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The module will investigate the impact of changes within society on children, the notion of ‘childhood’,

 This assignment is designed to provide an insight into the historical changes affecting children’s’ lives through the ages, It explores a range of theoretical perspective around the changing concept of ‘childhood’. The experience of children in the past will be investigated within a range of social contexts such as education, family, employment children’s rights,.

The module will investigate the impact of changes within society on children, the notion of ‘childhood’, and the place of children within society from a historical perspective.

1. Perceptions of ‘childhood’

-Constructivist Vs. Nativist view of childhood.

-The impact of such views on children’s experience.

-The vision of childhood and the position of children in society.

What does it mean to be a child at a particular time of life?

How do these shift as you become older?

What is it like from the child’s perspective?

What impact do rules and regulations have on children – from the family? From society? From legislation?

-Socialisation of the child.

-Children’s lives in reality.

Explore and critically examine the following:

-The socio-economic/political circumstances of the period

-How childhood was socially constructed within this period

-The view of childhood within the given period

-Attitudes towards learning and development at that time

-The jobs and kind of work children undertook within this time period.

-Any key pioneers  for change

2. Childhood in context

Historical view of children through specific spheres such as:

Education

Family

The development of children’s rights

Key Legislation

Social and economic changes in UK society

 Impact on children

Development of rights’ and legislation – reflection of changing attitudes and values – and our perception of childhood

The League of Nations- later to become the United nations

Origin of the first Declaration of the Rights of the Child

Declaration of the Rights of the Child – CRC


UNCRC

U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child

54 Articles covering key areas:

Survival

To develop to the fullest

To protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation

To participate fully in family, social and cultural life

Employment & Child labour

Art & media representations of children

-Different historical time periods- e.g. Victorian era, Industrial Revolution, 1950’s

 -Tracing the development of changes within different contexts – e.g. work, education, children’s rights, parental responsibilities.

3. Global and geographical aspects of childhood

International perspectives

The rural and city experience of children

How this relates to children historically.

4. Theoretical perspectives

Changes in the perception of childhood through the ages.

Examination of key theoretical perspectives

i. Evaluate the differing conceptions of childhood from a historical perspective.

ii. Critically analyse the past experience of childhood within specific contexts.

Childhood of the Industrial Society

Affluent industrial society provided access to well-paid jobs for unskilled male workers, and produced young families with the housewife at the centre.

Protection of children from work.

Children, as children, were outside the production system

Most left school after compulsory education.

Young people were integrated into work at an young age.

Little pressure from the educational system.

Post-industrial Childhood

Post-industrial children enter work at a mature age, but childhood is at the centre of educational production (human capital) and future national competitive power.

Post-industrial childhood is characterised by early social and sexual maturation, and late and differentiated transitions to adult roles.

Post-industrial socialisation is underlined as navigation, requiring planning and cultural/social capital, to move successfully into the future.

iii. Apply differing theoretical perspectives to the changing position of children.

NOTES

Research on children in the field of developmental psychology has influenced prevailing models of childhood. Jean Piaget’s theory of children’s cognitive development through universal stages determined by chronological agexxxiii has been and continues to be extremely influential.xxxiv Piaget’s work outlines how the individual child sequentially acquires sensori-motor, language and numerical skills, eventually progressing to the formal operational stage which includes autonomous, rational thinking abilities.xxxv In these accounts children’s development ‘has a particular structure, consisting of a series of predetermined stages, which lead towards the eventual achievement of logical competence’.xxxvi Piagetxxxvii and Lawrence Kohlbergxxxviii assert that children’s moral capacities also develop through stages

RESOURCES

Barnardo’s (1999)

William Bagley (1874-1946)

John Dewey (1933-1998)

Children Act 1989

Children Act 1894

Factory Act (1802)

The Children Act 2004

1870 Education Act

1880 Education Act

Dr Thomas Barnado

The Children’s Society

The League of Nations & The UNCRC 1989

Save the Children

The Role of the Current Children’s Commissioner

Edward Rudolf

https://content.talisaspire.com/ucb/bundles/5f90110d47e64354ee58cda4

https://content.talisaspire.com/ucb/bundles/5f8dab529faa886d57529ab4

https://ucbirmingham.on.worldcat.org/atoztitles/link?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft.btitle=The+education+debate&rft.place=Bristol%2C+UK&rft.pub=Policy+Press&rft.edition=Third+edition&rft.isbn=1447339282&rft.date=2017&rft.aufirst=Stephen+J.&rft.aulast=Ball

https://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/what-we-do/blogs

https://www.unicef.org/child-rights-convention/history-child-rights

https://www.j-humansciences.com/ojs/index.php/IJHS/article/view/3531/1652

https://ucbirmingham.on.worldcat.org/atoztitles/link?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft.btitle=Pioneers+in+early+childhood+education%3A+the+roots+and+legacies+of+Rachel+and+Margaret+McMillan%2C+Maria+Montessori+and+Susan+Isaacs&rft.place=London&rft.pub=Routledge&rft.isbn=0415637813&rft.date=2013&rft.aufirst=Patricia&rft.aulast=Giardiello

https://www.earlyyearseducator.co.uk/pioneers

https://www.educationpioneers.org/

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The Employer has contracted the Contractor to build the road network for their new housing development.

Basic Subject Matter of Report

Construction Contracts and Dispute Resolution.

Course Context

Masters Course in Quantity Surveying. Equally relevant to International Construction Project Management masters.

Report Requirements

  • Draft a report to advise the Employer on the appropriateness of the manner they have adopted to resolve and/or manage their dispute with the Contractor.

  • Recommend any suitable alternative(s) that could make the client successful in the dispute. 

  • The report should also critically analyse the suitability of any recommendations made, with authoritative explanation and justification.

Scenario

The Employer has contracted the Contractor to build the road network for their new housing development. The works contract also includes for the Contractor to design and install the street lighting complete with the necessary fittings and fixtures[A1] .

The two parties successfully negotiated and signed FIDIC’s Conditions of Contract for Construction for Building and Engineering Works designed by the Employer, Second Edition 2017[A2] , with no need to incorporate any modification in the Special Provisions[A3] .

Works started on site on Monday, 6th January 2020.  And, the two contracting parties have cooperated amicably until when the Employer refused to pay in full July’s Interim Payment Certificate (IPC).  They assert that the level of workmanship, for that part of the works around the junction where their sales offices are located, is substandard due to some key site personal needing to self-isolate as a result of the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic[A4] , and that part was done by temporary staff who have not worked with the Contractor previously. Indeed, there were three weeks in July when there were no site activities[A5] . the Contractor is not happy about not receiving their full payment, and have been demanding it ever since.

The site had to close again in the first three weeks of September, as several more key staff were self-isolating. And, for this, the Contractor has this time put in a request for extension of time (EOT) citing this as ‘an exceptional circumstance’, and also asked for more money, as a result[A6] .  Both requests were summarily rejected by the Employer on 5th October.

The Contractor is not at all happy and the two parties’ relationship has now deteriorated, as shown in the timeline of events:

  1. 6th October 2020: the Contractor wrote to the Employer giving its notice of intention to suspend the works, if they do not receive the full payment of July’s IPC. On that same date, they also issued their notice of their intention to terminate the contract, if they do not receive approval for their request for EOT and for more money that was summarily rejected on 5th October[A7] .
  2. 28th October 2020: without receiving the full payment, or the EOT and more money, the Contractor wrote to the Employer indicating they were terminating their contract, with immediate effect, and citing that the Employer has been failing to fulfil its contractual obligations[A8] .
  3. 29th October 2020: the Employer wrote to the Contractor, disputing the Contractor’s entitlement to terminate the contract and demanding that they return to site, or else they will terminate their contract[A9] .
  4. 13th November 2020: With the site still closed, and no word heard from the Contractor, the Employer wrote to the Contractor giving their notice to terminate the contract citing that the Contractor had abandoned the works and has showed no willingness to return to site and resume works.  They also expressed their wish to deduct Delay Damages, recall the Performance Security and refer their dispute to adjudication[A10] [A11] .
  5. 16th November 2020: the Contractor wrote to the Employer contesting the Employer’s right to terminate the contract, and asked for it to be withdrawn to avoid escalating the matter to adjudication, as they believe this would provide them with a quicker route to grant them redress. They also contest the Employer’s rights to deduct Delay Damages and to recall the Performance Security[A12] .

30th November 2020: still at a stalemate, with none of the parties doing anything to amicably resolve their differences, the Employer has now approached your firm of consultants for advice.  They wish to refer the dispute to a DAAB, whose members are yet to be appointed, as they found no need for them at the start with the very good working relationship the two parties enjoyed[A13] .

Key Concepts/Definitions in Scenario

IPC (Interim Payment Certificate): a concept created within the FIDIC standard form mentioned in the scenario. Essentially a request for payment issued by the Contractor in this case.

Special Provisions: a concept created within the FIDIC standard form mentioned in the scenario. These would supplement the standard form terms and conditions but, as the scenario sets out, are unused.

EOT (Extension of Time): a concept created within the FIDIC standard form mentioned in the scenario. A lever under the contract for the Contractor to move where its initial programme will be subject to delay; EOT isn’t an unconditional contractual right of course; rather, it can be levered only where certain circumstances and/or events have occurred.

Delay Damages: self-explanatory concept (commonly understood as liquidated damages) under the aforesaid standard form contract, pre-agreed amount(s) as a Employer’s remedy for delay.

Performance Security: again, under the contract, a lever or remedy for the Employer against the Contractor connected to its performance obligations/failure to discharge those.

DAAB (Dispute Avoidance and Adjudication): concept (board of people) created within aforesaid standard form. Disputes are referred to the DAAB and it issues binding decisions; it can also provide informal advice and assistance during the contract to the parties before a dispute crystallises (i.e. to avoid that). The DAAB’s actions can of course be undermined by a court, subject to the rest of the agreement in dispute.

FIDIC Contract Data

Sub-ClauseData to be givenData
1.1.85……………Time for Completion:                                             365 days
   
1.4………….……contract shall be governed by the law of:Scotland[A14] 
   
4.2…………..……Performance Security (as percentages of the Accepted Contract Amount in Currencies):            percent: ………………………………………………………………………..            currency: ………………………………………………………………………10 % Pound Sterling
   
8.8………….Delay Damages payable for each day of delay…………………………..£5,000.00
   
8.8………….maximum amount of Delay Damages ……………………………………………£500,000.00
   
12.2………….method of measurement ………………………………………………………..………Bill of Quantities
   
14.2………….total amount of Advance Payment (as a percentage of Accepted Contract Amount) ………………………………………………………  20 %
   
14.2………….currency or currencies of Advance Payment ……………………………Pound Sterling
   
14.3(iii) ………percentage of retention ……………………….…………………………………….Not Applicable %
   
14.7(b)(i)………period for the Employer to make interim payments to the Contractor under Sub-Clause 14.6 …………….………………………………28 days
   
14.8……………….financing charges for delayed payment (percentage points above the average bank short–term lending rate as referred to under sub-paragraph (a))………………………………….2 %
   
14.15………..currencies for payment of Contract Price:              Pound Sterling
   
14.15(a)(i) …..proportions or amounts of Local and Foreign Currencies are: Local …………………………………………………………. Foreign ……………………………………………………….£2,500,000.00 Not Applicable %
   
21.2………….Appointing entity (official) for DAAB members …………….    Association for Consultancy and Engineering (ACE)

Referencing

Harvard.

Will expect case law in the main, references to FIDIC clauses, some legislation (e.g HGCRA Act ’96 as amend’d) and perhaps academic commentary (less of the latter).

Word Count Constraints

3500 – 4000 (max).

Apportionment of Marks

  Element    Max. Mark
Introduction  10
Literature review / relevant background research50
Conclusions / Recommendations20
Referencing  10
Structure / Grammar  10


High-Level Thoughts on Report Approach

A few discrete issues seem to require dealing with:

  1. All the issues called out by the tracked comments, basically.
  2. Payments, timing of requests and communications.
  3. Housing Grants/Construction Act ’96 as amended in re adjudication referral rights and payments.
  4. What the particular FIDIC standard form used says generally as it touches on the issues (Conditions of Contract for Construction for Building and Engineering Works designed by the Employer, Second Edition 2017). Aka FIDIC Redbook.
  5. What the surrounding case law adds to the issues.

Potential Authorities

Case law:

  • Al-Waddan Hotel Ltd v Man Enterprise SAL (Offshore) [2014] EWHC 4796 (TCC)
  • Attorney General for the Falklands Islands v Gordon Forbes Construction (Falklands) Ltd (2003) 6 BLR 280
  • Braes of Doune Wind Farm (Scotland) Ltd v Alfred McaLpine Business Services Ltd [2008] APP.L.R. 03/13
  • Bremer Handelgesellschaft mbH v Vanden Avenne Izegem nv [1978] 2
  • City Inn Ltd v Shepherd Construction Ltd (2010))
  • DeBeers v. Atos Origins IT Services [2010]
  • Doosan Babcock Ltd (formerly Doosan Babcock Energy Ltd) v Comercializadora de Equipos y Materiales Mabe Limitada (previously known as Mabe Chile Limitada) [2013] EWHC 3201 (TCC))
  • Gaymark Investments PTY Limited vs Walter Construction Group Limited [1999] NTSC 143
  • Motherwell Bridge Construction v Micafil Vakuumtechnik (2002) CILL 1913
  • Multiplex Construction v Honeywell Control Systems
  • Peak Construction (Liverpool) Ltd v McKinney Foundations Ltd (1970)
  • Steria Ltd v Sigma Wireless Communications Ltd [2008] CILL 2544
  • Walter Lilly & Co. Ltd. v Giles Patrick Cyril Mackay and DMW Developments Ltd. [2012] EWHC 1773 (TCC)

Literature/Reviews:

Access to FIDIC Contract

Available for LexisPSL members; some extracts available online; swaths of the relevant provisions from the contract are available online/Google will pull them up.

Footnote

I’m looking for a report to benchmark my own against as obtaining a pass is critical for me on these modules; I have a good handle on the ask and will have my own report drafted in around ten days so can come-and-go with any questions etc.


 [A1]Perhaps some brief coverage of appropriateness of the contract form used given two different projects (i.e. build the road network and, discretely, design and install the street lighting inc’ fixtures and fittings.

Can cover this quickly: contract is recommended for building or engineering works designed by the Employer’ or by his/her representative. This is usually, where the Contractor constructs the works as per a design provided by the Employer. Although, the works may involve some elements of civil, mechanical, electrical and/or construction works‘ that are designed by the Contractor. So probably not too unusual to use this standard form.

 [A2]AKA Fidic Red Book / Conditions of Contract for Construction.

 [A3]No special provisions (i.e. no bespoke terms added; just FIDIC standard form as published).

 [A4]This assertion needs dealing with: quality of workmanship and contractual rights in that regard. Seems nonsensical: work can’t be substandard because of self-isolation, but it can be late/behind time.

 [A5]This needs dealing with (temp’ staff with no pedigree).

 [A6]Needs dealing with in terms of contract rights/case law etc.

 [A7]Needs dealing with in terms of timings and rights under contract.

 [A8]As above.

 [A9]As above.

 [A10]As above.

 [A11]Refer to adjudication required consideration in terms of FIDIC terms and Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act (HGRA 96 as amended by the Local Democ’ (etc) Act 2009).

 [A12]As above.

 [A13]Comment on the DAAB wish of the employer required (recommend, don’t recommend and why). Advs/Disadvs of dispute boards, adjudication etc.

 [A14]Scots law in play. Not profoundly significant as much case law and legislation in re contracts, construction etc is UK wide in its extent. However, rules in re contract formation et al are be subtly different.

Make sure to call out English precedents as such, probably binding in Scotland in most cases, esp where ratio bites on same statute or equivalent common law principles.

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Using plant growth analysis to investigate the relationship between soils and plant communities at a range of sites in the Peak District.

Module aims

Plant Growth Analysis

Introduction

Close links exist between the distribution of plants on the one hand and their soils and the prevailing climate on the other. If either the management or the climate changes, we can expect to see an adjustment in plant distribution.

This set of practicals will investigate the relative ability of the soils you collected in the field to sustain plant growth. This is called a bioassay.

The lecture explains the basic theory and techniques of plant growth analysis. You will use these techniques to analyse your own data from the plants you grow in the practicals.

Aims

  1. To introduce basic concepts within plant growth analysis.
  2. To gain practical skills in handling growing plant material.
  3. To advance computational skills through the medium of spreadsheet calculations and statistical analysis.

Choice of species

For the bioassay (our test how well each soil can grow plants) we will use the common grass Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass).  As well as being a common wild grass, it is used widely in productive pasture land as a forage crop.   It is not common at any of the sites you have visited, but because it is quite a productive grass, it should be sensitive to differences in soil fertility.

Writing the final report

You are required to write a formal report synthesising the field and laboratory investigations you have undertaken during this course. Word limit 2500. Below is an extract from the L2 handbook defining what should be included in the word count.

Please adopt the following structure

Title:

Using plant growth analysis to investigate the relationship between soils and plant communities at a range of sites in the Peak District.

Abstract:

No abstract required

Introduction.

This should place the study in the context of previous research, introduce essential background information and clearly state and justify the aims of the study.

  1. General Intoduction. Consider the interaction between vegetation and soil  formation and how this is influenced by climate, parent material and human activity.
  2. Specific introduction. Decribe the findings of a few research papers where similar techniques have been used to investigate the relationship between soils and plant performance. You will be comparing your results with theses studies so try to find examples that are somewhat similar to your own study.
  3. A very brief introduction to the Peak district and the field sites visted
  4. Aims. State the overall aim of the study and how it can be addressed by gathering information from a range of field sites.

Materials and Methods.

Not required.  Since the methods are described in great detail in the schedules you are NOT required to write an account of the methods used.

Results.

This section should describe in words the main findings of the field trips and the analyses of the soils. The results section should combine written descriptions of the results, together with figures or  tables that provide a summary of the results, and to which the text refers. Try to keep the number of figures and tables to a minimum – more is not better especially if they do not show much of interest. Never present the same data twice, for example in a table and then again in a bar chart.

The results should contain the following sections:

  1. Floristic and Functional vegetational analysis of four sites in the Peak District

Include the results of the Simpson’s diversity index here for the two sites you visited.  Include an appropriate table or figure to show your findings.  Also include any conclusions from the analysis of plant functional types (CSR triangle diagrams – although these diagrams do not need to be included in the results).

  • Soil Profiles

Descriptions (written) and diagrams (figures) of the two soil profiles you visited.  You do not need to do soil profiles for sites you did not visit.

3. Plant growth Analysis

See growth analysis section for what should be included.

4. Interrelationships between the growth analysis results and soil pH.

Is plant growth rate related to soil pH? (Class pH results will be available on a google sheet). Explore the data for any correlations or patterns for example. Is RGR correlated with soil pH? Present your findings in a single figure or table.

Discussion.

The discussion section should provide interpretation and synthesis of the results and place them in the context of other research.

  1. Address the aims of the study and give a critical evaluation of the extent to which they were achieved.
  2. Compare and contrast the findings from the different results sections and provide interpretations of what you have found out.
  3. Link to Specific Introduction. Compare your findings with any relevant literature. This literature should have mostly been referred to in the introduction. It is important to synthesise material across the different studies to come up with some general conclusions.
  4. Link to General Introduction. Relate you overall conclusions to the bigger picture as described in your general introduction.

Reference list

(not part of word count)

In the text cite any references consulted, and in the bibliography provide a full listing of the reference in alphabetical order, by author surname.  For example:

Simard, R.R. (1993).  Ammonium Acetate-Extractable Elements.  Chapter 5 in: M.R. Carter (editor) Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis.  Lewis Publishers.

Presentation

The report should be word-processed, the text divided into the sections using headings and should be written in prose with sentences and paragraphs. The figures and tables should be placed as close to the first place they are mentioned in the text as possible.   The reports should be submitted through the “TurnItIn” folder made available of the APS246 Blackboard site. 

Useful References:

Anderson, P. & Shimwell, D. (1981). Wild Flowers and other Plants of the Peak District. Moorland Publishing, Ashbourne. [Includes a general account of vegetation history of the Peak District]

Conway, V.M. (1947). Ringinglow Bog near Sheffield. Part I  Historical. Journal of Ecology 34,    149-181

Grime (2001).  Plant Strategies, Vegetation Processes and Ecosystem Properties (Wiley, Chichester)

Hicks, S.P. (1971). Pollen analytical evidence for the effect of prehistoric agriculture on the vegetation of North Derbyshire. New Phytologist 70, 647-667. [History of woodland and origin of moorland]

Hodgson, et al., (1999). Allocating C-S-R plant functional types: a soft approach to a hard problem.  Oikos 85: 282-294

Merton, L.F.H. (1970). The history and status of woodlands on the Derbyshire limestone. Journal of Ecology 58, 723-744. [Mainly about the origin of limestone woodland, but also contains insights into the status of limestone grassland]

Pigott, C.D. (1962). Soil formation and development on the Carboniferous Limestone of Derbyshire. I. Parent  materials. Journal of Ecology 50, 145-156. [Limestone grassland soils]

Pigott, C.D. (1970). Soil formation and development on the Carboniferous Limestone of Derbyshire. II. The relation of soil to vegetation on the plateau near Coombs Dale. Journal of Ecology 58, 529-541. [Limestone grassland soils]

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‘Global Eyes Ltd’ are a company that looks after businesses and professionals who are looking to move overseas to enhance their business opportunities

Assessment Brief
Report – Word Count – 3200 words   ‘Global Eyes Ltd’ are a company that looks after businesses and professionals who are looking to move overseas to enhance their business opportunities. One of your largest clients (chosen by you) has asked you to put a briefing document together that will support an experienced UK Manager who is being repatriated to a new international country office (of your choosing).   Your briefing document should cover: A brief overview of the country and company that you have decided to focus on.
Critical analysis and prediction of the potential impact of socio-economic and cultural diversity on the company.
Critical examination of how to implement standards of performance ensuring consistency across home and host country
Analyse and interpret the critical success factors required for this repatriation post to be deemed successful   Your briefing document should follow a traditional report format including contents page, numbered headings, appendix (if required) etc. The word count is subject to 10% +/-, should be fully referenced throughout and include a reference list using B&FC referencing guidelines.
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We will learn a lot about your professional background through your resume and letter of recommendation, but we want to get to know you further

ESSAY QUESTION:

We will learn a lot about your professional background through your resume and letter of recommendation, but we want to get to know you further. Please introduce yourself. Select only one communication method for your response (250 words)

+

Picture yourself at the completion of your MBA journey. Describe how you spent your time as a Texas McCombs MBA student to achieve your personal and professional goals. (500 words)

Please provide any additional information you believe is important or address any areas of concern that you believe will be beneficial to MBA Admissionsin considering your application. (e.g. gaps in work     experience, choice of  recommender, academic performance, or extenuating personal circumstances) (250 words)

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James Connery is 58 years old, and is a manager for an IT firm. He is extremely good at his job, and has made great progress in the last 5 years

SCENARIO FOR CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (Central) 2020

JAMES CONNERY

James Connery is 58 years old, and is a manager for an IT firm. He is extremely good at his job, and has made great progress in the last 5 years by climbing the ‘corporate ladder’ at a rapid speed. He was a gifted student with ability for creative, original thought. However, he has a strong work ethic of “you have to work hard to be successful” and quickly realised that the only way to get promotion was to go onto a management programme. His job is very stressful in terms of meeting deadlines, problem solving and decision making.

He works long hours, at times up to 14 hours a day, and frequently takes work home to complete or “think about”, even at the weekends. As a consequence of his work commitments he doesn’t find the time to socialise and unwind, the demands on his time prevent him from maintaining contact with his friends or even his teenage children. He says that he has no time for keeping in contact with friends, but recognises that this is making him feel isolated – a feeling that he also experiences at work as a consequence of “being management”. He has always believed he had a good relationship with his wife, Ursula, although she tends to “nag” out of concern about his lifestyle. He tends to argue with the children even when something is not really their own fault. Ursula has started visiting friends on her own and pursuing hobbies as she cannot rely on James to accompany her. She often goes to bed several hours before him because he is finishing his work. James sleeps 4 hours per night, partly because he goes to bed late but also wakes early with “things running through his head”. They have a comfortable lifestyle, but unfortunately very little time to enjoy the rewards that his hard work brings. There is a large house to maintain with an accompanying mortgage.

There is little time for exercise and lately and James has been experiencing repeated shoulder pain, especially when he has done DIY at the weekend. His GP has prescribed Ibuprofen, but didn’t do an ECG or refer him to the practice nurse.

James enjoys an after work drink of scotch and then red wine with dinner as he feels that it helps him to unwind. He eats a well-balanced diet at home, but tends to skip lunch at work and when away on frequent business trips indulges in high fat, high calorie meals – although this switching between diets does not seem to affect James’s bowel movements as he opens his bowels once a day – usually soft formed stool. His diet has however led to a rising BMI – currently James is 1.8 metres tall and weighs 16 stone, so his BMI is 32. He has tried to give up smoking 3 times in the last year but has found that the amount he smokes has increased to 30 per day as he uses it to deal with the stress that he feels. When he was younger, James and his wife had made plans to retire at 55 to the south of France and run a trout farm. However, the pressures of mortgages, and the introduction of university fees will mean that he will now need to work until he is 70, a thought that fills James with dread.

Earlier in the day of admission, James was carrying out some DIY when he felt a severe crushing pain in his chest, and collapsed on the floor. His colour was pale/grey and he was sweating profusely. His wife found him, and called 999 –the paramedic crew attended quickly and took James to the local A&E. On arrival, his pulse was 120 beats per minute and BP was 90/50. An ECG indicated an acute anterior Myocardial Infarction (MI). James was given Diamorphine 5mg and Metoclopramide 10mg as an anti-emetic – intravenously (IV). James was taken immediately to the cardiac catheter laboratory, where he underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to “open up” the blocked coronary artery that was responsible for the MI.

Following the PCI, James was transferred to the Coronary Care Unit (CCU), where he stayed for the first part of his recovery – initially on bedrest for 24 hours. After admission repeat ECGs showed some evidence of reperfusion. Following admission to CCU, James remained pain free for 48 hours, and his condition has stabilised. MI has been confirmed through a rise in cardiac enzymes (specific substances that are usually released into the bloodstream only when the heart is damaged). Total cholesterol has been checked and found to be 6.4mmol/l.

James has now been transferred a step-down cardiology ward. His condition is currently stable with no chest pain – Heart rate 75/min, sinus rhythm, BP 110/60, oxygen saturation levels 99% on air, respiration rate 14/min, temp 36.8C – no bleeding is noted at the PCI site, from gums and nose and no headaches have been reported by James– his Hb is 14g/dl. James however remains very frightened about the pain returning  and is reluctant to mobilise for this reason (Confidence level is 4 at best and 2 at worst on a scale of 1-10)– currently James is mobilising gently around the bed area and is able to wash his own hands, face and upper body. There is no swelling, redness, or heat apparent in James’s calves. James reports he is currently managing only 2 hours of disturbed sleep per night. He has no knowledge about heart problems or the care that he may need following an MI and fears that he will not be able to return to his previous health state (worry score is 8 at worst and 4 at best on a scale of 1-10). James is currently using a urinal to pass urine – his urine output is satisfactory and there is no blood in his urine, but he is experiencing some problems “going to the toilet” and has not had his bowels opened for 2 days – mainly because he is frightened of straining when opening his bowels in case he gets chest pain. James is also worried about the impact of his condition on his relationship with his wife.

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A 4000 word essay that explores an individualised approach to care planning

Details regarding assessments for this module:

 

Formative assessment:

During the module students will produce a series of care plans that will be formatively assessed during the planned workshops. One of these care plans must then be utilised in the summative assessment task to highlight and support the discussions (see below).

Summative Assessment:

A 4000 word essay that explores an individualised approach to care planning

Compensation and condonement do not apply to this module as it is a compulsory component of the programme

Guidelines/Aims of Assessment:

The student is asked to:

  1. Select an individualised approach to care planning  
  • Identify its key elements 
  • Discuss how using the problem solving approach to care and appropriate framework can identify and meet the biopsychosocial needs of an individual.
  • Discuss the strengths and limitations of the individualised approach when developing a care plan by exploring the problem solving approach and underpinning framework.
  • Utilise examples from one of your formative care plans to highlight and support your discussions.

Criteria for Summative Assessment:

A 4000 word essay written to Level 5. 

                                                      Appendices

Appendix 1 – Action / amendments made to module based upon previous module evaluations

 None

Appendix 2 – Module Specification including Indicative Reading

Faculty of Health and Social Care

Module specification

   On successful completion of this module, students will be able to:     Module learning outcome description LO1 Identify effects of altered biopsychosocial function on the holistic needs of the individual. LO2 Relate the skills and knowledge required to work in genuine partnership with individuals and groups in relation to public health needs LO3 Identify multi-agency and multidisciplinary roles in the care of individuals requiring nursing care. LO4 Devise a holistic plan of care to meet the needs of a diverse range of patients/clients in a variety of settings LO5 Compare and contrast the strengths and limitations of an individualised approach to care by exploring the underpinning framework and problem solving approach LO6 Apply knowledge from the programme to support and inform the assessment, planning, delivery and evaluation of nursing care       
18Module Indicative Content Please provide up to 200 words which outline the key themes and topics to be included in this module 
 Public Health – Health behaviours of individuals, Individualised approaches to health and wellbeing, obstacles to achieving health and wellbeing Addressing major health concerns across the lifespan from a biopsychosocial approach in relation to: Cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease (Peripheral)   Respiratory conditions  Not generic – adult specific – meet learning outcomes through a range of conditions that students can choose from – do in workshops Primary, secondary and tertiary interventions in relation to a selection of health concerns Themes Lifespan Development – EriksonAttachment, Bonding, Deprivation and lossSleepIatrogenesisTelehealth and multimedia approaches to health and wellbeingTissue viability – pressure ulcer care and managementStress management – defence mechanisms and coping strategiesLegal, professional and ethical issues related to care planningCommunication – patient assessment and written communication; developing therapeutic relationships; observation, & use of non-verbal behaviour, questioning, listening and responding skills Use of model as a framework with the problem solving approach – Common assessment framework, Aldridge’s model, Roper, Logan and Tierney’s Activities of Living Model of Nursing Roles of multidisciplinary/multi-agency team Practical application – APIE and appropriate Framework –  to produce individualised care plans for a selection of patients with primary, secondary and tertiary needs.   
19Module Learning and Teaching Methods and rationale for selection  Please provide up to 200 words which outline the teaching and learning methods and your rationale for their selection 
 Teaching activity will be in the form of keynote lectures that introduce the students to relevant theory then field specific workshops, tutorials, private and guided reading where taught concepts are revisited, re-examined and built upon. These methods will enable students to learn the underpinning theory that they will then integrate with practice. Activating this spiral nature to the curriculum enables students’ understanding to deepen over time.   
20Breakdown of Teaching and Learning hours Please refer to QAA Explaining Contact Hours guidance for further information.   
   Student time associated with the module                                           % Guided independent study, including online                             75 Placement/Study abroad                                                 Scheduled learning and teaching activities               25 Total 100 
21Ethical issues, Risk and inclusivity Universities research and develop modules which deal with issues that may be sensitive or involve ethical considerations.  As with research, the duty of care extends to all involved in learning and teaching.  Please highlight any relevant issues that relate to content, teaching methods and assessment and state how they are to be addressed (include evidence of support from relevant ethics committees and relevant risk assessments as appropriate). 
 Students may draw on events which have occurred in practice in class discussion and when completing the written assignment.  Students must maintain confidentiality in line with their current professional code (NMC, 2015) and the University policy on confidentiality.  Boundaries for sharing experiences of health and social care in class will be discussed, and if necessary students will be signposted to the University Student Wellbeing, Learning and Welfare Support Service.  Any safeguarding issues will be escalated in accordance with the Faculty of Health and Social Care guidance Raising Practice Concerns. 
C   MODULE ASSESSMENT   
22Rationale for the assessment methods chosen Maximum 200 words 
   Care planning is a key role for all nurses, and students will have an opportunity to develop this skill in their clinical practice placements.  Therefore the assessment for this module requires students to produce a care plan as well as a written essay that will allow students to articulate the theory underpinning the development of holistic and comprehensive care plans, the nursing process and models of nursing that guide this. The chosen assessment method will also allow students to demonstrate their scholarship, knowledge, critical analysis, written communication and application of theory to practice at level 5.     
23Formative Assessments for this module 
   Assessment type and title (where relevant)   FA1 During the course of the module students will produce a series of care plans that will be formatively assessed during the planned workshops. One of these care plans must be utilised in the summative assessment task to highlight and support the discussions       
24Summative Assessment for this module 
   Assessment type and title (where relevant) % Module LOs addressed SA1 The student is required to produce a 4000 word essay that explores an individualised approach to care planning: 1. Select an individualised approach to care planning  2. Identify its key elements 3. Discuss how using the problem solving approach to care and appropriate framework can identify and meet the biopsychosocial needs of an individual 4. Discuss the strengths and limitations of the individualised approach when developing a care plan by exploring the problem solving approach and underpinning framework. 5. Utilise examples from one of your formative care plans to highlight and support your discussions.   100%         6   2,3,4,6     1,3,4,6         2,5       1,2,3,4,5,6.       
25Module Re-assessment Method (if different) 
 N/A   
26Explanation for the Re-Assessment methods chosen Maximum 200 words 
 N/A   
27Summative Re-assessment for this module   
   If a student fails at the first attempt, one further attempt is permitted. The student will receive feedback from the initial assessment and advice and guidance will be given to aid meeting the learning outcomes successfully.   
D   MODULE RESOURCES   
28Indicative Reading List (please refer to the University guidelines for Reading Lists) 
The reading list for this module can be accessed at http://readinglists.hull.ac.uk         
Essential Barrett D, Wilson B and Woollands A (2012) Care Planning. A Guide for Nurses, 2nd edition. Harlow: Pearson Education   Department of Health (2014) A framework for personalised care and population health for nurses, midwives, health visitors and allied health professionals: caring for populations across the lifecourse  [online] https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/framework-for-personalised-care-and-population-health (Accessed 15 April 2016)   
Recommended   Alexander M, Fawcett J. and Runciman,P J (eds) (2006) Nursing Practice Hospital and Home  The Adult.  3rd edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone     Benbow W and Jordan G. (2009) A Handbook for Student Nurses. Reflect Press: Exeter.   Billington T ( 2006) Working with children: assessment, representation and intervention, London. Sage     Department of Health (2008) Refocusing the Care Programme Approach: policy and positive practice guidance [online]  http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130107105354/http:/www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_083647  (Accessed 16 April 2016)   Egan G. (2002) The Skilled Helper. 7th edition. Pacific Grove, California: Brookes Cole.   Gates B. (ed) (2006) Care Planning and Delivery in Intellectual Disability Nursing Oxford: Blackwell Publishing   Glasper A, McEwing G. and Richardson J (eds.) (2009) Foundation Skills for Caring – Using Student-Centred Learning. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.   Glasper A, McEwing G. and Richardson J (eds.) (2009) Foundation Studies for Caring – Using Student-Centred Learning. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.   Hall A,  Wren M. and Kirkby S. (2008) Care Planning in Mental health: Promoting Recovery Oxford: Blackwell   Hubley J and Copeman J (2010) Practical Health Promotion. Cambridge: Polity Press   Hughes J and Lyte G (eds)  (2008) Developing nursing practice with children and young people. London. Wiley-Blackwell   Kanopy Streaming (2014) Spiritual care in nursing practice . San Francisco: Kanopy   Moyse K (2009) Promoting health in children and young people: the role of the nurse. London. Blackwell.   Royal College of Nursing(2011) Spirituality in nursing care: a pocket guide. London: Royal College of Nursing [online] https://www2.rcn.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/372995/003887.pdf (Accessed 12 April 2016)   Slad, M. (2009) Personal Recovery and Mental Illness: A Guide for Health professionals Cambridge: Cambridge University Press   Tummey R. (2005) Planning Care in Mental Health Nursing Houndmills: Palgrave   Watson R. and Fawcett J. (2003) Pathophysiology, homeostasis and nursing London: Routledge 
Background Marmot, M. & Wilkinson, R. (2006) Social Determinants of Health [ebook]. Oxford: Oxford University Press 
29Other Resources Required (Please list any further resources that may be required for the successful delivery of this module). 
   www.nice.org.uk National Institute for Health and Care Excellence   www.nmc.org.uk Nursing and Midwifery Council   http://www.who.int/en/ World Health Organisation     


Appendix 3 – Generic Marking Criteria Level 5 – The University of Hull Faculty of Health and Social Care

 General descriptionLevels of knowledgeExplanationUse of evidenceCommunicationApplication
90-100First Class Honours All learning outcomes and associated assessment criteria have been achieved to an exemplary standard.  There is an exemplary display of in-depth understanding and insight. Accuracy is of the highest level that can be expected.  There is exemplary evidence of initiative, critical analysis, self-reflection and decision-making.   Demonstrates the ability to evaluate evidence, reach evidence-based conclusions and provide a rationale for their decisions.   Levels of intellectual rigour and independence of judgement are exemplary.Depth and breadth of evidence, ideas, concepts, theory and other relevant information is exemplary.   Standard of referencing (where appropriate) is exemplary.  There is an exemplary standard of communication. The work is creative, innovative and authoritative.   The organisation, structure and standard of presentation of the work are exemplary throughout.Application of theory to practice is exemplary throughout
80-90First Class Honours All learning outcomes and associated assessment criteria have been achieved to an outstanding level and some to an exemplary standard.There is an outstanding display of in-depth understanding and insight. Accuracy is of the highest level that can be expected.                        There is outstanding evidence of initiative, critical analysis, self-reflection and decision-making.   Demonstrates within discussions the ability to evaluate evidence and conclude arguments.   Levels of intellectual rigour and independence of judgement are outstanding.  Depth and breadth of evidence, ideas, concepts, theory and other relevant information is outstanding.   Standard of referencing (where appropriate) is outstanding.  There is an outstanding standard of communication. The work is creative, innovative and authoritative.   The organisation, structure and standard of presentation of the work are outstanding throughout.  Application of theory to practice is outstanding throughout
70-79First Class Honours All assessment criteria have been achieved to high level of excellence and some to an outstanding.  There is an excellent display of in-depth understanding and insight. Accuracy is of the highest level that can be expected.  There is excellent evidence of initiative, critical analysis, self-reflection and decision-making. Evidence of critical thinking and construction of balanced arguments.   Levels of intellectual rigour and independence of judgement are excellent.Depth and breadth of evidence, ideas, concepts, theory and other relevant information is excellent.   Standard of referencing (where appropriate) is excellent.  There is an excellent standard of communication. The work is creative, innovative and authoritative.   The organisation, structure and standard of presentation of the work are excellent throughout.    Application of theory to practice is excellent throughout
60-69Upper Second Class Honours – 2(i) All assessment criteria have been achieved to a good standard with many (at the higher ranges of this band) achieved to a very good/excellent standardThere is a good display of understanding and insight.   There are no significant inaccuracies, misunderstandings or errors.  The work displays good examples of initiative, critical analysis, self-reflection and decision-making.   Evidence of critical thinking and development of balanced arguments   There is some evidence of intellectual rigour and independence of judgement, though it may lack finesse        A good depth and breadth of appropriate evidence has been utilised effectively.   Standard of referencing (where appropriate) is good throughout.  There is a good standard of communication. The work displays some creativity and innovation.   The organisation, structure and standard of presentation of the work are good throughout.  Application of theory to practice is good throughout
50-59Lower Second Class Honours – 2(ii) All assessment criteria have been achieved to a satisfactory standard with some (at the higher ranges of this band) achieved to a good standard.  There is some evidence of understanding and insight, but with some gaps.   Inaccuracies, misunderstandings or errors are mostly minor. There may be minor divergences from the assessment task  The work displays some, but limited, examples of initiative, self-reflection, and decision-making.   The work is attentive to the subject matter though some topics are not addressed in sufficient detail.   Evidence of analysis with examples of critical thinking and linkage between discussion points.   There is some, but limited, evidence of intellectual rigour and independence of judgement.A satisfactory depth and breadth of appropriate evidence has been utilised reasonably well.   Standard of referencing (where appropriate) is satisfactory, though some errors may be present.  There is a satisfactory standard of communication. The work shows some examples of creativity.   The organisation, structure and standard of presentation of the work are reasonable, though there may be some errors or instances of poor organisation  Application of theory to practice is satisfactory. Some instances where theory is not applied satisfactorily may be present.
40-49Third Class Honours All assessment criteria have been met but only to the minimum required levelThere is limited evidence of understanding and insight.   The student’s grasp of ideas, concepts, theory and other relevant information is weak.   Inaccuracies, misunderstandings or errors are present, but do not impact on the work’s ability to meet the assessment criteria. There may be some major divergences from the assessment taskThe work displays very limited examples of initiative, self-reflection, and decision-making.   Evidence of analysis with some examples of critical thinking.   The work displays a descriptive approach and there is limited evidence of intellectual rigour, and independence of judgement.Limited range of evidence – both in terms of breadth and depth – has been utilised.   Standard of referencing (where appropriate) is poor.  There is a basic but poor standard of communication. The work shows some but limited examples of creativity.   The organisation, structure and standard of presentation of the work are poor.  Application of theory to practice is poor.
30-39Fail One or more of the assessment criteria have not been met.                       Some material of merit, but the work does not meet the expected levels of understanding and insight.   Substantial inaccuracies, misunderstandings or errors are present which affect the ability of the work to meet the assessment criteria. There is insufficient attention paid to the assessment criteria and the work diverges significantly from the assessment task.No substantive evidence of initiative, self-reflection, and decision-making.   Limited examples of analysis, with no evidence of critical thinking   No real attempt to assess evidence and no substantive evidence of intellectual rigour or independence of judgement.Very limited range of evidence has been utilised. Little evidence of wider reading.   Standard of referencing (where appropriate) is weak.  Unsatisfactory standard of communication. Significant flaws in spelling, grammar and composition which undermine the clarity of meaning.   The work is disorganised and the standard of presentation of is weak.  No real attempts made to apply theory to practice. Some occasional but poorly articulated examples.
1-29Fail Most or all of the assessment criteria have not been met.  The work shows very limited levels of understanding and insight. Use of terminology is extremely limited and unsophisticated.   Significant inaccuracies, misunderstandings or errors are present. There is insufficient attention paid to the assessment criteria and there are serious deviations from the assessment task.No evidence of initiative, self-reflection, decision-making.   No evidence of analysis or critical thinking   The work is wholly descriptive and lacks any sustained arguments.Very limited range of evidence has been utilised. Citations are almost or entirely absent. Awareness of the mechanics of scholarship is very weak.   Standard of referencing (where appropriate) is extremely poor.  Unsatisfactory standard of communication. Significant flaws in spelling, grammar and composition which undermine the clarity of meaning.   The work is disorganised and the standard of presentation of is extremely poor.  No attempts made to apply theory to practice.
0No submission. Evidence of unsafe practice on the part of the student.
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Why is nursing so important in terms of promoting health and wellbeing (consider MECC and prevention)

Health Profile of an individual

Learning outcomes:

  1. Critically analyse and evaluate the concept of health and wellness, taking in to account the determinants of health, their relevance to health and wellbeing and the impact of inequalities of health on individuals and populations.
  • Critically appraise and develop knowledge to systematically assess the health needs of individuals, families and populations taking account of relevant epidemiological and research evidence.
  • Examine the impact of economics and health and social care policies on public health and provision of healthcare.
Introduction What are you going to discuss in the essay and why • The importance of the role of the nurse in promoting health and wellbeing across the lifecourse. • The importance of your field of nursing in promoting health and wellbeing.Why is nursing so important in terms of promoting health and wellbeing (consider MECC and prevention). What policy influences this role such as NHS long term plan, Future Nurse Standards.
Background (sources and evidence must be cited as appropriate) • As we are exploring the health of an individual, we will need to start with a definition of health and wellbeing. Discuss that you will use the World Health Organization 1948 definition of health as your starting point. • The usefulness of health profile for understanding more about the health status and health risks of an individual, in relation to their family and community/neighbourhood.Critique definitions and concepts of health and wellbeing. Are these achievable? Consider the influences of the wider determinants of health and wellbeing. What do profiles give us in terms of understanding Health status of an individual/community,inequalities in health, Priorities in health, etc.
Body of Essay/Main Section (sources and evidence must be cited as appropriate)   • Identify briefly the individual that will be the focus of your essay. • Identify and discuss demographic (age, sex, ethnicity, employment status, educational achievement, where they live) data that can help to inform you about your INDIVIDUAL’S current health and wellbeing status. • Identify and discuss what physical, mental and social health and wellbeing information about the INDIVIDUAL and what would it tell you about their physical health (height; weight; circumference measurements, lifestyle (information on diet, smoking, drinking and so on); mental health (how satisfied they are with their life, whether they have been feeling happy or unhappy); social health (hobbies, outside interests, what family and friend networks/support they have and so on). • Identify and discuss what the above information could tell us about the health and status risks that your INDIVIDUAL currently has e.g. not eating fruit and vegetable to Public Health England recommended guideline levels; not engaging in physical activity to Public Health England recommended guideline levels; • What advice and support would you give them including who would you signpost/refer them to for further advice. • What Public Health Policy might influence their decisions about their own health and wellbeing? • What things might you look out for about the family, community and neighbourhood which might influence their health and wellbeing and how would you take this into account in the advice and support you give?Give a brief biography of your individual which includes demographic information, e.g. Martha is 38 years old female. She lives in a small flat with her 3 children and partner……. Consider and critique how these demographics, such as age, gender, influence health and wellbeing. Using your findings of your questionnaire, you will critically explore 3 dimensions of health: physical, mental and social. Identify health risks from this information and make evidence based recommendations which promote a healthier lifestyle or maintenance of such. You are not diagnosing – you are using the information to identify health risks of this individual might be taking and considering recommendations. You may wish to include a definition of each dimension of health (physical, mental and social health) and critique this. You will also use some health indicator data from the local fingertips profiles to support your discussions and interpret new determinants influence the health of this individual. You will need to consider how this fits with your profile, but an example, might be the prevalence of physical active adults in the area where they might be living or rates of violence crime in area (relating to someone’s fear of going out impacting on both mental and social wellbeing). You need to consider the recommendations. Need to be realistic and manageable for the individual. For example, if they are on the low income and you recommend organic fresh fruit and veg. Can they manage this? Do you need to think more about other options such as tinned or frozen goods.
Conclusion (sources and evidence must be cited as appropriate) Discuss: • What are the strengths and weaknesses of using a health profile to understand the health and wellbeing of an individual and what additional information could you gather. 
References • Ensure referencing and in-text citation follows Cite Them Right Online recommendations for Harvard-style referencing. Use the short guide to referencing found on the Module Blackboard site.

Introduction

What are you going to discuss in the essay and why

  • The importance of the role of the nurse in promoting health and wellbeing across the lifecourse.
  • The importance of your field of nursing in promoting health and wellbeing.

This essay will examine Mrs X health profile by identifying her health needs and will provide recommendations for improving her health behaviours and wellbeing, considering variety of wider factors that influence health such as family, cultural background, gender, ethnicity, education and social class and inequalities in these factors. These findings will be linked with different policies and strategies that influence population health and wellbeing. The main focus will be on supporting Mrs X wellness rather than treating illness and the main priority will be the empowerment of the individual to take control of their own health and wellbeing. Therefore, this assignment will outline health and wellness and opportunities for health promotion and prevention. Consequently, maximising the impact of nursing and midwifery on improving and protecting the public’s health is one of the six key action areas of the national nursing midwifery and care strategy. Compassion in Practice, launched in December 2012 (Public Health England, 2013). This means that one of the roles of nurses is to support people to make decisions and empower them to make choices which has a positive impact on their health and wellbeing. As stated in Health 2020, the policy framework by WHO, nurses “as front line health workers they have close contact with many people, and therefore they should be competent in the principles and practice of public health, so that they can use every opportunity to influence health outcomes, social determinants of health, and the policies necessary to achieve change” (WHO, 2015). Moreover, as stated in NMC Standards for competence for registered nurses, all nurses must: “support and promote the health, wellbeing, rights and dignity of people, groups, communities and populations. These include people whose lives are affected by ill health, disability, inability to engage, ageing or death. Nurses must act on their understanding of how these conditions influence public health” (NMC, 2010).

MECC is one of the toolkits developed by Public Health England (PHE) has been widely used across healthcare settings. It recognises that staff across health, local authority and voluntary sectors, have thousands of contacts every day with individuals and are ideally placed to promote health and healthy lifestyles (NHS, Making Every Contact Count).

Background

  • As we are exploring the health of an individual, we will need to start with a definition of health and wellbeing. Discuss that you will use the World Health Organization 1948 definition of health as your starting point.
  • The usefulness of health profile for understanding more about the health status and health risks of an individual, in relation to their family and community/neighbourhood.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines health as: “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. (WHO, 1948). This definition of health has been commonly used over the 70 years. However, it has been widely criticised as being too ambitious and bold and due to an ageing population and the rise of chronic disease this definition lost its purpose. Consequently, the definition was amended with further clarifications in 1986, stating that the  health is “a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities” (WHO, 1986). Fundamentally, to be able to live a full life it is essential to maintain our physical, mental and emotional health. Everyone should have the same opportunity to lead a healthy life, no matter where they live or who they are (PHE, 2017). Nonetheless, there are various determinants that affect the health of individuals and as identified by Dahlgren and Whitehead (1991), they are: individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions, unemployment health care services, housing, education, etc. This illustrates, that most of the people do not have the same opportunities to be as healthy as others.

Body of an essay

  • Identify briefly the individual that will be the focus of your essay.
  • Identify and discuss demographic (age, sex, ethnicity, employment status, educational achievement, where they live) data that can help to inform you about your INDIVIDUAL’S current health and wellbeing status.
  • Identify and discuss what physical, mental and social health and wellbeing information about the INDIVIDUAL and what would it tell you about their physical health (height; weight; circumference measurements, lifestyle (information on diet, smoking, drinking and so on); mental health (how satisfied they are with their life, whether they have been feeling happy or unhappy); social health (hobbies, outside interests, what family and friend networks/support they have and so on).
  • identify and discuss what the above information could tell us about the health and status risks that your INDIVIDUAL currently has e.g. not eating fruit and vegetable to Public Health England recommended guideline levels; not engaging in physical activity to Public Health England recommended guideline levels;
  • What advice and support would you give them including who would you signpost/refer them to for further advice.
  • What Public Health Policy might influence their decisions about their own health and wellbeing?
  • What things might you look out for about the family, community and neighbourhood which might influence their health and wellbeing and how would you take this into account in the advice and support you give?

Mrs X is a 56 years old Hungarian woman who lives in Hounslow with her daughter. She is employed part time, however she is temporary laid off of work due to Covid 19. She is separated from her husband who is supporting their daughter financially. Due to lack of income, they are renting a double bedroom in shared accommodation. Her both parents passed away recently and her siblings live in Hungary.

Mrs X physical health

Physical health covers such things as the ability to mobilise, take fluids and complete physical tasks. Physical wellbeing involves pursuing a healthy lifestyle to decrease the risk of disease and injury while maintaining physical fitness (Linsley and Roll, 2020). Mrs X height is 163.5 cm and her weight is 71kg (BMI 26.5). She is considered overweight. Healthy weight range for the height is 49.5kg- 66.8kg (NHS, 2018).  Mrs X has indicated (Household Questionnaire) that her day-to-day activities are limited due to a health problem which is chronic migraine. Also, she spends most of the time at work sitting and her only physical activity is shopping for approximately 2 hours a week (GP physical activity questionnaire). Mrs X diet consists of full fat diary and sugary products. She consumes processed meat 1-2 times a day and does not include oily fish in her diet. The individual has only one serving of fruit and vegetables a day. She loves snacking between the meals.

Mental health

Mental health refers to a person’s emotional, social and psychological wellbeing. Good mental health includes the ability to control and manage emotions, concentrate on what you are doing, use memory and express emotion (Linsley and Roll, 2020). Responses from WEMWBS questionnaire suggest that Mrs X rarely feels optimistic and only some of the time – useful and relaxed. There are no responses higher than three and it suggests low wellbeing and high risk of developing depression.

Social Health

Social health includes the ability to socialise and function as part of a group and use public services, as well as to be liked and accepted (Linsley and Roll, 2020). Mrs X scores indicates (Zimet Questionnaire) that she has moderate support from her friends and family. However, her lowest scores suggest that she does not have a special person who is around when she needs. She cannot always share her feelings and emotions with her family and friends. Social isolation is associated with more than a doubling of the risk of many forms of mental illness, heart disease and early death (Milton and Letwin, 2010, p 6).

Analysing Mrs X responses acquired from the combined questionnaire, we can identify that she may develop a disease due to risk factors such as being overweight, unhealthy diet and  lack of physical and social activity. A health risk is something that increases your chance of developing a disease (NIH, 2017). There are many health risks that an individual can change, for example habits, safety, diet, physical activity, physical environment, etc. However, you cannot change your age, family history or an inherited disease.

Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including the world’s major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) of coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy (Lee I-Min et al (2012). Furthermore, there is strong emerging evidence that activity delays cognitive decline and is good for brain health as well as having extensive benefits for the rest of the body (Blair, 2009).

Recent objective evidence from England and the USA suggests that low physical activity is the most prevalent chronic disease risk factor, with 95% of the adult population not meeting the modest physical activity guidelines (Weiler, R. And Stamatakis, E. (2010) Nevertheless, evidence shows that even brief interventions (3–10 min) or simple pedometer-based programmes delivered through health professionals can lead to substantial increases in patients’ activity levels (by ~30%) (Weiler, R. And Stamatakis, E. (2010) The UK Chief Medical Officers’ (CMO) Guidelines recommend for adults age 19-64 to do at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity activity, 75 minutes’ vigorous activity, or a mixture of both, strengthening activities on two days and to reduce time spent being sedentary. Moreover, The evidence continues to support the role of physical activity in maintaining weight following weight loss, as well as the health benefits of physical activity in overweight and obese individuals even in the absence of weight loss (Dr Foster, C. Et al. (2019). There are many sources of advice to support and encourage Mrs X to live more active life. For example, NHS.UK and OneYou websites have a variety of information and support for people encouraging them to get fit. Mobile applications like ACTIVE10 encourages people to get into routine of walking and Couch to 5k app motivates individuals to start running. My first step as a future healthcare professional would be providing information to Mrs X about the benefits of physical activity and possible risks of being inactive and making referrals to any services if necessary.

The Marmot review highlights that income, social deprivation and ethnicity have an important impact on the likelihood of becoming obese (PHE, 2017). Moreover, it is estimated that the NHS spent £6.1 billion on overweight and obesity-related ill-health in 2014 to 2015 (PHE, 2017). The numbers are shocking and it is more crucial than ever to take every opportunity to prevent these outcomes and to educate people to change their behaviours leading to an unhealthy weight and obesity.  As mentioned earlier, Mrs X lives in Hounslow, where deprivation is quite high with 16 areas now becoming classified in the 20% most deprived in the country in 2015, compared to 12 areas in the 2010 classification (London Borough of Hounslow, 2017). Also, it is the most diverse populations in London. In Hounslow there are an estimated 126,000 (total population 270,782) overweight adults (63%), and 54,000 adults that do less than 30 minutes exercise a week (27%) (London Borough of Hounslow, 2017). As we can see, Mrs X environment plays an enormous role in her health and wellbeing. It reveals some significant inequalities to access to the opportunities to be healthy. However, these factors can be prevented by implementing government and local policies   that impact on our health. For example, the PHE Eatwell Guide was introduced to illustrate a healthy and balanced diet and looked at the health impacts of the sugar and fibre we eat and concluded that the Government should halve our recommended intake of free sugars and increase recommended fibre (Levy, L 2016). In addition to that, it recommends to eat at least 5 portions of variety fruit and vegetables a day, choosing wholegrain versions as possible, choosing lower fat and lower sugar options, eat some beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and other proteins, choose unsaturated oils. Consequently, ignoring these guidelines increases risk to become overweight and obese. However, a study published in BMJ Open looking at the PHE Eatwell Guide highlighted that only very few people follow the dietary guidelines: less than 0.1% of the general population.  As stated by professor Kuhnle (2020) , “while many do follow the recommendations to reduce fat, salt and meat intake, fewer than 10% consume sufficient fibre and only 25% meet the recommendations regarding fish, fruits and vegetables and free sugars”. As a result, it is important to empower and inform the individual about services and tools available to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Mrs X indicated (UK Diabetes and Diet Questionnaire) that she is concerned about her weight and it would be beneficial to acknowledge her concerns and ask whether she wants to take and action. Furthermore, we need to acknowledge that there could be various ways and solutions that individual could take towards achieving their goals. For instance, adapting to a healthier diet, portion control or increasing activity levels. Additionally, provide information about services available in the individual’s local area. As an example, One You Hounslow is an integrated Health and Wellbeing service. It provides a single point of access though a hub to engage a broad range of advice, information and friendly support to help Hounslow residents Eat well, Move More, Drink Less and Stop Smoking.  

Mrs X health risks are  influenced by her income, housing and work. She is a single mother and the researches say single motherhood is known to be linked to poorer health (Bazian, 2015). Also, it can lead to variety of psychosomatic symptoms (tiredness, insomnia, depression, behavioural problems). (Council of Europe, 2014). Moreover, Income determines people’s ability to buy health-improving goods, from food to gym memberships. Managing on a low income is a source of stress, and emerging neurological evidence suggests that being on a low income affects the way people make choices concerning health-affecting behaviours (Williams, E. Et al., 2020). Another factor that may affect Mrs X health is housing. Poor-quality and overcrowded housing conditions are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, depression and anxiety (Williams, E. Et al., 2020).. Furthermore, Unemployment is associated with lower life expectancy and poorer physical and mental health, both for individuals who are unemployed and for their households. The quality of work, including exposure to hazards, job security and whether it promotes a sense of belonging, affects the impact it has on both physical and mental health. Non-White groups experience higher levels of work stress, controlling for other demographic factors. (Williams, E. Et al., 2020).

In the UK today, behavioural and lifestyle factors are thought to be major contributors in around half of all deaths (Milton and Letwin, 2010). While government playing the main role in creating the environment that influences people’s health and wellbeing, to be able to protect, prevent and promote health, we must understand that not only the government is responsible for it. Everyone is responsible in supporting and promoting health.  In 2010, the government has changed the approach focusing on the behaviours that are causing the illness and it has published a “Public White Paper” focusing on preventing ill-health rather then the illness itself (Milton and Letwin, 2010). It means that our duty is to encourage healthy behaviours by understanding the causes of ill-health and not the treatment of illness. According to The King’s Fund Report (2014) “people are not as involved as they want to be in decisions about health and care, yet when they are involved, decisions are better, health and health outcomes improve, and resources are allocated more efficiently”. People with high levels of activation and health literacy may only require an initial conversation, signposting them to relevant information or guided support. For those with low levels of activation, tailored coaching approaches have proved most effective at supporting behaviour change. In addition to that, it is important for those with low levels of health literacy to be provided with information in different formats and the support necessary for them to understand and use that information (Foot, C. Et al, 2014).

According to statistics, people with serious mental illness die on average 20 years earlier than the rest of the population, and many of these deaths are avoidable. Mental illness affects more than 1 in 4 of us at any one time. The human and economic cost (estimated at £105bn a year) is enormous (Fenton, 2013)

people with higher levels of wellbeing are less likely to smoke and they tend to eat a healthier diet. We also think that healthy behaviours, in turn, promote wellbeing.

For example, the five ways to wellbeing are a set of actions (connect, be active, take notice, keep learning and give)

Making Every Contact Count initiative

NHS strategy, the NHS five year forward view (Forward View), argued that much more needs to be done to draw on what it described as the renewable energy of people and communities, but progress in converting this aspiration into action has been patchy at best.

Conclusion (sources and evidence must be cited as appropriate)

Discuss:

  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of using a health profile to understand the health and wellbeing of an individual and what additional information could you gather.

Reference list

1. Public Health England (2017) Reducing health inequalities: system, scale and sustainability. Available https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/731682/Reducing_health_inequalities_system_scale_and_sustainability.pdf

2. Linsley, P. and Roll, C. (2020) Health promotion for nursing students. London: a SAGE publishing company.

Dahlgren, G. Goran, Whitehead M. (2007) Policies and strategies to promote social equity in health. Arbetsrapport/Institutet för Framtidsstudier. https://www.iffs.se/media/1326/20080109110739filmz8uvqv2wqfshmrf6cut.pdf

Foot, C. Et al. (2014) People in control of their own health and care. The state of involvement. The Kings Fund Report. https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/default/files/field/field_publication_file/people-in-control-of-their-own-health-and-care-the-state-of-involvement-november-2014.pdf

Fenton, K. (2013) Promoting wellbeing and mental health: what’s next? Blog Public Health matters. https://publichealthmatters.blog.gov.uk/2013/10/07/promoting-wellbeing-and-mental-health-whats-next/

Milton, A. and Letwin, O. (2010) Applying behavioural insight to health. Discussion paper. Cabinet Office Behavioural Insights Team. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/60524/403936_BehaviouralInsight_acc.pdf

Public Health England (2017) Health matters: obesity and the food environment. Guidance paper. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/health-matters-obesity-and-the-food-environment/health-matters-obesity-and-the-food-environment–2

London Borough of Hounslow (2017) Joint Strategic Needs Assessment. The Hounslow Story. PDF

Levy, L. (2016) Answering a fundamental question: “What is a healthy, balanced diet?” Public Health England. Public Health matters Blog. https://publichealthmatters.blog.gov.uk/2016/03/17/what-is-a-healthy-balanced-diet/

Kuhnle, G. (2020) Expert reaction to study looking at the PHE Eatwell Guide and health and environmental impacts. Science Media Centre (SMC) https://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-study-looking-at-the-phe-eatwell-guide-and-health-and-environmental-impacts/

London Borough of Hounslow (2020). Healthy lifestyles for adults, children and families. https://www.hounslow.gov.uk/info/20049/health_and_well_being/1924/healthy_lifestyles_for_adults_children_and_families

Bazian (2015). Single mothers have ‘worse health in later life’. Analysis. NHS. https://www.nhs.uk/news/pregnancy-and-child/single-mothers-have-worse-health-in-later-life/

Public Health England (2013). Nursing and Midwifery. Contribution to Public Health Improving health and wellbeing. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/210100/NMR_final.pdf

WHO (2015). Nurses and Midwives. European compendium of good practices in nursing and midwifery towards Health 2020 goals. A Vital Resource for Health. https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/287356/Nurses-midwives-Vital-Resource-Health-Compendium.pdf

NMC (2010). Standards for competence for registered nurses.https://www.nmc.org.uk/globalassets/sitedocuments/standards/nmc-standards-for-competence-for-registered-nurses.pdf

NHS. Making Every Contact Count. What is Making Every Contact Count? Factsheet. https://www.makingeverycontactcount.co.uk/media/27613/mecc-resources-fact-sheet-v9-20180601.pdf

World Health Organisation (WHO) (1948). Constitution. https://www.who.int/about/who-we-are/constitution

World Health Organisation (WHO) (1986). The 1st International Conference on Health Promotion, Ottawa, 1986. https://www.who.int/teams/health-promotion/enhanced-wellbeing/first-global-conference

NHS (2018). BMI healthy weight calculator. Healthy weight. https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/healthy-weight/bmi-calculator/

National Institutes of Health (2017). What Are Your Health Risks? Health Capsule. PDF https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/sites/nihNIH/files/2017/August/NIHNiHAug2017.pdf

Lee I-Min et al (2012). Impact of Physical Inactivity on the World’s Major Non-Communicable Diseases. Journal. PMC. NCBI. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3645500/

Blair, S. (2009). Physical inactivity: the biggest public health problem of the 21st century. Br J Sports Med. Vol 43 No 1. PDF https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/43/1/1.full.pdf

Weiler, R. and Stamatakis, E. (2010). Physical activity in the UK: a unique crossroad? Br J Sports Med. Vol 44 No 13 https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/44/13/912.full.pdf

Dr Foster, C. Et al. (2019). UK Chief Medical Officers’ Physical Activity Guidelines, p 30. Department of Health and Social Care https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/832868/uk-chief-medical-officers-physical-activity-guidelines.pdf

Council of Europe (2014). Report on Psycho-Social Aspects of Single-Parent Families. Health Policy. https://www.coe.int/t/dg3/health/Reportsingleparents_en.asp

Williams, E. Et al. (2020). What are health inequalities? The Kings Fund. https://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/what-are-health-inequalities

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Assessing the requirement of ‘graphical representation in trade mark registration.

In recent years, “multi-sensory branding” has taken the commercial world by storm, and merchants are increasingly using a range of advertising techniques that appeal to all five senses of their targeted consumers—
sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. While trade marks have traditionally been visually distinctive signs, the
emergence of non-traditional trade marks has raised important challenges for intellectual property law, such as
the extent to which visual perceptibility and graphical representation should continue to serve as prerequisites
for registration.’ Eugene C. Lim & Samtani Anil, ‘Acoustic branding, non-traditional trade marks and the
graphical representation requirement: a conceptual and empirical analysis’, E.I.P.R. 2019, 41(1), 5-13
notice ;
The key theme of the title is assessing the requirement of ‘graphical representation’ in trade mark registration.
Therefore, the backbone of discussion and central arguments should be based on the analysis. The introduction
of non-conventional trade mark will only serve as an example assessing the function of ‘graphical representation’

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Critically discuss what may be the reasons for more stringent (mandatory) measures failing to improve the transparency around lobbying?

LBU 3057: International Business Diplomacy

Individual Essay Assessment – Semester 1 (2020-21)

Marks Proportion: 30% of the total for LBU 3057

Task

Your group presentation will be an analysis based on the report produced by Civitas: Institute for the Study of Civil Society (The Lobbying of the EU) in order to answer the following question.

Essay Question

“With corporate activities in Brussels being surrounded by controversy, mandatory measures are discussed as necessary to improve transparency around lobbying directed at European Union institutions”.

Critically discuss what may be the reasons for more stringent (mandatory) measures failing to improve the transparency around lobbying? Please support your arguments with appropriate theoretical concepts and empirical examples discussed in LBU 3057 lectures and seminars. 

Sources of information

  • Case Study – The Lobbying of the EU
  • LBU 3057 reading material
  • LBU 3057 lectures
  • LBU 3057 seminars

Individual Assignment Guidelines

  • Assignment length: 1000 words (+/- 10%)
    • Word count must be mentioned on the first page
    • Word count includes all text (including the in-text references) but excludes end-of-text bibliography and appendices.

Assignment format

  • Only word files to be submitted
    • Font size: 12
    • Times New Roman
    • Double spaced

Please submit your assignment via the appropriate TurnitIn link on Canvas assignment tab by 4pm on that date.

Marking and feedback

The assignment will be marked according to the standard undergraduate assessment criteria (see below).

Pre- and post-assessment support

There will be a 2h seminar (in week 14) that will provide students with a pre-assessment opportunity to discuss the essay question, both with the seminar tutor and as a group, with reference to their preparation for presentation videos. Students should consider these discussions as summative feedback and make notes accordingly.

Referencing

Please use Harvard referencing style in putting together the citations in text and reference list at the end of your essay. Please see referencing guide from Newcastle University – http://libguides.ncl.ac.uk/referencing

Plagiarism

The assignment should be your own work. Plagiarism is a serious offence that can lead to you failing the module and even to your suspension from studies. Make sure you understand the rules on plagiarism and collusion. Your markers are experienced at detecting plagiarism and use a range of tools to detect it (although you submit to TurnitIn it is not the only approach we use to identify plagiarism).

Standard UG Assessment Criteria

First    70% + very good analysis   all material that would be expected  originality / extrasExtremely thorough and authoritative execution of the brief. Containing evidence of significant independent research, reflective, perceptive, well-structured showing significant originality in ideas or argument, aptly focused and very well written. Few areas for improvement. Potentially worthy of publication.   Outstanding demonstration of understanding and depth, drawing upon extensive reading. Using outstanding examples and plenty of illustrative data. Providing outstanding evidence of independent research and wider reading. In addition, providing outstanding original perspectives or insights, argued logically.  90-100%
  Excellent execution of the brief, well-structured and clearly argued. Signs of originality and/or independent critical analytical ability. Supported by independent research, materials well utilised; well-focused and well written, displays mastery of the subject matter and of appropriate theories and concepts, but providing few original perspectives or insights.  80-89%
  Very good execution of the brief; well-focused, knowledgeable, some evidence of reading beyond the basic texts and displays a very good knowledge of the subject matter. Very good critical grasp of relevant theories and concepts.  70-79%
Upper second    60%-69% good analysis   all material that would be expected   but nothing extra    (a standard project)  Well-structured and well-focused answer. Comprehensive, although not complete. Showing understanding based on an ability to marshal information and to support arguments with appropriate examples. Some pieces of information or examples go beyond the lecture material in either depth or breadth. Sound grasp of relevant theories and concepts. Approach generally analytical.  65-69%  
As above but either occasionally lacking accuracy or with few examples.  60-64%
Lower second      50%-59% adequate analysis   minor omissions   minor errors  Concise but accurate. Based largely on lecture material. Information presented clearly but lacking any originality, tending to be descriptive in approach. Limited evidence of reading beyond the basic texts.  55-59%
As above but with occasional lapses of accuracy or logic.50-54%
Third    40%-49% basic analysis   omissions   errors  Answer complete but tending to rely entirely on lecture materials. Almost entirely descriptive in approach, limited knowledge and understanding of the subject matter displayed; partial and/or containing errors, poorly structured.  45-49%
  As above but with omissions or errors. Presentation poor. Examples inadequate. Some material relevant to the question. Evidence that the question has been understood in part at least.  40-44%
Fail    <40%   Insufficient focus on question   Inadequate analysis   Little evidence of knowledge and understanding  Inadequate execution of the brief. Highly partial and or containing major errors; contents partly or substantially irrelevant, poorly structured. Displays little knowledge of the subject matter. May contain excessive use of quotations. Inadequate with no substance or scientific understanding but with vague general knowledge relevant to the question.  30-39%
  Seriously inadequate execution of the brief. Failure to focus upon the question, seriously short or even devoid of theoretical under-pinning, large sections irrelevant. Rudimentary knowledge of the subject area. Errors serious and fundamental. Excessive use of quotations.  20-29%
  Little hint of knowledge. May be an answer to a different question.  0-19%