Xenophanes maintained that ‘the clear and certain truth no man has seen nor will there be anyone who knows about the gods.’ (fr. 34.) But if no one can have knowledge about the gods, on what grounds does Xenophanes reject the Homeric and Hesiodic conceptions of the gods?’

-There isn’t a set number of sources needed but there needs to be a reasonable amount
– No plagiarising
– needs to have primary and secondary sources
– references and bibliography
– An assessed essay that is more than 5% over-length will automatically be penalised by the deduction of marks.
-Start with an introduction that explains why the issue raised is important and what particular problems are
encountered in discussing it. If the title is in the form of a question, indicate briefly what answer you are going to
give to it.
-The body of the essay should then be a systematic review of the issue, or reasoned arguments for your answer
to the question
-Do not cite views of modern scholars as if they are ‘facts;’ they are opinions with which you should agree or
disagree, giving your reasons why.
-References to ancient works can be put in round brackets at the end of the relevant sentence or clause
-References to modern works should be given in footnotes
-bibliography listing, in alphabetical order of the surnames of the author or editor, the modern works which you
consulted while preparing the essay, including any online resources at the end of the list. The bibliography
should not include ancient authors, unless you want to list an edition, translation or commentary
-important for your essays to be framed by a close and detailed engagement with that ancient text or
texts about which you chose to write and by your own reflections about this material
-, support your interpretations and your arguments with textual evidence and explain why you interpret and
argue as you do by reference to the text
Some recommend materials:
-Xenophanes Article by Lesher, James
-Presocratics Book by James Warren c2007 pp 41-56
-Fragments Book by J. H. Lesher; Xenophanes 2001
– Epistemology Book by Stephen Everson 1989 pp 11-38
-The Oxford handbook of presocratic philosophy Book by Patricia Curd; Daniel W. Graham 2008

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