watching the video directed you to Amazon. Moreover, I also agree with the fact that Amazon Company is customer-centric since most of their operations are directed towards achieving the best for their customers. For example, as you have stated the customer care department at Amazon spend their time while serving the customers and they always make sure that customers don’t wait for long. It is important that this is one of the major shifts which taking place in management accounting.

Question 2

The primary role of chief finance officer (CFO) in any organization is managing financial actions. The other roles include tracking cash flows and financial planning and evaluating the organization’s financial strengths and weaknesses. According to the video, there is a confusion in management accounting in regards to the expansion of chief executive officer and accounting roles in an organization. There are also emerging tools such as six sigma which bringing new roles in managing accounting services. In one of the organizations I worked with, the role of the CFO was to oversee all financial transactions. However, it was important for him to learn other roles for effective leadership and understanding organization.

References

7 Trends in Management Accounting – Trend 2. Authored by: IMA. Located at: https://youtu.be/qcbpjkRgW9I .License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License

7 Trends in Management Accounting – Trend 3. Authored by: IMA. Located at: https://youtu.be/3cwdelVpNRA. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License

Response 1

Hello Tammy,

I want to appreciate your effort to contribute to the role of chief financial officer. It is true that the corporate world has changed over the few years with additional roles and posts. It is evident that all decisions are not being mandated to the chief executive officer since other administrative roles are being given to the chief financial officer. Moreover, I agree with the fact that there exist a variety of performance tools and aspects like six sigma, customer profitability analysis and lean projects which now hangs on CFO. The chief financial officer has the mandate to determine and report on the financial transactions of a corporation. I also like the aspect that you brought in the health organization you worked with to bring forth the role of chief executive officer.

Response 2

Hello Ciara,

It is important that you contributed to the discussion on the role of chief financial officer. It is true that in all organization, the CFO has the responsibility for weighing on high-level decisions which impact the whole business. However, it would be more relevant or specific if you included a role such as financial decisions since there are other top officials such as CEO who also important decisions. In addition, I agree with the fact that CFO is currently expected to have knowledge in other fields and operations in business for the sake of fostering partnership. This is important in making sure that the CFO makes critical decisions with regards to the entire business operation.

Question 3

From the video, one of the topics being addressed is the fourth trend in management accounting. The trend is embedding business analytics into enterprise performance management. The major example of this is a strategy map and balanced scorecard. The balanced scorecard and strategy map are the tools that are currently used to measure the performance of an organization. Moreover, it is also important to note that balanced scorecard works together with a strategy map for efficient operations. I worked in an organization that uses balanced scorecard and strategy map to give information about the current performance of an organization. In this organization, these tools were constantly used to facilitate operations.

References

7 Trends in Management Accounting – Trend 4. Authored by: IMA. Located at: https://youtu.be/1vZpk1-8cWE. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License

7 Trends in Management Accounting – Trend 5. Authored by: IMA. Located at: https://youtu.be/7iQLVxRVwH4. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License

Response 1

Hello Sean,

I want to appreciate you for taking part in the discussion. I support the fact that business is required to conduct continuous analysis and successive growth. It is important that you have introduced the aspect of key performance indicators as an important factor in business. Moreover, I also agree with the fact that a strategy map sits ahead of the balanced scorecard and every scorecard has a strategy map. The important thing according to the discussion is using the video to drive the idea which you have done. Therefore, I want to confirm that your contribution was based on the guidelines provided.

Response 2

Hey Nadine,

I want to appreciate your effort in the discussion forum on the trends in accounting management. It is worthy of notice that you recognized the fact that after watching the video is when you gained an understanding of lean accounting. The lean account is described as the manner through which business to accelerate the process between receiving and delivering products. I like the example you gave that a tradition accounting system orders 100 units irrespective of business demands whereas lean account will order the number of units required to supply the business need. Therefore, I want to say that it was worth reading your text.

Question 4

According to the video, the major trends that came out are the demand for management accountants, and chargebacks for information technology to understand behavioral change management techniques. Additionally, there is also an aspect of a full potential of enterprise performance management can be attained through the adoption of the tools for management accounting operations. I worked in an organization which adopted behavioral change management techniques into management accounting. I witnessed new employees being trained with regards to the aspect of behavioral change management.

References

7 Trends in Management Accounting – Trend 6. Authored by: IMA. Located at: https://youtu.be/prHH8zuxrFI. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License

7 Trends in Management Accounting – Trend 7. Authored by: IMA. Located at: https://youtu.be/W5IaDO_N3B8. License: All Rights Reserved. License Terms: Standard YouTube License

Response 1

Hello James,

It is essential that you were able to discuss the two management accounting trends which were shared in the video by Cokins. According to your post, the principle of chargebacks made more sense when Cokins talked about the notion that people abuse what they get for free. I agree with this concept since people will not see the value of an item given for free. Additionally, it is important to note that professional military education has been an important source of knowledge in behavioral change management. Like your example, Airforce has adopted professional military education which is relevant in accounting management.

Hey Valetha,

First, I want to thank you for the post. Secondly, your introduction by describing chargeback was elegant, and the reader can get a grasp of the concepts in the discussion. I agree with you on the fact that chargeback systems are developed to evaluate the cost of projects and the value of services provided and hire effective staff to complete a job. Moreover, the role of shared services in an organization is to reduce costs by allowing other external organization to assist in some operations. It is imperative that you used the school you worked at as an example for the discussion.  

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Microsoft is a global technological corporation that was founded in 1979

To: Whomever This May Concern

From:

Date: 12/21/2018

Subject:

Background and History:

Microsoft is a global technological corporation that was founded in 1979. Its focus is manufacturing and innovating technology specifically computing.

Future Business Perspectives:
            Microsoft wants to improve the services to their customers for a better experience. To start with, it wants to move beyond the present windows on desktops to provide another platform for the use of windows in other devices such as a headset, handset, etc. The corporation wants to involve as many people as possible to their software for inclusivity. It is evident that other than windows on desktops, the corporation has provided a platform for window operated phones in the market to widen its market structure and attract as many people as possible. Based on this, the corporation wants to provide a downloading platform on the windows store. Presently, most people download from their publishers and third-party stores which is challenging to window customers.

The corporation wants to put its eggs in different baskets. This is a marketing strategy that is commonly used by people leading in the market in regards to customer value for their products. Among its current products are, window, VR, Al, AR, high-end personal computers, X box, etc. In regards to this, the corporation wants a more significant role in the digital life of its customers. It wants to improve the state or functionality of the current windows to serve people better and also to diversify its usability to other platforms for a better digital life. The reason is to make people desire to use Microsoft services and Apps globally.

Moreover, Microsoft plans to upgrade its X-cloud beta for its game streaming services. The notion behind this strategy is for flexibility purposes. The corporation wants its users especially for the project x-cloud to play any video game at any place of their comfort. It is essential for Microsoft customers since their providers are always on the move to make them happy while using the products and services.


Concluding Remarks and Recommendations:

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Social media has been defined by Gruebner et al. as the online applications though which users are able to share and consume content and also engage with each other in various ways

Student’s Name

Instructor’s Name

English 1010

Date

Introduction

Social media has been defined by Gruebner et al. as the online applications though which users are able to share and consume content and also engage with each other in various ways (71). Social media sites have in the recent past gained a lot of popularity with a majority of the youths, the younger generation, being the core users of such social networking sites (Gruebner et al. 72). It is undoubtable that the most of the daily lives are centered around the technology and most of the millennials cannot go a day without having logged in on the internet or used their mobile phones in checking the social sites either for information or just retrieval or perusal.

The social media has been the number one way by which the youths in the modern world communicate in today’s world it has become a worldwide phenomenon that the social media is a tool of communication and overrides the way by which people communicate (Gruebner et al. 76). Research has shown that communication of people through the social media sites has grown to become more common as compared to the use of mobile in communication by the millennials. At any given moment of the daily lives, the millions of the youth are logged in the various social media sites such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Pinterest. The creation of imbalance, more especially the excessive use of social media has been a great concern for both the parents and the researchers and also the society at larger regarding the impacts on the physical and mental health of the millennial youths (Leiner et al. 26). More so, the development process of these millennials operates alongside this social media and as such it is an important element when it comes to interaction through the online forums (van der velden 99).

It is however unclear the connection between the changes that occur as a result from the use of social media. Various studies have tried to explain the connection by setting out examples such as was done by Ueda and colleagues in which they showed that media triggered suicidal behaviors in the viewers (625). In their book “Extending the extended self in a digital world”, Sheth & Solomon sought to establish about the digital extended self and does a comparison of the various interrelating aspects such as producer versus consumer, being online versus being offline and most important to this study is that of the body versus technology that will be expounded further herein (123). The purpose of this research is, therefore, to explore the effect that social media has on the physical and mental health of the millennials. So as to accomplish that goal, this research shall establish the connection between social media and the physical and mental health and which is conducted by looking at the social theories so as to establish the connection. Some of the theories that have been looked into deal with the how physical and mental health are impacted by sedentary behaviors among other things.

Overview of the social media use

Social media can be defined as the forms of electronic communication, mainly the websites for social networking, through which its users are able to create a community online and by which they share information, personal messages, ideas and any other content as may be such as videos or photo media (Gruebner et al. 74). Social media has over time skyrocketed within the past many years despite its initial use being in the year 2004. It has now turned out to be a household term despite being a phrase used for over a decade.

Kaya and Bicen in their study established that about 73% of the users on the social network sites, especially Facebook, have varied purposes and who range from the youths to adult majority of whom are from the millennial period (373). In the study, the top five networking sites were identified to be Instagram, twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Pinterest and in which Facebook was most commonly used and leading by approximately 71% of the total users the majority being the millennials, more so the youths (Kaya and Bicen 374). The users are not only numerous on the Facebook site but they are very active and extremely engaged whereby the study established that about 63% of the users visit it at least once in every single day with about 40% of that figure getting to the back several times in a day. This continuous usage of the social network sites is what establishes the concept of extreme usage of social media and which this study implies as having a greater effect in which it seeks to identify. This is contributed by the highly available smartphones that these millennials can easily access and use them to visit the social media websites or use the various mobile applications to access the sites (Leiner et al. 26). Another study established that about in the year 2014 the number of Facebook users accessing the site were about 300 million and who accessed it using the mobile phones.

Furthermore, in the many sites that are available to access and free use, Facebook being the most commonly used sire and most popular among the youths has over 94% of teenagers who form the larger part of the circle of millennials and who are aged between 12 to 17 years using it as a form through which they communicate to each other (Kaya and Bicen 376). The site has grown to become a huge pandemic as a result of the manner by which the people communicate to each other through instant messaging services and in which they also exchange media and upload individual information. Despite the highly noted detrimental effects with the social media, statistics still indicate that a majority of the people form an uprising community as a form of communication strategy (Livingston et al. 986). In their study they sought to evaluate the impact of social media on the mental health issues. Another study by Nicholas Carr (2008) presents the side effects of relying on the social media and explains that ‘Google’ is making the millennials stupid by making their brains malfunction since they rely on it so much and forget to think on their own. It makes them loose concentration when studying and this directly or indirectly affects their mental capacity levels (Carr 99).

Effects of social media use on physical and mental health

Various studies have attempted to identify the connection that exists between the social media and its negative outcomes such as causing depression, narcissism, loneliness and compulsive behaviors. Social media results to anxiety as has been shown by a variety of studies which link anxiety and compulsive behavior to be an effect of use of social media. A research conducted in Britain in 2012 found out that forty-five percent of the British had worries and felt uncomfortable if they fail to access the social networking sites of their mail. Another study by Rosen and colleagues carried out in the year 2013 found out that these millennials checked in often and this checking-in is defined by the hour or minutes that the users gets back to their messaging or social network sites (Rosen et al. 1243). The young generation has become so much reliant on the social media and their brains have grown to be less functional (Carr 106: Kaya and Bicen 377). This reflects the sort of manifestation that leads to anxiety and the mobile phones which enable access of social media evoke especially to the millennials who are so much obsessed with the frequent checking in to view the messages and other social media sites.

Social media also has the effect of narcissism and which was supported by the study by Rosen et al. which established that the people who engaged so much in the Facebooking activities were highly associated with the fatal consequential effects of displaying high levels of narcissism and which is similarly associated with the lower levels of depressions by the same individuals (Rosen et al. 1247). In as much as there was an identification of reduced levels of depressions, it was not sufficient enough to be counted as an advantage. As research conducted by Rosen et al. argued that the majority of the studies were of the idea the social media exacerbated narcissism and more so the researchers did find out that majority of the users spent more time on Facebook and checked in frequently which was a clear indication that supported the association of social media as having the effect of narcissism (1249).

Social media also has the effect of stress and which affects the mental health of the millennials.  The addiction in the present era had greatly increased and when the millennials get to them they do not easily refrain from using it (Malathy and Rani 32). The comments and the likes that are found in the social media sites, especially Facebook, greatly impact these millennials as they use the sites and which makes it so difficult for them to shun away from it. There are those when they access the social media, they tend to compare the lifestyles to those they see online through their friends (Sheth and Solomon 124). The use of social media services such as Facebook and twitter have the effect to make people remain in communication and may be reading a lot of content which might be productive to them on the one side but on the other they might be losing a lot of privacy and discretion. Anxiety has grown to be the one of the many problems that fundamental health faces. People get so fret about the comments made and the many likes they get on the social media of the pictures and videos they upload for the public viewing in the various sites. There is no specific person in the current era among the millennials who might stand the contextual position of the power of social media. The longer the time they spend on the social media, the more they get depressed and as such the use of the social networking sites become minimally helpful to the when it comes to creating a positive impact through reducing stress and maintain focus especially to the students who form the majority of the millennials (Malathy & Rani, 32). A look at the effect of social media are analyzed based on the impact and the positive effects are such as the enhancement of communication access to more information in all relevant fields of study, learning opportunities and socialization. The negative impacts on the other hand are such as cyber bullying, online harassment, depression, sexting, fatigue, decline of intellectual ability, suppression of emotion and stress. The majority of the millennials in the present works are connected through the social media (Livingston et al. 988). The young adults(millennials) are the majority users who are mostly active in the social media and are riskier in developing mental health problems. The use of social media results to acculturative stress among the users especially the students (Kaya and Bicen 376). Similarly, stress has a negative effect on the mental health of students (Carr 118).

This social media also results to depression. A study conducted by Kaya & Bicen with regard to the time the students spend on Facebook and it positively correlated the effects of depression (375). The same findings from the study were supported by the finding established by Rosen et al.  which opined that individuals spent much of their time on the social media sites especially those who dealt with the image management in Facebook were shown to experience depression or show signs of depression and many other side effects such as dysthymia, narcissism, bipolar mania, compulsive behaviors and antisocial personality disorders (1250). The younger generation who spent more time on this social media platform had lower adjustment emotionally in their social life and also they showed signs of self-esteem. Various studies have therefore concluded that the use of social media has the negative impact of causing depression among its users (Gruebner et al. 76).

The aspect of effects as regards the physical health are to as a result of the time the millennials use or spend while at the social networking sites. The main effects are such as it tampers the posture and makes one have spinal curvatures, neck pain, headaches, and vertebral disorders. When one is busy on the smartphones and other gadgets accessing the social media for long, the posture suffers such that the bones and muscles are altered. Additionally, the eyesight is affected by the light emitted by the gadgets used to access the social media sites. The longer the millennials are stuck on their phone or computers, the more harm and their retinas are damaged and slowly degenerates their macular and the eyesight is worsened. Disrupted sleep is also another physical effect that emanates from long usage of phones on social media especially since the sleep is one of the most significant factors for one to have a healthy body (van der velden 250). Shortage of sleep tampers body production of melatonin and prevents sleep patterns hence causing issues in health.

Research conducted by Umberson & Montez in 2010 suggested that people who are more socially connected seem to be healthier and as such live longer compared to their peers who are isolated and this is thanks to the smartphone technological advancements (S54). The mental health foundation (MHF) argued that friendship is crucial to protection of the mental and physical health since they depend on the social relations (Umberson and Montez S55). It is through social support that such incidence as loneliness, hopelessness, suicidal attempts, and avoidant coping are done away with (Gruebner et al. 79). Mental and physical health relies on social support for a person to benefit such as from encouragements among other factors (Malathy and Rani 32). Social connection in a more fundamental way fosters the sense of purpose in life or coherence and this eventually enhances mental and physical health.

Conclusion

From the above, it is quite clear that the use of social media has adverse effects and which have consequences especially to the millennials. This paper has explained how the use of social media can affect the millennials in various ways as relates to their physical and mental health. The paper explained the complex relationship that exist between the two correlated relatives, social media and physical and mental health of the millennials. These problems were identified to be among others depression, narcissism, anxiety and which factor down to harassment, cyberbullying, sexting, loneliness, fatigue and declination of intellectual abilities (Carr 119). The millennials are the ones at most risk various measures can be taken do as to counter the effects of social media since in this era it is harder to completely do away with it. Limiting the age limit might be a solution to regulate the association of the millennials with the social media. Those social media applications that are fatal effects such as racism, violence and discrimination should be restricted.

Works Cited

Carr, Nicholas. Is Google making us stupid? What the Internet is doing to our brains. Vol. 1. July, 2008.

Gruebner, Oliver, et al. “Big data opportunities for social behavioral and mental health research.” (2017).

Kaya, Tugberk, and Huseyin Bicen. “The effects of social media on students’ behaviors; Facebook as a case study.” Computers in Human Behavior 59 (2016): 374-379.

Leiner, Marie, et al. “Mental and emotional health of children exposed to news media of threats and acts of terrorism: the cumulative and pervasive effects.” Frontiers in pediatrics 4 (2016): 26

Livingston, James D., et al. “Another time point, a different story: one year effects of a social media intervention on the attitudes of young people towards mental health issues.” Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology 49.6 (2014): 985-990

Malathy, M., and M. Rani. “How Social Media Creates an Impact in our Mental, Physical Health and Culture–Portrayal of Social Mobile Media Culture Technology in India.” “Portrayal of Social Issues in Literature and Media”, February 2018: 32.

Rosen, Larry D., et al. “Is Facebook creating “iDisorders”? The link between clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and technology use, attitudes and anxiety.” Computers in Human Behavior 29.3 (2013): 1243-1254.

Sheth, Jagdish N., and Michael R. Solomon. “Extending the extended self in a digital world.” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 22.2 (2014): 123-132.

Ueda, Michiko, Kota Mori, and Tetsuya Matsubayashi. “The effects of media reports of suicides by well-known figures between 1989 and 2010 in Japan.” International journal of epidemiology 43.2 (2014): 623-629.

Umberson, Debra, and Jennifer Karas Montez. “Social relationships and health: A flashpoint for health policy.” Journal of health and social behavior 51.1_suppl (2010): S54-S66.

van der Velden, Peter G., et al. “Does social networking sites use predict mental health and sleep problems when prior problems and loneliness are taken into account? A population-based prospective study.” Computers in Human Behavior (2018).

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Discussion and Responses

Discussion and Responses

Student’s Name

Institution

Week 13

In regards to the Carbon Footprint, our household is 41% better compared to the average for a similar household by 50 tons CO2 yearly. The areas I considered in the Footprint were natural gas and electricity.  I learned that my families CO2 emissions were lower compared the average provided. Our waste is very low because we recycle most of the household’s materials except the magazines. Our transportation was a little more than the expectation because we have a variety of cars and most of them get good gas mileage apart from the Jeep. Besides, I also use my car both to and from college which is some miles thus I use a lot of gas. Based on this, it is important to note that the major area affecting the planet was transportation.

The ecological footprint is the impact an individual has on Earth and what other people demand from nature. Concerning the ecological footprint, if everyone lived as a do, then we would require about 2.1 Earths. Therefore, compared to the global average which is given at 1.5, it is higher but lower compared to the one for the US (Christensen et al., 2013). It is evident that my lifestyle has an impact on the environment particularly in the line of transport. Thus, to lower my footprint to the average provided, I will have to use public means to get to school. This will assist reduce the amount of energy I use to and from school on a daily basis.

 No, I wasn’t surprised because I was able to learn that my transportation means are assisting my footprints. The calculator indicated taking a public means and walking rather than driving all the time. The other alternative is to get an electric car to assist reduce the use of fuel which has a great impact on the environment. Additionally, my footprint was closer to average since our family has been on the forefront to assist reduce CO2 emissions in regards to various practices. For instance, we recycle almost everything except newspapers. We have a water recycle machine which assists as reduce water wastage. The waste products are collected weekly and are taken to recycling companies. This shows that most of the contribution from our homestead is due to the heavy fuel consuming vehicle we have and use daily. Thus, the Footprint result is a real reflection of our life.

References

Christensen, J. H., Kanikicharla, K. K., Marshall, G., & Turner, J. (2013). Climate phenomena and their relevance for future regional climate change.

Response

Hello Cora,

I want to thank you for participating in the discussion on Carbon and Ecological footprint. It is true that the major areas where people are affecting the planet are natural gas, water, and electricity. Some people use a lot of water without recycling for conservation purposes. However, it is important you realized the areas which you need to improve on to assist conserve our environment. Based on this, it was important conducting a Carbon and Ecological footprint.

Week 11

Yes, I think we have a new Epoch in regards to the readings on the impacts of human actions, but different from the Holocene. It is imperative that most human actions have affected our environment in a variety of ways. According to the readings, the periods on the geological time frame is a reflection of the changes in the forms of life on Earth and dominant situations. The debate on the sea level and glacial retreat to identify the start and end of an epoch has resulted to the modifications we presently are distinct from the Holocene. According to Angus, the early Anthropocene started when large-scale farming started while the late Anthropocene began when people began industrialization. Therefore, I can boldly say that we epoch in the present society in regards to the massive human actions.

It is imperative that the new epoch started in the industrialization age where technology and the use of machines in the production process began. The advancement of human society through modernization led to both positive and negative impacts on society. The negative impact was the emission of Carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. According to Steffan, the recent trends in the emission of greenhouse gases, deforestation, ozone depletion, extinction of species, etc. Steffan talks of the great acceleration during the late Anthropocene leading to massive environmental impacts. It is true that the great acceleration of these impacts was due to the major changes which took place during industrialization and modernization. That said, industries were planted, and various machines were running releasing toxic gases to the environment. There was a lot of deforestation as people were looking for enough space to install their huge industries for production purposes. Moreover, more lands were required for planting purposes which led to the clearing of the forests.

Reference

Steffen, W., Crutzen, P. J., & McNeill, J. R. (2007). The Anthropocene: are humans now overwhelming the great forces of nature. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 36(8), 614-621.

https://umb.umassonline.net/bbcswebdav/pid-2841751-dt-content-rid-20856091_1/courses/B2810-9595/B2610-2648_ImportedContent_20160902013204/Angus2015_Anthrocene.pdf

Response

Hello Tess,

I want to appreciate you for taking part in the discussion and for posting. In regards to the discussion provision, I also agree with the fact that we are in a new epoch. This is based on the impact of the human activities which have led to irreversible changes on the environment. As you have also mentioned, the speed at which human activities are affecting the environment is alarming with no solution being addressed by society. Anyway, it was important that I read your post.