Explain in detail why Rousseau believes that humanity is in ‘chains’ but ‘free’ at the same time? (4b) Does Rousseau agree with the Hobbesian state of nature?

• EACH RESPONSE to the Question(s): MINIMUM of 3 PARAGRAPHS (each paragraph w/MIN of 5-8 sentences)
• LENGTH OF EACH ANSWER: 1.25 (or 380 WORD MIN) to 1.75 PGS
• MAXIMUM LENGTH OF ESSAY: 10 Pages (excluding title page/sources/endnotes)
• When using examples or illustrations, please add parentheses and insert source. Example: Aristotle states that “liberty and equality, as is thought by some, are chiefly to be found in democracy, they will be best attained when all persons alike share in the government to the utmost.” OR
• Example: Although “liberty and equality, as is thought by some, are chiefly to be found in democracy,” other scholars differ in their definition (Aristotle).
• If you use a source outside of Thucydides, Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, or Aquinas, you MUST fully cite (author AND page) the source using MLA, APA, or Turabian (Chicago- Style) format. I prefer Turabian.
• The first subset of questions (excluding all of No.1) are designed to test you on all the material. All these > 1a/1b/2a/2b/2c/3a/3c/4a/4b/4c/5a/5b sub-questions have correct responses.
• The second subset of questions (or sub-questions), sometimes the b/c/d/e/f set, give you the best possible platform for answering open-ended questions. These questions are marked in green. They are to be answered in your own words, articulated with well-informed opinions, and supported by as much information (from internal—textbook/PDFs or external—outside sources) as possible.
• You will notice that there may be some subtle overlap to a few sub-questions. However, pay close attention because there are variations to these questions.
Below are the complete set of questions for the FINAL ESSAY EXAMINATION.
• (1a)* Does Machiavelli prefer vice over virtue? WHY? (1b)* What does he argue would be necessary if one were to create a new state and how to preserve this state (or kingdom) (1c) Is The Prince an immoral book WHY or WHY NOT (Explain your answer)? (1d) Is Machiavelli’s advice suitable not only for princes, but also for statesman in 2020 who represent the countries of today (Explain)? (1e) Place yourself in the position of presidential adviser or political counselor to someone governing a state, republic, or region. Would it be sound to follow Machiavelli’s advice and will your president, governor, or representative be more likely to stay in power following Machiavelli’s formula(s)? Explain WHY or WHY NOT?
• (2a)* Explain how Grotius arrives at the two fundamental principles of natural law? (2b)* Enumerate and describe Grotius’ principles of nature (2c) and then explain how Grotius justifies war with these principles? (2d) Would you agree with his assessment of war through reason? Why or why not? (2e) *Finally, to the best of your ability, should country leaders anthropomorphize other countries (characterize other countries as rational ‘persons’) to determine rival behavior? WHY or WHY NOT? Explainer: In other words, should one apply reason as a character trait to states? Thinker Notes: Think about this carefully. If you say no, why? Do not not states consist of human leaders? If you say yes, then how can one distinguish states from persons in international affairs?*
• (3a) Explain the three conditions of man’s state of war according to Hobbes. (3b) Do you agree with his assessment? WHY or WHY NOT? (3c)* According to Hobbes, if one is to assume this state of nature and apply it to society, how may humankind escape? (3d) Why would one accept Hobbes’ view about the nature of society? Do you? Explain WHY or WHY NOT? (3e)* If one were to accept the Hobbesian solution in 3c, what would be the appropriate enforcement mechanism and punishment for those individuals, communities, or populations that do NOT want to conform or submit to Hobbes’ solution? WHY? (3f) Is it then possible for an international body to enforce International law and punish lawbreakers upon states? WHY or WHY NOT? Explainer: In other words, can a Hobbesian system be applied at the international level? If so, how? If not, why not?
• (4a) Explain in detail why Rousseau believes that humanity is in ‘chains’ but ‘free’ at the same time? (4b) Does Rousseau agree with the Hobbesian state of nature? HOW SO? (4c) Explain why* Rousseau supports St. Pierre’s idea of a ‘perpetual peace’? (4d) Do you support the Hobbesian or Rousseauian system of government? WHY or WHY not? (4e) Would you be comfortable in a system whereby your private will is be absorbed or limited by the general will? WHY or WHY not? (4f) Finally, Is Rousseau’s version of the ‘Social Contract’ a practical solution for states who are ethnically heterogeneous and/or politically fractured? WHY or WHY not? Explainer: In other words, if Rousseau believes it is difficult to determine the general will of a population, may his social contract be of practical use in these multiethnic or multi-factional societies? If so, how? If not, why not?

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