The Military Operational Art

The Military Operational Art

Question 1

Space, time and forces factors have been the strength of iceberg operation towards the central Pacific. The central Pacific was some 3000 miles from the shore or the base where the Army of the United States was ready to move with the orders. However, the allied decides to attack from both sides, for example, one from the highland of the central Pacific and the other from the south and southwest Pacific. According to the allied space becomes an important factor in the operation since the place of the enemy or the base was at the center as this makes the process easy and efficient. The allied decides to narrow down from the two axes to surround the enemy.

The United States of America’s army moves according to command and decides to push forward. This reason for this was to enable exert enough pressure on the enemy by pressing on both sides and narrowing on the between them and the strong Japanese holds at the center. This process enables an efficient execution process that allows pressure from both sides of the allied and the American soldiers. To take the central point of attack the United States had to take the island of Ryukyu before the long attack that lasted for almost three good years.

Question 2

Positions refer to the particular point of locations of places, for example, the Ryukyus is positioned to the southwest of Japan, northwest of Formosa and west of Benin. This describes its location based on the compass direction. However, the island is also surrounded by various physical features like the mountains and great ridges. The Okinawa Island lies at the center of the fifty arcs around it and hence makes it the center of attachment or perhaps the attractions for both the United States troops and the enemy. The army from the United States and the allies had an objective of taking the island first since it was the center of the Japanese forces and they had made it sometimes back. To defeat the Japanese, it was the idea to move them or make them surrender in one of their greatest headquarters in the area.

Bases of operation refer to the locations where the army was based in or rather the headquarters from where their commanders are and perhaps where they receive orders from. In the United States of America, the operations were from the captured based where the Japanese were based on like the island on the Japanese territories. The Captured centers of operations like the isle of Okinawa where the United States Army took and begun to develop and use the same strategy to obtain the other baselines of the Japanese. The wider the operation bases, the greater are the strength to conquer the enemies’ lines and takes over, and that is why the army from the states and other assisting army forces in taking over the troops from the enemy. When the operation bases are taken the enemy becomes weak since their gathering and place of taking orders has been taken over.

The physical objective implies to the goals that are tangible and the army can see what is happening. The military taking over the bases of operation suggests the physical objectives of the operations. The purpose of taking the island of Okinawa was to make the movement of the army comfortable since the southern part of Ishikawa is made up of hills and mountains that can aid the troops and acts as protection from attacks. The easy road from this area allows the tracks of the army to move from one place to another. The ideas are a real objective and have enabled the command successfully. Moreover, the taking over the center of Pacific is another physical objective that aided the army to become more superior that the enemy. These objectives were made by the American intelligence to make the work easy for the military.

Decisive points imply to the factors that the army should emphasize on and put a lot of effort in making some sound judgments. For a successful iceberg operation of driving out the Japanese, some series points were to be made and decided on. The first was to take over the base operation of the Japanese to paralyze their activities and this was effective when the U.S Army attacked from the front view and the other allied attacked from the axis where one came from the south and the other from the west and hence surrounding the enemy making them weak due to the effect of pressure. The other decisive point is in the decision of taking the Naha yonabaru corridor on the island of Okinawa a place with a massive territory for the defense of the troops and can assist them during the times of war. The area was blessed with some structured hills and various escarpments within its vicinity and due to the raised positions of the area, the troops can now have a wider center of Arial visibility. Due to these the army could see the enemies from a very far distance and lay an ambush for them without them noticing.

The lines of operation, the primary objective of the Americans army in the Pacific sides was to take the heart of Japan along the coast of Tokyo plain. These resulted in several lines of operations being placed to make sure that the objectives are met. These steps include the inversion of Formosa as ordered by the commander and the joint chiefs of staffs directives,these were followed by making sure that the troops were available for the process as from the beginning to the end according to the command, and the last was the announcement of the tasks force assignment to each location. These includes the process whereby the Navy forces were told to operate from this area to this area, the air-force were told to do its operations from one point to another, and the others were also given some tasks to perform for the accomplishment of the duties and roles of the army force. On the other hand, the lines of communication involved the use of letter as we saw in the article such as the letter written to the Admiral recommending him as an alternative to the invasion of the China. Apart from this incident, there are several instances where the letter was used as the means of communications and the rest. The other ways are the direct orders from the commanders of the army directing their operations efficiently and making sure that the operation is performed as required. All of these factors worked for the benefit of the iceberg activity.

Question 3

The operation objective of the iceberg was to take and seize the heart of Japan in the pacific area. This area was the center or perhaps the COG of the Japanese rule where they were conducting their operation. For this reason, the army for the iceberg operation had to make it be the first objective to destroy their centers and hence making them weak and weak as their operational centers were being taken. The allies of the United States of America task force identified the center for the Japan operation is at the Okinawa Island. They then organized there attack together making the Japanese be at the center and hence they could feel the pressure thereby making them surrender and move to other places. The victory at the Okinawa made it possible for the consecutive defeat and these shows clearly that the COG of the enemy was at Okinawa Island.

Question 4

The allies in the operations of the iceberg refer to the friends or perhaps the other army forces that were not American but joined hands with the United States forces to end the effect of the Japanese rule on the Pacific. They represent the other nations like the China and any other organizations whose objective were the same as the purpose of the Iceberg operation. These include the Admiral forces, the strategic air forces which were meant to neutralize the forces of the enemy and assist the functioning of the iceberg. This also included the land-based air forces that aided in the capturing of the Okinawa Island.

The head of an operation of the allied group was the U.S joint chief of staff and had its operation and orders given to the four forces in operation like the twentieth air force, China Theater Forces, Pacific Ocean area strength and the southwest Pacific area forces.The operational intelligence was done by the United States of America intelligence unit whose duties were to make sure that they have analyzed the places where the enemies are, and perhaps what they are capable of doing and the types of machines and weapons they are using. This information is made available by the operational intelligence who advises the army on these issues to allow the army to move to the enemy prepared. They always move ahead of the military and gather information as far as the operation is concerned.

Operational fires involve the machines that were used by the soldiers as tools of war.The number of troops set for the operation was adding up to 183,000 soldiers to perform the operation. They were divided according to divisions where the seven divisions were heavily reinforced with tank battalions, the amphibian trucks, and the tractors battalions. These instruments used against the Japanese people, they have never seen such kind of devices before, and this increased the victory to some extent as the soldiers could use the sniper guns and could aim and hit the target from a distance. On the other hand, the operation logistic roles in the operations were for the constant development of air and the naval bases in the Ryukyus assistance the further operational tasks against the Japanese troops. The other role of the logistic was for the construction of the communication centers, the hospitals, roads and other social amenities in the areas of operation.