Web Exercise, Freight & Logistics

Web Exercise

 Freights and logistics historically are a fragmented, shifting company (Hesse & Rodrigue, 2004). The company is very dependent on materials that are demanded and drove by GDP growth. Their experts value chain to anticipate and go around the full range of challenges and establish practical, strategies of winning for opportunities likely to be experienced in the future. To create value for their clients, these type of industries work with their customers across the value logistics chain and transport on projects involving a full range of areas of capability. The industry also values their clients and thus count some of them as the global leaders regarding freight and logistics, as well as, ocean shipping and distribution, rail, transport infrastructure, trucking, third-party logistics, and parcel and postal services (Hesse & Rodrigue, 2004). Besides, they also develop insights that work for the clients.

The freight and logistics company is diversifying, which can be attributed to the need to capitalize on globalization and outsourcing trends. The current trends of high levels of consolidation, regulation and privatization activities, desire for end-to-end capabilities, or turnkey services, rising demands for internal shipping determines the future growth. For these reasons, freight and logistics companies work alongside with Bain, at all organizational levels, to plan how to, where, and when to realize the maximum potential for revenue. These type of companies thus focus on improving services and expanding networks given the highest positioning for long-term growth. They also assist companies in identifying their customer needs and the best ways to serve and satisfy all he needs. The industry also helps businesses strategize ways to make operational strategies run efficiently and leaner (Hesse & Rodrigue, 2004).


Hesse, M., & Rodrigue, J. P. (2004). The transport geography of logistics and freight distribution. Journal of transport geography12(3), 171-184.


Professional Standards and Values

Professional Standards and Values

Ethical behaviors are at the core of what is expected of professional standards and values: according to Pollock (2014), it differentiates professionals from other workers in the marketplace. Under an ethical code of standards, the system of criminal justice is expected to maintain strict and professional standards and values through all that they do. The department of criminal justice works in a variety of areas like courts and corrections, law enforcement, crime control, juvenile delinquency, and in drug and alcohol abuse programs. In all of the areas, the criminal justice system ensures all the professionals meet and perform their jobs as per an expected code of ethics related to a certain field.

According to the Academy of Criminal Justice of Science, all professionals have to respect the dignity, rights, and value of all the individuals (Pollock, 2014). Besides sensitivity and honesty, integrity is one of the most crucial aspects of maintaining a professional standard. Moreover, professional standards also include attempting to keep the peace, ensuring an unbiased viewpoint, and respecting the diverse cultural and personal values of others.

The responsibility for maintaining the desired standards are still timely, relevant, and of high quality relies on the nine members of the standards committee. The nine members work together and determine the priorities for revising and updating current volumes and for expanding or developing volumes to consider issues not yet covered. It provides and commissions oversight in developing particular recommendations and ensuring through review by both non-ABA and ABA entities through the task forces. The committee also revises and approves a draft of professional standards and values which are then forwarded to the criminal justice departments.


Pollock, J. M. (2014). Ethical dilemmas and decisions in criminal justice. Nelson Education.


Food advertisements in the Saturday morning television program for children

Food advertisements in the Saturday morning television

Many children watch the television shows more often as compared to the amount of time they spend doing other activities. These are children therefore exposed to a wide range of food commercials, and indeed there is a need to examine the types of food advertisements during the Saturday morning television program for children. As I watched the Saturday morning television, I noticed that a greater percentage of the total commercials being broadcast were food products. Moreover, I also realized that a higher proportion of the food ads were foods of little nutritional value, a conclusion I arrived at with information from the grocery store. The most frequent adverts were of foods with high-sugar cereals. It can thus be postulated that childhood obesity is reaching the epidemic proportions as a result of the foods prevalently rich in sugars, and fat, many of which have low nutritional values but are widely advertised. Therefore, the diet displayed during the Saturday morning television is an antithesis considering what is recommended for a child’s healthy eating. As a remedy, the issues of food advertising, more so during the Saturday morning television program for children, should be revisited on a country level.

Ways by which parents help a child’s problem solving and use of language

Responsive parenting is a critical aspect regarding parenting as we seek to understand the role of environment during a child’s development. On the other hand, the unresponsive way of parenting is likely to jeopardize a positive development process, more so to those with high risks of experiencing development problems. Responsive parenting begins with the content, type, and the manner in which the parents involve with their kids during conversations. As evident from many parent-child communications, a parent needs to encourage a child’s politeness and correct them whenever they do it wrong.

Baumrind’s parenting styles

According to Baumrind, there are four dimensions of interactions between the parent and their children. The dimensions include authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, permissive-indulgent parenting, and permissive-uninvolved parenting. The authoritative parenting is identified by the clear standards, and expectations parents set to their children (Wigfield & Eccles, 2000). The parents in this dimension monitor a child’s behavior and encourage the child to learn from mistakes having made the decision. The parents in this group treat their young ones with kindness, affection, respect, and are also warm and nurturing. However, differentiating between an authoritarian and authoritative parenting can be difficult as the two dimensions seem to follow similar steps. I believe as a result of my parent’s authoritative aspect of parenting, I am of high self-esteem and self-reliance, and socially responsible. The authoritative style of parenting is thus the best, and I would like to use it with my children.

The games that children play and their likelihood to involve with peers

Play is a critical part of a child’s development. It is through the games that a kid can learn about colors, cause and effects, shapes, and even their capabilities. Moreover, play not only improves a child’s cognitive abilities but also improves their psychomotor and social skills. Some kids like playing physical games, for instance, hide-and-seek, or expressive plays to show their feelings with use materials such as crayons, clay, and markers. It is through these games, for example, the expressive play, through which peers can take active roles by using the play materials alongside the children. The likelihood of a child involving themselves with the peers relies on the dimension by which the parents take care of the young ones. Children under authoritarian parenting are less likely to indulge with the peers for they tend to believe they will be punished.


Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy–value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary educational psychology25(1), 68-81.


The Changing Representation of Women in Films

Changing Representation of Women in Films

The perception of women in the films has been changing in the last century, possibly because of the changing lifestyles, economy, and the homes. The female characters grow on little and big screens, and this has made the thinking about women to grow too. The American mainstream cinema, an enterprise dependent on genres and formulas, is at times mind-blowing revert on issues related to girls and females (Kaplan 23). Occasionally, when the female rules the box office, a greater percentage of their on-screen sisters are just left off the picture or sidelined. However, this situation seems to be changing, and the misrepresentation of women in the films is gradually reducing, this is evident in some of the movies.

Some years back, some percentage of the actresses had a measure of power in the Hollywood films, but many of them were represented as bratty sisters, sexpots, or dutiful sisters, and therefore were cast aside. The most interesting situations were defined by sexuality or hypersexuality. An example of this situation is that of 1962 when Lolita, Dolores Haze, was a character or purely pubescent object that satisfied her stepfather’s lust in the Nabokov novel. Similarly, the same year Scout Finch became another object of moral instruction by her father in the movie To Kill a Mockingbird. However, a year later The Feminine Mystique, by Betty Friedan rocked the world and extended to become the most-selling warning of the second wave of feminism.

Ever since a lot has been changing: tomboys and nymphets are still depicted, just as much as funny, scary, brainy, and tough girls. The representation of girlhood in the films is gradually changing, sometimes different series of identities, inclusive of bold revisions of brave new heroines, and those of age-old archetypes. The faces of girls and women remains monochromatic (Hanson 31). The women have always suffered from the thin sets media representation, in which they are linked to domestic situations serving as mothers or homemakers. And if not, as sex objects, serving to titillate and entertain the male character. More examples of other powerhouses and pixies changing the representation of women in the movies are discussed below.

Taking a look at the Hunger Games movie, Katniss Everdeen returns as a relaxed, focused, and so capable, with her eyes to shoot an arrow, to perform the task in front of her such that it becomes easy to lose sight of how revolutionary she has become. Not only in the miserable, dysfunctional fictional universe she inhabits, in which she is being radicalized by the iniquity of the supporting society and the Hunger Games cruelty. Taking a look in the world of entertainment, Katniss can be seen as a transformative figure, in which she is a lone warrior whose personal struggles for dignity and survival are combined to a bigger fight of justice. In the movie land, Katniss is not alone and thus faces competition from a larger population that outnumbers her. Most recently, some of the movies brought to seen depict women as capable of throwing a punch, running like the wind, landing a kick, and as persons who are more than pneumatic eye candy.

Movies also embrace young ghouls and freaks, like the teenage werewolves and other kids of the Damned, and most recently the young adult, thereby helping to pump fresh hot blood into the movie world. The horror sort of movies tends to fit the young body to the perfection, upon removal of the nightmare parts, both bodies churning with violent passions, strange liquids, and seemingly terrifying changes (Clover 65). Having a boyfriend who is a monster sounds potentially metaphoric, but it can also be argued that it is quite difficult for a white girl to be in love with a black guy than it would be falling in love a super-white vampire, according to Twilight movie. Some of the unease are even more apparent in the naming Disney, in which the title Rapunzel was changed to Tangled. This is thought to be because of the 2010 article in The Los Angeles Times, in which boys were not pleased with a movie considering the princess in the title. Conversely, in some movies, people strive to a see a good princess with an ear-worming song, for instance in the billion dollar film called Frozen. However, critics debated if the movie was a continuation of the slow-moving change or repackaged stereotypes that were initiated with the introduction of minority princess.

Though the representation of women remains non-proportional on the screen, behind the cameras, and in speech, they are in the films. Females make up a higher population of the movie audience than men and movies led by the women have a stronger investment return as compared to films led by males. Conversely, when we go to movies, female characters rarely emerge as leads except for the women’s film, and in some cases when they lead, it is not them that do much of the talking (Mendible 12). According to researchers, for every one woman who speaks, around three male characters are speaking. Moreover, some persons also argue that representation of women is not intentional (Mendible 26). When women are not seen or even heard in social places and public, their absence is considered normal, and nobody seems to care.

The death of a sexually appealing woman has also been used as one of the most poetic topics in the movie world. For instance, the movie, Love Story, is based on a beautiful 25-year old lady who died. The nexus of mortality and romance is given a new life by teenage melodramas that explore the link between death and love from serious and brave teenage girls. This is evident from the 2014 summer movies of “The Fault in Our Stars” and “If I Stay”, both of which are drawn from female best sellers. Chloe Moretz and Shailene Woodley in “If I Stay” and “The Fault in Our Stars” respectively, play as adolescents who are artistically minded and whose first love experiences are shadowed by death. The characters are however more enduring than tragic. They prove the females as capable of juggling their lovers with other ambitions and dreams, of suffering the adverse sides of love and loss with humor and discipline. The characteristics they display, despite being disrupted by forces of calamity and love, are of kindness, responsibility, and common sense. When the specter of an accident and fatal illness are removed, real romantic girls are displayed (Hanson 51). A vivid example of this type is in “The Spectacular Now,” in which Ms. Woodley became a heroine after she was almost sidelined as a wallflower or a nerd.

In conclusion, it can be argued that women have become much stronger, considering their first roles, but are still viewed through the lens as objects to satisfy male sexuality and are crafted to attract to men as much as they would females. An example of this is the alteration of Lisbeth Salander to Girl with the Dragon Tatoo. Through the eyes of the original author, Lisbeth is portrayed as a solitary and strong woman who has been universally mistreated by people around her, a woman with pictorial memories that captures all the terrible things she has experienced. On the other hand, the eyes of the US screenwriter sees Lisbeth as a female made tough, sexy, and always belligerent. For these reasons, one can easily argue that people are not entirely ready for a woman who doesn’t a partner to be whole.

Work Cited


Leading a Diverse Workforce

Diverse Workforce

The business environment and business owners are changing each and every day, and there is a need for the managers to adapt the different policies and strategies which appeal to their clients, suppliers, vendors, and employees. Workplace diversity brings with possible benefits just as much as possible conflicts for the business. Workplace diversity is more of ethnicity and race. Workplace diversity is composed of workers with varied characteristics including gender, education, political and religious beliefs, sexual orientation, geographic location, socioeconomic background among others (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2011). There is a need for an individual, as a leader, to incorporate diversity into the organization without altering the normal operations of the company. Incorporating diversity in the workplaces requires varied individual skills which may involve demonstrating a communications style and method which encourages inclusion, identifying and compensating for the biases and assumptions. Leaders capable of leading a diverse workforce also need to establish an understanding through active listening and questioning, practice inclusive behaviors, apply diversity techniques and tools to operate, and also recognize and apply actions ensuring cultural competency.

Poor practices of communication create workplace conflicts, incorrect goal assumptions, missed deadlines, and also contributes to employee turnover. An effective communication takes into consideration and establishes rapport and trust, which in turn helps the leader to act on opportunities and risks, and promotes alignment and productivity. To ensure that the cultural differences are met, there is need to consider the context. High-context cultures will rely less on the on the verbal means of communication but more on the non-verbal communications strategies. When managing the diversity, as a leader one should keep in mind and avoid stereotyping. A culture may be defined in a given way, but that does mean they are true to each regional and individual differences. Other cultural issues likely to impact the communication in a diverse in the workforce also include the personal space, roles, and status, as well as the body language (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2011).

An inclusive culture is one that focuses on the values that promote healthy conflict, empowers open-mindedness, avoids judgmental attitudes, and values new perspectives. Establishing an inclusive culture would constitute not only stating the cultural aspects that the workforce would wish to stress but also work to achieve an ideal standard of open and inclusive behavior. Major threats to establishing an inclusive culture include but not limited to discrimination, defensiveness, groupthink, and stereotyping. An inclusive culture can include a wide range of tangible elements like appreciation and acceptance of diversity, respects towards each employee’s contribution, regard for and fair treatment towards everybody, and equal chances for all employees to realize their potentials within the workforce. An easy way of achieving inclusion may be through listening and understanding. As a leader, one should listen with an open mind as this puts the leader in a position to understand the whole aspects of the situation. This can be achieved through seeking for multiple viewpoints of the problem, asking about the situation before characterizing it, and asking for ideas and suggestions from the staffs. Moreover, the leader also needs to address inappropriate behaviors in the workplace. This is arrived at by acknowledging the inappropriate behaviors, and communicating the expectations and likely outcomes as a result of their repeated behaviors.



Social, Mobile and Local Marketing

        The use of social media and adoption of mobile usage have been intertwined with the local business in the recent years. Each aspect has been complimenting the other towards rapid growth. Social-mobile-local with the acronym SoMoLo has been here for long such that it’s no longer just a name but it is simply applied. Social and mobile has been important to the local businesses since their optimization are essential to engaging successfully with the customers. For local businesses, monitoring and maintaining consistence in the market across a variety of channels is overwhelming especially for the businesses that have been strapped for time. To remain relevant and enhance a good competition in this attention economy, connecting with customers through social media and mobile is very critical. Maintaining a competitive social presence perches your business viability and presence in the market.

Social: Consumers are Social.

          By social, it does not mean talking a lot, it denotes that with the dominance of social technology, customers are connected well. Technology has enabled the consumers to attain and transmit information more easily and promptly than it has been any time before. This has changed the way customers secure products and services. Today, Consumers do not consider the brand as the main source of information, they tend to consult a third party resources and others who are present in the social media. seeking advice, reading about products and writing reviews together with involvement in experience sharing within social networks are some of the most common social activities. Most users of social media, will seek advice from friends and families on products when they are in a store before purchasing. This shows how important social media has influence on the purchasing decisions of the customers.


        Mobility define and influence the todays consumers. The way customers move, together with their ability to do shopping through their smartphones and tablets presents the experience of the modern market as mobile in nature. Some years ago, the act of shopping was a different experience. Most of the families used to set a day a side to do shopping. This is outdated now, shopping has ceased to be an activity in and of itself, shopping has been transformed to an afterthought, which can be done from the comfort of your home, from bed or from a car while travelling. The influence that mobile devices has brought to the behaviour of consumers could not be anticipated some years ago. The mobility of consumers also has been a great aspect of integrating social and mobile. Utilization of social platforms such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter which have some specific benefits to mobile users is one of the ways of ensuring that the business remains relevant on the business curve.


       Consumers always get social with respect to where they are. According to Madden (2010), of the Pew Internet and American Life Project, 65 million of American citizen use location based services. In less than a year the number of citizens who own smartphones and apply the location-based services has increased from approximately 35% to a whopping 74%.

        Promotion offers drive the platforms for location-based. In these promotional offers, the company gives an opportunity for consumers to interact through commenting, rating the company and sharing their experiences with the business. According to Roach, (2009) who wrote the Consumer Perception of Mobile Marketing for Strong mail, 38% of people who own smart phones are accessible through messages of promotion through SMS when these messages are based to where they are located. Through this statistics, it is evident that the local market has a big opportunity. The relevance of the local business raises the interests of the consumer in receiving of these messages right in their locations. This is a good antithesis towards the common reactions of the consumers towards unwanted emails and junk-mail promotions.

The Scope of Social, Mobile and Local Marketing

       The social, mobile and local marketing creates an opportunity when a dynamic and relevant customer experience is created. When these three aspects are brought together, the consumers are engaged at the intersection of these three. It is crucial for social, mobile and local business to align its internal resources, mainly those that are in direct contact with the consumer. This is very important for the success of SoMoLo. In case a promotion is running successfully, but with an untrained and unware front-line staff, it is most likely to miss an opportunity.

     Hoffman & Novak, (2011) asserts that marketers should have an integrated strategy to trap the seamless movements of consumers within different platforms and channels. Using location based apps like foursquare and Redeem an offer can facilitate the marketer to check-in to a store, share a comment through the platform and subsequently post an update either on the customers wall with reference to retailer’s page. Knowledge of other location applications like SCVNGR, Yelp and Around Me which allows the consumer to put a ratting and make a comment of their experience with the company is very important for the company. The strategy of social, mobile and local marketing puts the needs and experiences of their customers at the center of their business. Consumers are also striving very hard to be part of this process.

Improvements in the Social, Mobile and Local marketing.

         It is the culture of most marketers to just sell but the traditional marketing is involved with determining the benefits of a product and service in regard to its features, packaging and its presentation in the market. A new mindset of helping the consumer to understand and providing them with pertinent content that will allow them to find, buy and make use of the products and services that you offer. This will be concerned with paying a greater focus on the consumer. Scott (2015), says that marketers should put themselves in the shoes of the customers so that they can be able to identify where the experience of the customer does not match what they offer. This will enhance a mindset of growth, being inquisitive, asking of relevance questions and considering each buying step in the cycle. Putting yourself, as a marketer, in the purchase path of the consumer and diligently pursuing effective solutions will enhance contentment in a number of ways to the customers in the place of your business.



Are Generational Gains In Measure Intelligence Due More To Factors Related To (1) Heredity, (2) Environment, (3) Some Combination Of Both, Or (4) Other Phenomena?

Generational Gains In Measure Intelligence

Higher Iqs

    Rise in IQs has been explained through a study that was done by James R. Flynn in 1984. This study gave evidence on the increase of amounts of intelligence over time and was referred as Flynn Effect. In this essay I will examine generation gains in IQ in relation to heredity and environment or both environment and heredity. I will also source other phenomena that may be the cause of generation increase in intelligence.


     Heredity is perceived to be the mathematical estimate to indicate the amount of traits variation in a given population that can be ascribed to genes. The estimations about the heredity of intelligence vary according to the methods employed. Trahan et al., (2015) asserts that gains in the amount of IQ result due to increase in random mating which he referred to as heterosis. This phenomenon causes the production of change in traits governed by the inclusion of dominant and recessive alleles. The Flynn effect in the entire Europe reflects the effects that were in United States regardless of there being an evidence of less migrations to Europe prior to 1950 and few internal mating in between the natives and the immigrants since then.

Environment Factors

     The IQ of a certain generation is determined by a mixture of nature and nurture. Increase in the intelligence quotient shows how environment influences the cognitive abilities. Flynn effect is concerned with the non-g variance which is different to some cognitive capabilities. Culture and the environment that one is brought up in influences what forms of intelligence that will be taught, put on spotlights and nurtured. Increase in amount of IQ have also been associated with changes in socioenvironmental sector in the developing countries. The Flynn effect has served as a reminder that when people are given opportunities to prosper, more people will prosper. Cohen et al., (2013) says that from the time of pre-industrial revolution especially on the emphasis that was put on culture of reading, abstract reasoning, writing and scientific thinking. These environments have been advancing daily and this has also led to increase in IQ.

Environment and Heredity

     According Pietschnig and Voracek (2015), Heredity does not show to what extent does genes influence a single person’s traits. Due to this, heredity is dependent on how similar is the environment for a certain group of people. Even under high heredity, environment can influence the functioning of a trait. Studies done on adoption suggests that children who are adopted will after some time show some similarity in the IQ adopted them. heredity is very much dependent on the environment, adopted children who are brought up together show similar IQ than siblings brought up apart. Also identical twins reared in similar environment will have similar IQ than identical twins brought up in different environments.

     The Flynn effect suggests that, the IQ tests in industrialized countries has improved over time. This has been related to improved environment and not heredity. This is because the gene pool of the world cannot change in such a drastic speed.

Other Factors

     Different social multipliers have been proposed to support the Flynn effect. The factors include increase in nutrition, heterosis, increased scientific education, video games, modernization, complexity in TV Shows and many more advances in technology.

      In conclusion, technology development and environmental factors have been the key players towards today intelligence gains. These two factors have been advancing over a long period of time and their advancement has led to consequential increase in IQ.


Pietschnig, J., & Voracek, M. (2015). One century of global IQ gains: A formal meta-analysis of

     the Flynn effect (1909–2013). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(3), 282-306.

Trahan, L. H., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., & Hiscock, M. (2014). The Flynn effect: A meta-

     analysis. Psychological bulletin, 140(5), 1332.

Forouzanfar, M. H., Alexander, L., Anderson, H. R., Bachman, V. F., Biryukov, S., Brauer, M.,

    … & Cohen, A. (2015). GBD 2013 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national.

        comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and

        metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for

        the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet, 386(10010), 2287-323


Effects of Media Violence on Children

   Effects of media violence on children has been studied from time in memorial from back in 1920s to 1930s when Payne Fund did his study. During his time of study, the children had made it a habit to attend movies on regular basis without any supervision. At this time the magic bullet theory was being tossed around and due to its legacy on fear, it caused parents to question what effects would movies have to the behavior of their children. Herbert Blumer (1933) reached to a conclusion that media influence the view of the children on the surrounding world and children tend to copy the behaviors shown on media. This study laid the foundation for future studies including bandura et al.’s study of 1963 and Livingstone et al.’s study of 2014. These two studies lead to a relationship between the violence in media and the aggression in the real world.

   In 1963, Albert Bandura, Ross D., and ross S.A carried out a study on transmission of aggression through imitation of media content by children. This research was carried out in a time when there was a rapid increase in violence in society and on the media especially television. The public was much worried that these violent content that was aired on televisions would create a generation of deviant youths. Their well-known bobo doll experiment of 1965, stated that there is a “high and uniform degree of learning” from children who had access to aggressive behaviors. Their argument was that if the children accessed these ferocious behaviours through mass media or attained them through real life experiences, the observed being is absorbed no matter what.

    Bandura et al.’s study used a video of an adult playing with an inflatable doll. The children were allowed to watch as the adult kicked the doll. After watching this video, the children were put in a playroom and given the same doll and toys. As expected, the kids imitated what they saw and punched and kicked the doll. The most surprising part was that the kids invented new ways of kicking the dolls. Although they state in their study that it was not automatic for the children to attain the behaviours anytime they viewed aggressive content, many children said they could imitate them anytime they are asked to do so (Bandura et al., 1963).

   Sonia Livingstone, Giovanna Mascheroni and Elisabeth Staksrud carried a study in 2014 about the effects of media violence on children. These three researchers were from Ohio state university. They confined 8 to 12 years old children in a lab and presented them with a 20-minute section of a highly parent guidance rated movie. In these sections, the children were allowed to see either the actual footage of the movie with the use of guns while others watched a version that was edited without guns. They were then put in a room with gun toys. To their surprise, those who watched the unedited footed were more aggressive with the guns than those who watched the edited footage (Livingstone et al., 2014).

    This study was fueled by the moral panics, risk discourses and censorious policy-making that threatened the behaviours of children. The European commission took its first action plan against these behaviours. The main focus of the European commission was to review evidences, conceptual clarification and debunking of myths. They carried this study in order to illustrate the value of systematically documenting and mapping while finding information on academic and public and policy makers so as to get a better understanding of how internet impacts the lives of the children.

These two studies exhibit a lot similarity than the differences that we can see. These similarities and differences will be discussed in this essay.


Violent media causes aggression

   These two researchers have a clear conception of what they mean when they talk about media violence and aggressive behaviour. They have described and showed the violence in media translates to physical acts of aggression through human character. In the two studies it is evident that the children imitate what they see in the movies. Also it is evident from the two studies that they don’t only imitate the aggressive behaviour that they see, they advance them and even play more aggressively than what they saw.

Violent behaviours leads to aggressive behaviour.

    Violence and aggression seldomly caused by the same cause. They are as a result of many factors coupled together over a long period of time. Influence of violent media is only of the contributing behaviours that influence violence and aggression. Media content affects youthful behaviours. children who are aggressive are likely to grow up to be violent adults. The best solitary forecaster of violent behavior in older ages, young adults, and middle aged adults is the presence of aggressive behavior when they were young. Consequently, whatever that encourages aggressive behavior in young children will automatically be a factor to be considered for violent behavior in adults as well.

Moral panics and decay

   The two studies show that too much watching of violent media contents by the children corrupts their brain. Most youths who are aggressive and take part in antisocial behaviours were aggressive children and the seriously violent adolescents and adults were most probable aggressive and very violent when they were children. According to Paik and Comstock (1994), exposure to violent media, which promotes aggressive behaviours can cause to high anti-social behaviours later in many years to come.


   There are no much differences between these two studies as both leads to aggression and use of violence. The main difference between the two studies is what the children were exposed to. Madura et al.’s study exposed the children to physical assault while Livingstone et al.’s study used guns. From the two studies the kids who used guns turned out to be more aggressive than others. This means that it is whatever someone is introduced to determines the level of violence and aggression.

   In conclusion, the two studies definitely show that watching violent videos, films, cartoons, TV dramas and playing violent video games may make the observing child behave extremely aggressive towards others directly after that. This is evident from preschoolers, basic school children, high school students, college students, and adults. Huesmann and Guerra (1997) asserts that the children that access the violent clips have a tendency of behaving in a more aggressive way than those who view non-violent clips, and they accept theories that are more inclined to violence



Using Geoffrey Parker’s Western Way of War thesis, which element or elements best explain the evolution of modern war between 1648 and 1941?

Evolution of modern war between 1648 and 1941

Western Way of War


Based on history, technology, discipline and innovation are known to be one of the most successful military Campaigns by western nations. It is imperative that the norm continues, and this aspect holds in the case of US military in the US and European nations such as Britain. Geoffrey Parker states that much of his military history, the west has placed advanced their focus on superior technologies to attain an edge over the rivals[1]. Moreover, the aspect of discipline has also helped west military forces to achieve victories irrespective of having importantly smaller forces than the rivals. For instance, the war of 1812 between the US and Great Britain where there was the use of superior weaponry like the guns, artillery, and cavalry[2]. Moreover, western leaders such as Abraham Lincoln have been great leaders of classical military strategies texts which could because of their beliefs that efficient military strategies are timeless. Contrary to other non-western nations, technology and discipline have played a significant role in forming the cultures of western military department. The essay describes the western ways of war, element which best explains evolution of modern war from 1648 to 1941 and its implication to 21st century US Military.

The Western Military department were managed by principles that a decisive performance is attained through an absolute destruction of rivals which results in enemy’s unconditional surrender. The western troops didn’t fear to be ruthless and took part in a merciless war contrary to other warring societies. The aspect of discipline and focus on technology was also a focus for military forces from English nations and Europeans, two aspects that separate western military cultures from other military nations were flexibility and ability to invest in the wars. The cost of wars continued to advance through time with the introduction of new specialized weapons. Operations. For instance, the British have the Indians serving as soldiers in their regiment during wars. The western nations also acquired edge by designing a well-structured financial systems like England where funds could be attained on attractive terms to finance the war.

Based on Geoffrey, the military history of the western world, a significant focus has been placed on the superiority of technology to gain an edge over their rivals. Therefore, in regards to competition and desire to win, the western have advanced their weapons to rule over their counterparts. It is imperative that most of the success in war is attributed to their technological prowess. The United States together with other European nations felt the impact of World War 1 in 1914 since they lost a lot of soldiers[3]. The more significant impact of the war was because of the advanced technology which led to the design of sophisticated weaponry. The technological advancement in World War 1 was the improvement of a machine gun which was developed by Americans. The Germans realized the potential of the machine gun and developed air-cooled machine guns for the airplane as well as the ones used on the ground. The full potential of the weapons was shown on the battlefield when 60,000 British soldiers were killed in a single day.

The evolution of the military forces through the period 1648-1941 has led to the 21st century US military. According to Geoffrey, in explaining the phenomena of the western way of war characterized by strategies and beliefs[4]. During this period, a technological strategy was a major factor of success in the western nations mainly in Europe and the United States. Particular, because of competition, ideologies, and resources, the western nations have had more advanced weaponry compared to the non-western nations. It is imperative that much of the western world’s technology and advancements were linked to the success in war. For instance, the machine gun advancement by the Germans leading to their success over the Britain Army. Therefore, based on this advancement in technology, the US has also improved its military force strategies during a war.

Therefore, it is evident that the 21st century US military has advanced more compared to its military force in the 17th and 18th century period. For example, the evolution of the modern war has led to the design of robots used during the war in the US. The improved robots provide the potential to use effective combinations of manned and unmanned systems to conduct an increasing range of tasks such as explosive ordinances disposal, persistent surveillance, and logistic[5]. Additionally, there is much investment by the government in the present military involvement in the US which is a characteristic of the past western way of war.


The evolution of the modern war is based on factors such as technology, discipline, and innovation. The major element that has contributed to the evolution of modern war is technology. It is imperative that this has been a factor of a distinction between the one winning and one losing the war. For instance, technology leads to the design of improvised machine guns to give the soldiers the ability to win. Additionally, this has been the western way of war leading to their constant success over their rivals. It is also important to understand that the current military involvement in the US has been influenced by past strategies such as the use of technology


[1] Parker MacGregor, The Cambridge history of warfare, (Cambridge University Press; 2005), p.77.

[2] Knox M, Murray W, The Dynamics of Military Revolution, (Cambridge University Press; 2001 Aug 27), p.35

[3] Levitsky S, Way LA, Competitive authoritarianism: Hybrid regimes after the Cold War, (Cambridge University Press; 2010), p.40.

[4] Murray WR, Millett AR, Military innovation in the interwar period, (Cambridge University Press; 1998), p.67

[5] Murray WR, Millett AR, Military innovation in the interwar period, (Cambridge University Press; 1998), p.67


Reflection on Observations upon Experimental Philosophy Section 1-3 Of Humane Sense and Perception.

Observations upon Experimental Philosophy

      The experimental philosophy of humane sense and perception exhibit some discourse. It is based on the five exterior senses of human. It is interesting how these senses are ignorant of each other. No sense feels what the other sense feels. Although these senses exhibit this kind of ignorance, it is astonishing because each is perfectly knowledgeable as the other part. The tongue is as knowing as the nose. Each sense has a variety of knowledge and perceptions corresponding to the number of objects that they perceive. These senses exhibit different degrees concerning particular objects. Some people’ s perception towards taste, sight, smell, hearing or touch is quicker to some objects compared to others. This is dependent on the perfection or imperfection, curiosity or purity of the physical figurative gestures of each sense or maybe according to the appearance of each object to each sense. In this philosophy, there is a purer and subtiler aspect of human beings known as rational perception. The rational perceptive is the best informer and reformer of every sensitive perception. It is considered as the wisest and most prudent part of nature. Whereas the sensitive perception is ignorant, the rational perception supplies.

                                                    Of Art, and Experimental Philosophy

      Experimental philosophy seeks to outdo the speculative part since many experiments result from speculations. Some people think that through art they can redeem their imperfection they have caused themselves through negligence and self-indulgence, and their intentional desertion of rules of nature. Art cannot not inform us of the small parts of nature since it is infinite by itself. As seen from humane sense and perception, it is clear that human beings have two perceptions: rational and the sensitive perception, although this is the case it is also important to know that each creature or perception has some smaller perceptions embedded into it of which it doesn’t know that they exist and this causes errors in perceptions. It is believed that the errors in humane actions is caused either by narrowness of our senses, aberration of our memory or incarceration of our understanding. real, mechanical and experimental philosophy can be a good remedy to these problems since it has a lot of advantages over the discourse and disputation philosophy. The man cannot have power over nature because it is the nature that moulds the man since man is just a small part of nature and his powers are actions of nature and this means that at no time will a man have absolute power over nature.

                            Of Micrography, and of Magnifying and Multiplying Glasses.

     According to the philosophy of micrography, and of magnifying and multiplying glasses, the more we magnify the art, the more it seems to misshapen from its natural appearance. This does not mean that there is no glass that does not represent the real picture of an object, only that in magnification and multiplication at times a false picture of the exterior object is shown. objects will appear in different shapes and figures according to how they reflect and refract light and may not represent what they are in reality. This philosophy ponders those who invented the microscopes for they intoxicated the brains of a man and made their actions of the body as phenomena. It would be better if the inventor of these arts did something better to improve the human life rather than do this harm to them.

Work Cited