How did the obstetric metaphors from the Gettysburg Address relate to the images of punishment at the end of President Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address? *

QUESTION: How did the obstetric metaphors
from the Gettysburg Address relate to the
images of punishment at the end of President
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address?
i. reading
ii. writing
iii. editing
iv. proofreading
Getting Started
You will need to accomplish a number of things before you start
any of the tasks for this assignment.

  1. context
    • it’s not just a matter of identifying when something
    happened, but identifying the historical environment of
    the question
    • identify as much as you can about that environment
    from the course materials (making these lists helps
    orient your mind, even if they aren’t used once you start
    • how powerful are local agents in this environment
    compared to those from afar?
    • it’s not just a matter of identifying place but also the
    complicated web of social & economic relationships
  2. readings
    • you will need to identify all of the readings from the
    course relevant to the question or prompt (you don’t
    necessarily need to use all of them, but you want to be
    And the last thing you will need to accomplish is a careful diagram
    of the question (see the FACTSHEET). Once you’ve dissected the
    question into its constituent parts then you will better understand
    the nature and demands of the project at hand.
    Once you’ve gathered all of the readings (including the two
    textbooks, Foner & Schaller), then you need to start reading. Even
    if you’ve already read it, and especially if you haven’t, then you
    need to first consult the reading guide in the Syllabus. DO NOT do
    the readings for the first time with the prejudice of the question or
    prompt in mind. A clear, objective reading is the best place to
    start before you start reading with the question or prompt in
    While the notes you made from the first, unprejudiced reading of
    the sources will be helpful, you should re-read the sources and
    take an entirely new set of notes that are relevant to answering
    the question or prompt you chose.
    Once you’ve accomplished a close and careful reading of the
    relevant materials and composed detailed and topical notes, then
    you need to begin a complicated process of turning that
    knowledge and those notes into a composed structure. A good
    place to start is going through your notes critically (that third
    step) and start thinking about process.
    • How do these observations constitute a critical analysis?
    • What is that criticism?
    • And what are some of the ways those criticisms can be
    clearly conveyed to a Reader?
    • What interests you about this topic? Why?
    NO QUOTATIONS: The entire composition must be in your
    words. If you want to cite a very specific passage, then paraphrase
    Before you get started writing you need to first compose an
    outline or something resembling a roadmap to follow as you write.
    DO NOT write and edit at the same time, it’s never ever
    productive. Learn how to separate writing from editing. You
    should focus on getting as much as you can on paper without the
    inhibition of wondering if it’s clear or not; that’s why we edit.
    Just write. Don’t reread everything you say; just write. Don’t start
    editing at the end of each sentence; just write. And don’t distract
    yourself with screens and bullshit; just write.
    The more you write, the more you will have to edit.
    Whenever you have a writing project, then it should always be this
    part of the project, editing, that takes the most time because it’s
    never just editing, it’s all the re-writing associated with editing
    The best place to start is with someone else. And the following are
    ideal candidates (the more, the merrier):
    • a fellow at the Writing Center
    • another student in the course
    • your faculty advisor (if they’re willing and able, that is)
    The process involves reading and re-reading the essay with a close
    and, well, merciless eye towards awkward phrasing, repetitions,
    vague and inconsistent statements, and whether or not you say
    anything meaningful. If you’re the author and you’re not
    interested enough to present a clear argument, then the Reader
    won’t even bother with your ideas. Mediocre effort produces
    mediocre work undeserving of anyone’s time, including mine.
    One way to evaluate the quality of your editing is how much it
    resembles the first draft. If it doesn’t look very different, then you
    didn’t do a good job of editing the rough draft. They call it rough
    for reason (i.e., rough draft sounds more acceptable than shitty
    draft, which is what it is).
    This is separate and different from editing. These are the final
    touches, the last few edits that are mostly of a formal analysis,
    that is, proofreading is about presenting not just a clear argument
    but one free of sloppy errors.
    Just like editing, it helps to have more than one set of eyes when
    Pay close attention to the following:
    • spacing between words
    • possessive grammar
    • proper nouns and capitalization
    • continuity of capitalization
    • comma usage
    • spelling and spell-check errors (the so-called “Cupertino
    • no fewer than 1000 words; no more than 1050
    • A creative title to the essay
    • NO headings, NO title page; one line for your name, one
    for the title, and then start writing; fill the first page, don’t
    keep hitting return at the beginning
    • Times New Roman font
    • 12-point sized font
    • double-spaced
    • page numbers at the bottom of each page
    • You must cite your sources using footnotes; there is no
    need to include a bibliography; while I would prefer you use
    the Chicago methodology of footnoting, just make certain the
    (1) name of the author, (2) the title of the work, (3) the date,
    and, if applicable, (4) the page number.
    QUOTATIONS (Why? Because it’s the oldest trick in the
    book to expand your word couniqut, and you need to learn how
    to paraphrase well.)

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