Capillary Isotachophoresis (CITP)
As a mode of capillary electrophoresis, it has a fundamental principle of employing two buffers that enclose the analyte zones between them. Its operations also include the analysis of either anions or cations in separate zones whereby the analyte concentration become uniform in each zone making sure the lengths of each area is proportional to the amount of the particular analyte (Wang et all., 2012)
Capillary isotachophoresis of peptides and proteins has been used for the detection of early signs of multiple sclerosis. It has an advantage of that it creates the work of chromatographer easy and exciting since there is no buffer between analyte bands during separation. On the other hand, it has a limitation of that it’s outcome differs at lower analyte concentration leading to the formation of very sharp peaks zones (Hühner, Lämmerhofer, & Neusüß, 2015).
Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis (NACE)
The NACE operates under the principles whereby the actual electrophoresis occurs in an aqueous solution (Mura, P. (2014). Consequently, during NECE operations capillary electrophoresis formation can take the course of using an aqueous system based on acetonitrile, methanol, formamide, and dimethylformamide solutions which are added to a small amount of anhydrous acid or buffer salts (Kenndler, E. (2014).
Separations by non-aqueous capillarity electrophoresis have been applied in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, preservatives, surfactants among others. Its operations of separating and analyzing of two basic solutions that are insoluble compounds in water and compounds showing similar electrophoretic mobility’s in an aqueous solution make the mode to become advantageous. On the other hand, it possesses a disadvantage of being very slow under the conditions of separation by simple electrophoresis (Hirayama, Wakayama & Soga,2014).
Capillary Electro-Chromatography (CEC)
It describes a hybrid technique in which molecules distributes between an immobile and a moving phase. During the laboratory analysis, different analytes tend to associate to a greater or lesser extent with the stationary phase which in turn affects a separation. Its capillaries are packed in columns which aids in driving the mobile phases down through them by the use of electroosmotic flow. The resulting plug flow progresses the separation effectiveness over that of the laminar movement of pressure driven structures (Kuhn, & Hoffstetter-Kuhn, 2013)
Application of capillarity electro-chromatography has not been determined extensively as the efforts are in place to determine whether most of its work which has been through the model systems such as the polyaromatic hydrocarbons can prove useful. Because its buffers used are typically high in organic content thus becoming volatile, it can approve useful when included to mass spectroscopy.
It combines advantages of the high efficiency of capillarity electrophoresis (CF) with high selectivity of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It also has dual retention mechanism of both (CF) and (HPLC) making it fit for contemporary detachment and analysis of inert and charged compounds (Jones, & Larive, 2012). Additionally, the model has a limitation of difficulties in achieving stable baselines, steady currents, and the reproducible migration times arise due to the formation of air bubbles around the packaging materials and the frits
Capillary Isoelectric Focusing (CIFE)
The buffers in this model are arranged in a PH gradient usually a commercial mixture of carrier ampholytes molecules which are very minute hence high speed in the form of electrophoretic flexibilities. The more the ampholytes are in the buffer, the smoother the PH will become, while on the other hand, the smoother the PH gradient, the better the separation between closely evaluating peaks (Haginaka, 2013). The separation process is complete when all the individual molecules reach their respective isoelectric points.
The principles of (CIFE) are applied in the manufacture of cost-effective copies of proteins such as the erythropoietin for therapeutic purposes and also enable the anti-doping agencies operating in sports doping labs, and forensic labs analyze those proteins or biosimilar consumption (Breadmore et all., 2015)
The earlier scientist describes the method as inexpensive and easy to handle by simple laboratory techniques and also its combination with electrophoretic separations has also lead to many resolutions two-dimensional gel electrophoresis separation methods as its advantages. However, it has limitations of limited stability of solutions, low purity for application as its standards and lot-to-lot inconsistency (Shimura et all., 2013)