Business Improvement and Change

Cars are responsible for around 12 per cent of total EU emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas. From 2021, phased in from 2020, the EU fleet-wide average emission target for new cars will be 95 g per CO2/km.
Specific emission targets for manufacturers
In 2020, the emission targets will apply for each manufacturer’s 95 per cent least emitting new cars. From 2021 onward, the average emissions of all newly registered cars of a manufacturer will have to be below the target.
Penalty payments for excess emissions
If the average CO2 emissions of a manufacturer’s fleet exceed its target each year, the manufacturer must pay an excess emissions premium for each car registered. Since 2019, the penalty is €95 for each g/km of target exceedance.
Manufacturer pools
Manufacturers can group together and act jointly to meet their emissions target. In forming such a pool, manufacturers must respect the rules of competition law.
(Source: Road transport: Reducing CO2 emissions from vehicles (
You act as the lead of change consultants to Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) on meeting the emissions targets. JLR has a fleet CO2 target of 132g/km because it sells fewer than 300,000 vehicles in the EU each year and makes larger-than-average vehicles. JLR’s emissions committee has asked you to prepare a business report focusing on the following tasks:

Question 1. Critically assess and evaluate the business processes and systems required by JLR to meet the 2021 emissions reductions. (30 marks)

Question 2 (8-12) Develop a roadmap for Jaguar Land Rover on the special vehicle division that mitigates the impact of the fleet emissions reductions on its Special Vehicles division. (20 marks) 500 words
Points to consider;

  • Jaguar Environmental Responsibility and Impact
  • Advanced engine and exhaust technologies
  • Upcycles aluminium to cut carbon emissions
  • Innovative connected and autonomous vehicle technology
  • Highly innovative technologies
  • Zero tailpipe emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Life cycle thinking – Using Life Cycle Assessment
  • Using revolutionary all-aluminium bodies
  • Hybrid and electric powertrain technology
  • Introducing intelligent Stop/Start Technology that can reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 7%.
  • Greenhouse gas emissions

Question 3 (20 marks) 500 words
Elaborate on the options available in 2021 and 2022 to reduce JLR’s new cars average fleet emissions target?
Prepare a table for 2020, 2021,2022 then elaborate on the options in the table.
Options 2021 2020

Elaborate the options

Points to consider;

  • Buying Tesla’s credit
  • Jaguar and Land Rover cars recalled for excessive CO2 emissions
  • 6% reduction in life cycle emissions
  • developing alternative powertrains
  • CO2 regulation
  • Jaguar I-PACE zero emissions
  • f45%reduction in European fleet average tailpipe CO2 emissions
  • Changes to the European emissions tests of the Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP)
  • Ingenium diesel and petrol engines are among the cleanest in the world
  • Hybrid electric (MHEV) powertrain harvests energy for improved fuel economy and reduced emissions
  • Range Rover Evoque created from the outset around electrification – Its smooth and efficient four-cylinder Ingenium diesel and petrol engines feature 48-volt mild hybrid systems
  • Three-cylinder Ingenium petrol plug-in hybrid
  • Reduction in key environmental impacts over vehicle life cycles.
  • Electrification, including full battery electric, plug-in hybrid and mild hybrid variants
  • Engineering expertise to solve societal problems through technology, recycling, waste management and emissions reduction programmes
    Question 4 (18-21) Critically evaluate 4 appropriate change management models available to JLR in reducing its average fleet emissions. (20 marks)
    Some examples are;
    • Kotter’s eight steps change Model
    • Balance scorecard
    • Lewin’s model
    • ADKAR model

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