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Job analysis: Importance and Purpose

Job analysis is the process of collecting and recording data related to skills and knowledge required when performing certain jobs, responsibilities, and jobs involved.

Importance of job analysis

Job analysis gathers education qualifications, experience, emotional characteristics, and physical characteristics needed to perform jobs effectively. Job analysis collects information that will match employees and their jobs. The process assess the performance of an employee, determines the value of particular tasks, and analyzes training procedures and development needed for employee to deliver in certain jobs. Job analyses collects the location of the job, department, division, compensation grade, routine tasks, communication and physical skills, duties involved in the job, the structure of reporting to the job, MIS activities, ability of the employees to adapt to their work environments, licenses and certifications required and the ability to grow and close sales. It outlines methods of handling clients, subordinates, superiors, and personal presentation (Quirin, 2001).

Purpose of job analysis

According to Quirin (2001), job analysis is important in recruitment and selection, job designing, job evaluation, deciding compensation and benefit packages, performance appraisal, analyzing training and development needs, assessing the worth of a job and increasing personnel and organizational productivity.

Recruitment and selection

Job analysis determines attributes of people required to perform specific jobs. It lists various qualifications, experience level, technical skills, emotional and personal skills needed to perform the job in the desired fashion. Job analysis fits the right person with the right job and in the appropriate department. Job analysis process determines job duties included when advertising for vacant positions. It determines appropriate levels of salary and the position for each salary range. Minimum requirements in each position are determined such as experience and levels of education. Proper job analysis determines questions asked during the interview, selection tests and instruments, evaluation forms and orientation materials for new applicants (Quirin, 2001).

Performance analysis

Jobs analysis checks whether objectives and goals of particular jobs are met. It decides upon performance standards, individual output, and evaluation criteria. Job analysis measures the performance of each employee and appraises him or her accordingly.

Training and development

Job analysis assesses the materials required when developing and training each employee according to their needs. It measures the difference between expected and actual output to affect appropriate training to each employee. Job analysis decides on training content required, equipment needed andtools to conduct training among employees. It determines appropriate methods of training small groups and big groups. It determines assessment tests that measure effectiveness, and whether to use computers, videos or classrooms for training (Society for human resource management, 2014).

Compensation management

Job analyses determines pay packages, extra perks, benefits, fixed and variable incentives awarded to each employee. The pay packages varies according to job position, title, duties, and responsibilities of the job. HR managers use job analyses as a guide to decide worth of each employee when positioning each employee.

Job analysis helps determine the level of skills, working environment (physical effort, attention, and hazards involved), responsibilities, and levels of education.

Job designing and redesigning

Job analysis streamlines human efforts to attain best output from each employee. It designs, redesigns, evaluates and cuts back or adds responsibilities. Job analysis enhances the satisfaction of employees. Job analysis fits the right talents at the appropriate place and time (Society for human resource management, 2014).

Principles of job analysis

Duties and responsibilities follow a logical order, stated clearly and concisely. The words should be limited. Specific details show the kind of work, complexities, and required skills. HR use action words such as analyze and gather. Updating and changing job descriptions according to the dynamic environment and health care agency. Periodic audits of all jobs are scheduled when updating job descriptions (Society for human resource management, 2014).

Methods of job analysis

Interview methods

Unstructured interview

HR persons interview unprepared persons in predetermined line of investigation. The interviewer explains the purpose of the study and the focus of the interview. The interviewer asks questions on the work done as they take notes. Responses and questions depends on roles and structure of the questions. Information is collected according to areas of exploration and depth of information required. Unstructured interviews contain free questions and responses. The interviewer listens, asks for clarification, and reflects on gathered information to perform an analysis.

Structured interviews

Structured interviews assume formats such as charts of activities done by an employee, or a questionnaire. Notes and records are taken for analysis. Structured interviews are best when assessing job performance and staff appraisal because employee rate tasks they perform in their jobs in the questionnaire.

Interviews are good methods of generating descriptive data, which enable jobholders to interpret certain activities. They discuss sensitive areas in depth.

Expert panels

Various experts sourced from different departments give dependable information’s in relation to certain job. The panel is interviewed and their opinions analyze various jobs correctly.

Expert panels and unstructured interviews are best to perform a job analysis. The attached questionnaire guides the interviewer on information to gather. Expert panels provide information guided by the questionnaire.

Activity 3

Write a follow-up report to the head of department that lists your job analysis activities Job analysis activities

Job analysis activities includes examining activities done in particular jobs within an organization. Interviewers ask questions on tasks, competencies, roles of the job, knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform in certain jobs. The interviewer asks conditions required to perform certain activities (Society for human resource management, 2014).

Findings

The findings from a group of 100 respondents indicate that 96% had efficient knowledge, 95% was well equipped with skills, 92% had abilities to perform the job, and 90% were aware of tasks to perform. From the job analysis, methods such as interviews and observation proved the best when compared to structured questionnaires. Interviews demonstrated 50% effectiveness; observations showed 33% effectiveness and structured questionnaires showed 27% effectiveness (Society for human resource management, 2014).

Recommendations of what should be included in the job analysis in the job description the head of department is writing

Inclusions in the job analysis

A job analysis includes the elements of a job, the tasks performed, the duties involved, position held, type of job, job family, occupation, and career.

Inclusions in a job description

A job description must have the title of the job, main duties performed contribution of the role to the business, location of the work, remuneration, and a description of the business. Pay grades, reporting relationships such as hours and shifts and the presence of overtime. Qualifications for the position such as levels of education, training, experience, and necessary technical skills for entry in the job are listed. Extraordinary conditions required in the job are listed such as heavy lifting and prolonged standing (Society for human resource management, 2014).

References

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1st Journal Entry: Circular Tourism Proposal And How We Struggle Through It

Circular Tourism Proposal

In our case, we  concentrated on circular tourism. It was not an easy task since it is a new form of tourism. We had to concentrate on internet research since it is not available in our books. It was costly to obtain enough information online that fully describes circular tourism. Our research arrived to a definition that circular tourism creates a circular economy. Resources are recycled, recovered within an economic development model to achieve low consumption, emission, and high production efficiency. We found out that circular tourism strengthens recycling resources through marketing, training, developing, designing products, and enterprise management.

Circular tourism ensures improvement of the environment, social, internal and regional cycling. In addition, there is green tourism consumption, green attractions, transport, hotels, and green entertainment. There is efficient use of resources, eco-friendly environment, and a reasonable bearer for visitors. It makes use of clean energy, reduces noise pollution, consumes low energy, produces clean goods and control pollution. It recycles supplies and offers eco-tourism commodities, recyclable shopping bags, entertainment, and rations use of resources. It aims at collecting waste, using and reusing it.

Circular tourism is a new concept applied in tourism activities to produce a circular economy. The aim is to produce a virtuous circle, which produces services and goods with minimal waste of limited resources such as raw materials, energy, and water. In Circular tourism adventure the traveler, supplier, tour operator and the host adopt an approach that is eco-friendly. It is attentive to the impact on the environment and sustainability is ensured. Non-renewable sources of energy are consumed with minimal waste.

Merits of choosing circular tourism

The proposal chose circular tourism to establish a virtuous circle which permits travelers  to be responsible at all stages during the stay and as they prepare for the trip. The nature of tourism will involve a proposal of sustainable tourism offer from professionals in the industry, making the right choices, bookings and planning a stay in sustainable way. A soft transport arrives at the destination.

Responsible places of living are selected among chosen institutions and  local consumption where eco-actions such as sorting waste are adopted. Feedback is availed to professionals and tourists to enhance sustainable tourism offer. Circular tourism aims at linking tourism to tourist villages to increase their value and change activities based on tourism such as wildlife, farming activities, art, culture, harvesting seasons and religions.

2nd Journal entry: Circular Tourism between Norway and Singapore

As a team, we had a difficult time establishing the practice of circular tourism between Norway and Singapore. However, we researched through the internet and primary sources such as books thatNorway is among the countries that attracts most tourists in the world because of its famous amazing scenery. Fjords are located in the west. Their narrow inlets with flanks in the sides and a tall mountain penetrate by the sea in the far inland. Most of the land is rocky resembling a wilderness. The vast land is highly unpopulated thus converted to national parks. The Gulf Stream invites a friendly climate in Norway. The North Cape is a cliff 307 meters high where tourists enjoy watching more than two million birds, deep sea with rafting nature especially at night. The Geirangerfjord is a heritage with waterfalls hitting both sides of the waterway. Activities such as fishing, hiking, kayaks, and riding boats are common. Oslo is the capital city in Norway. It has national museums, cultural scene, and beautiful setting. Vigeland Park in Oslo is `the most visited place with over one million tourists each year. It is famous for its Gustav Vigeland life work, Norwegian sculptor, displays such as bronze, and Monolitten in one white granite. Trondheim town has historic buildings and old heritage located in the city center. Other activities include culture, art, and music and student life.

Tourist attraction sites in Singapore

As a team we found various sites in Singapore including Singapore Zoo, Merlion Park, Jurong bird park, Singapore Flyer, Duck tour, and Singapore night safari. Singapore History museum and Sensota Island together with Thian Hock Keng temple and the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple are attractive sites for tourism. The Helix Bridge, Sri Thendayuthapani temple is among top monuments. Circular tourism between Norway and Singapore is enhanced by co-funding which has improved Agent Desktop Technology and operations optimization project. The upgraded new open source VOIP telephony system, a wholesale system is customized and availability of cloud welfare system integrates into the local and regional sub agents. Moreover, updates on travel agent and tourist guides avail curate tours and networking assist in circular tourism. Circular tourism in Norway permits tourists to visit Trysil whose nature is not spoilt. It offers holiday spots in Europe.

Roros is a traditional town and a sustainable destination in the modern community. It includes people working and living in the middle of UNESCO world Heritage site. UNESCO protects Vega Islands and considers it among undiscovered island gems. Laerdal contains dramatic mountaintops, preserved stave church, and unique wooden houses. Geilo is located between Bergen and Oslo cities. It lies at the foot of two national parks offering outdoor activities round the year. Svalbard Islands in the Arctic Ocean features arctic wilderness and unique wildlife in a rugged and fragile setting. Setesdal and golden road are considered for circular tourism.

Leading destinations

In Norway there are four pilot tourism destinations representing development in tourism in terms of different sizes, products, markets giving good Norwegian picture. The sustainable pilot destinations for tourism include Vega, a harsh living settlement on archipelago having more than 6500 islands near Arctic Circle. Trysil is a large ski resort in Norway that offers sporting opportunities and offering energy resources in the area. Laerdal town and Fjord offers tourism activities for visitors. A nearby flowing Salmon River and hiking trails offers spectacular architecture. Roros mining town has oldest wooden settlements including houses. It has unique culture, atmosphere, and local cuisine. Norway circular tourism aims at availing environmental waste disposal and policy, local food, product development, host and knowledge training among others.

Norway and Singapore has adopted ecotourism that involves responsible travel to natural areas that conserve the environment and ones that improve people’s welfare. Geotourism sustains and enhances geographical character in Norway such as the heritage, culture and aesthetics to improve the well-being of the residents. Pro-poor tourism increases net benefits for the poor people. Responsible tourism maximizes benefits of local communities and minimizes negative environmental and social impacts. Local people are assisted to conserve fragile culture, species, and habitats. Sustainable tourism in Norway and Singapore accounts for future and current economic, environmental, and social impacts. It addresses needs of the visitors, environment, and host communities. Certifications and eco-labels include lists of items to be filled to be certified by the inspector.

Sustainable tourism in Singapore includes visiting areas such as Marina Barrage that has transformed the downtown city in Singapore to the largest reservoir in urban city. The sustainable gallery in the dam is sustainable for touring. Natural reserves such as Bukit Timah nature reserve is a primary rainforest situated within the city. Sungei Buloh Wetland reserve is a mangrove forest protecting huge numbers of migrating birds. Singapore zoo focuses on native wildlife that fits in the warmer climate.

3rd Journal entry: Preparing for upcoming presentation along a busy schedule

As a team we suffered the problem of procrastination. We had not prepared for the presentations until the time of handing out other assignments. It was very tricky since we had to prepare at night since it was the only available time. Preparations for an upcoming presentation are necessary although there exists a busy schedule. We thought of arranging the presentation in steps to ease the work. The first step involves identifying what one is passionate about to help grasp the main subject and make the words flow. Second step involves identifying the audience who are going to listen to the speech. The speech should persuade them. Realizing their interests will help construct useful information that will delivered easily. Third step is to outline your presentation. Outlining will single out major points of discussion. Example of an outline includes a story opener, explanation, and relevance to e presentation. Introduction of topics including storytelling, simplistic design, and passion are third stage. Thesis statement is included. Main ideas include storytelling, simplistic design, and passion. The last part includes the conclusion. The last part includes presentation of the script.

4th Journal entry: Fourth week is when we struggle to complete the ppt presentation for the assignment

As a group, we encountered various challenges in the completion of the ppt presentation for the assignment. We carried on various researches through the web to get accurate dimensions for a standard ppt. our efforts achieved various dimensions. The minimum size was 18 including times new roman as a font. We avoided blocks of texts and onscreen information. Bold was used to highlight points having lower case and upper case letters. Light background was followed with dark text in bright rooms.

Coordinating reading and talking points in the visual presentation was marked with numbers in each slide. We made sure that we pointed the materials in the ppt to avoid confusing the listeners. Shortening the written parts proved difficult since it involved cutting some words. However, it was important to shorten the work into summaries to deliver the points. We had to ensure a large font size for each member to read and combined it with best colors to view details carefully.

Spell checking was tedious although very important to eliminate errors of typology for the audience and viewers. We had to choose images to use, graphs and visuals for displaying best message. The team chose less visual graphics at the background of the slides to avoid distracting the audience. The visuals were consistent in all presentations to indicate professionalism. The later harder part was to practice on how to present the information to familiarize with the points for discussion.

5th Journal entry: Fifth week is when we do the presentation but there was many critics by judge’s panel

The judge’s panel criticized our presentation on basis of lacking proper sequence structure having introduction, body, and summary. The panel argued that a logical sequence is used to present points. They explained that our introduction was poor and that it did not wholly catch the attention of the speaker. They argued that there should be proper coordination between the visual aids and the message. The panel explained that the team did not show confidence and friendly nature to the audience which exhibit enthusiasm and interest. Maintaining a good posture and eye contact is important for the audience to gain clarity and be attentive to the point. The panel explained that the team should have been more explicit and expressive. The judges explained that our presentation failed to motivate the audience and had a confusing structure. There were gaps in logic contributing to poor delivery and design of slides. We failed to prepare three documents and handouts for the three of us.

6th Journal entry: Sixth week we were doing our posters and working through final report.

However, for the moment we focused on the poster construction

We mounted our poster on a board sized 36 by 48 inch using power point landscape. On the poster we included graphs, figures, and texts to describe our work. The heading of the poster includes the title and name. The title is typed in 72 point and name of students and sponsor typed at 48 point typed. The poster also included objectives, purpose of the research, methodology, results, and conclusions. Posters contained large font for audiences 3-4 feet away. They appealed in their visual appearance, avoided fancy fonts and extreme colors.

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How did foreign countries aid Fidel Castros rise, and consolidation of power?

Fidel Castros rise

Fidel Castro rose to power after his failed attempt to overthrow Cuba’s Dictator General Fulgencio Batista who undermined and violated the constitution of Cuba. Batista was the first president of Cuba and elected following new constitution. Political parties and a coalition as well as communists supported Batista. He took office in 1940 (Castro, 2007). Fidel formed a loose revolutionary organization comprising over 200 students. They bought weapons, short guns, caliber semi-automatic rifles from armories. They trained and planned to raid Monacada Garrisons as the major target.

The attack in Moncada Barracks occurred on 26 July 1953 and failed leading to attacks of most rebels who were killed, imprisoned, tortured, and captured. Fidel Castro was sentenced to 15 years in prison while Raul Castro was sentenced for 13 years. Fidel army was inexperienced and never understood the layout of the Santiago streets (James, 2016). Their reconnaissance was poor. However, the two only served for two years because they were Catholic Church members and Batista asked for their release. They were put to exile in Mexico. In exile, Castro joined with Cienfuegos and Che Guevara to form Granma crew, which was a yacht to sail to Cuba in December 1956 (Sweig, 2009).

It was the beginning of M-26-7 named after the dates when they experienced a failed attack in Mancada Barracks. After the landing of the crew carrying more than one hundred people, only less than twenty remained after the rest had been diminished. The dates and location of landing for Granma were already off leading to a throw of their meeting with llano (urban guerrilla) rebellion section. The surviving warriors retreated into Sierra Maestra making it their headquarters. Their battles with Cuban army, Castro Forces took the country (Rico, 2016). Batista fled in January 1, 1959 and fulfilled Castro’s promise of having the country by 1959.

Afterwards Castro set his revolutionary government, which incorporated sierra (mountain guerrilla) forces as the top government and became the head until February 2008. His relations with the Soviet Union dominated Castro’s rule during the cold War. His close relations with USSR led to adoption of hardline ideology of Marxist-Leninist, which was a response to United States actions to eliminate its trade with Cuba. Embargo, which was a trade between Cuba and US leaders, forced Cuba close to communism and USSR because the nation had a desperate need to get a trade partner (Logan, 2015). United States never supported the Embargo with OAS, EU, international organizations, and other countries.

Castro managed to rise to power after organizing and winning small battles against rural Guard patrols. Castro planned to attack men the men from in front and at the center and then ambush them as they began retreating (Deshazo, Forman, and McLean, 2009). However, Batista fought back by snuffing the uprising with a massive offensive, air force bombers, and naval offshore units. The Guerrillas raised a counter attack wrestling control from Batista on January 1; 1959.Castro took over as prime minister one week later. Revolutionary tribunals began executing members in the old regime because of their alleged war crimes.

Castrol’s Rule

Castro began ruling by nationalizing business owned by U.S. citizens such as oil refineries, casinos, and factories. United States was thus prompted to end diplomatic relations and impose a trade embargo. Cuban exiles approximate of 1400 trained through CIA funding stopped at Pigs bay with an aim of overthrowing Castro. More than one hundred were killed while the rest were captured. Castro publicly declared himself as a Marxist-Leninist in late 1961. Cuba was heavily dependent on the Soviet Union for military and economic support. Castro fought legal discrimination and installed electricity in the country (Suri, 2013).

He provided full education, health care, built new schools, medical facilities, and closed opposing newspapers. He jailed many political opponents, limited land ownership, abolished all privately owned businesses. Castro presided over consumer goods and housing (Mitchell Orenstein, 2012). Castro supplied finances and military to various Guerrilla movements in Latin America and Africa from 1960 to 1980s. Although the economy of Cuba collapsed in early 1990s, Castro identified new partners of trade who helped him cling to power.

Consolidation of power

Castro was sworn in as Prime minister of Cuba in February 16, 1959.The process was followed by a visit to the U.S. to Richard Nixon the vice president. Castro visited Canada, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. Castro attended an economic conference in Buenos Aires, and proposed a $30 billion Marshall Plan funded by U.S. for Latin America. Fidel Castro signed the First Agrarian Reform into law in May 1959. He set a landholding cap to 993 acres in single owners and prohibited foreigners from obtaining Cuban land ownership. Castro appointed himself as the president of National Tourist industry and introduced measures of encouraging tourism visits between African-American (Logan, 2015). The act advertised Cuba as a country free of racial discrimination. The payments for politicians and judges were reduced while payments for civil servants were raised.

Rents for persons paid for less than $100 each month were halved. Castro appointed Marxist in the senior government and allocated them senior military positions. Castro announced to resign as a prime minister blaming a complication of his government by Urrutia. However, more than 500,000 supporters of Castro demanded Urrutia to resign. After his resignation, Castro assumed office and Marxist Osvaldo Dorticos was appointed the president (Bax and Mieu, 2016).

The government of Castro lay special emphasis on social projects, which would improve Cuba way of living. Education program introduced led to opening of more classrooms and productive activities. There was nationalization of health care and expansion to rural areas (Prevost, 2012). Infrastructure was developed with roads more than 600 miles constructed across the island. More than $300 million was dedicated to water and projects of sanitation. More than 800 houses were constructed each month to reduce homelessness. Day-care centers were opened to assists children while centers were built for the disabled and elderly. Radios and television were used to dialogue with people as well as making provocative statements (Boline, 2015). Castro’s regime became popular with students, workers, and peasants. The middle class, engineers and doctors were major opposes. Together with doctors, they migrated to Florida in U.S. causing a brain drain of the economy. Moreover, there was a decline of productivity and financial reserves.

Cold war raged between United States and the soviet union USSR that was ruled by a communist party. Castro established relations with Marxists-Leninist states to express USSR ideas. The meeting with Soviet First deputy premier Anastas Mikoyan led to provision of hides, sugar, fruits, and fibers to USSR from Castro. Cuba gave an order to US refineries controlled by Esso, Shell and standard oil to process Soviet oil, which was declined under U.S. pressure (North, 2016).

Castro nationalized the refineries, which led to cancellation of importing Cuban sugar import. A French vessel, the Le Coubre, located in Havana harbor in 1960 was exploded, straining the relationship between Cuba and U.S. the ship had carried weapons bought from Belgium. Castro feared a Coup from U.S. in Cuba in 1959.he spent more than $120 million on Soviet, Belgian and French weaponry, and increased armed forces in Cuba twice. Castro’s government trained more. Than 50,000 civilians using combat techniques and formed military arming citizens for the upcoming revolution (Gomez, 2016).

A defense revolution committee was created to implement spying neighborhood and detect counter-revolutionary activities. It also organized education campaigns and health. The new administration proclaimed by Castro was declared a direct democracy for Cubans to assemble their demonstrations that would express democracy (A &E Television networks, 2017).The U.S. Secretary of state announced Cuba as a country adopting the soviet model of rule. A government that controlled the trade unions, one-party state, one that suppressed civil liberties and absent from press and speech (Gonzalez and McCarthy, 2004)..

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“Dirty Work: How Hygiene and Xenophobia Marginalized American Trade wastes, 1870-1930.”

How Hygiene and Xenophobia Marginalized American Trade wastes. Article Critique/Primary Source Analysis/Video Documentaries

The assignment is a critique essay that will take into account two journal articles, four primary source analysis and lastly two video documentaries.

Journal article one

Author

Carl Zimring

Journal Title

“Dirty Work: How Hygiene and Xenophobia Marginalized American Trade wastes, 1870-1930.”

Statement of The Problem

Waste recycling has been of great significant in the United States for decades which has seen the establishment of several waste industries. However, the current research states that the Americans perception towards the industries and individuals handling these wastes have changed and even terming the job as immoral. Therefore, making the work be termed as for those who are both culturally and economically marginalized.

Comments: The problem statement does agree with the title of the journal article. The statement of the problem to some extent is not visible the reader and required an in-depth reading and analysis to establish what the author expected for his audience. 

The Author’s Purpose

Carl Zimring brings it clear on the aspect of waste management and how the Americans have developed different perceptions on waste recycle that has been associated with economically and culturally marginalized citizens. The aim of the article is to bring out the significance of the respective industries and those handling wastes and refuse the aspect of being morally degraded.

Hypothesis

The journal did bring forth the hypothesis on how scrap industries have risen to be termed as ‘Dirty’ industry, and scrap as a public nuisance.

Comments: The hypothesis and purpose were clearly stated and agreed with the title. The purpose was limited to the researchers’ capabilities.   

Methodology

Carl Zimring has used a theoretical analysis method to explain how hygiene and Xenophobia have marginalized Americans. The method clearly demonstrates the author’s views on the scrap industry which was adequate.

Summary

There was no summary given by the author

Conclusion

The conclusion was based on the theoretical findings as well as analysis of the situation in the United States as brought forth by Carl Zimring. 

Journal Article Two

Author

Richard White

Journal Title

“Information, Markets, and Corruption Transcontinental Railroads in the Gilded Age”

Statement of The Problem

Corruption has been eating into the economy of any given country. The author that is Richard White brings into light how corruption has become prevalent in America’s gilded age, and that is in the 18th century during which the United States’ economy and population grew very fast.

Comments: The problem statement did agree with the title of the journal.

Author’s Purpose

The author aimed to bring to light how the America’s Gilded Age was occupied by a lot of corporate financial and political corruption, where the rich people as compared to the poor lived a fancy lifestyle. Additionally, the author is purposed to show how that corruption started in the early ages.

Hypothesis

The author made a hypothesis on how corruption was prevalent in America’s Gilded Age that was triggered by political as well as financial misleading.

Comments: The purpose concisely and clearly agreed with the title and was limited to researchers’ capabilities.

Methodology

Richard White did use a theoretical approach towards gathering information on corruption in America’s Gilded Age.

Comments: The approach was of great significance in that the author was in a position of collecting and providing logical information on the situation.

Summary

The author did not give any summary

Conclusion

There was no conclusion given

Primary Source Analysis

Source one:

“Black Codes”

Physical Nature:

The source is an actual writing on the Southern “Black Codes” of 1856-66.

Author:

Theodore Brantner Wilson in the year 1965

Purpose of the Source

The author’s message explicitly brings forth the historical background as well as consequences of the discriminatory regulations and laws that were used after the civil war between 1865-66. 

Source two:

“Gospel of Wealth” (1889)

Physical Nature:

A Collection of public domain, as well as copy, permitted texts

Author:

Andrew Carnegie

The Purpose of Source:

The author intended to resolve the contradictions between the creation of wealth, which according to him proceeded from some immutable social laws.

Andrew Carnegie did utilize various historical background to get the attention of his audience right. The message which is bound on the Gospel of wealth gets across to every audience, in that the author shows explicitly how the current age has a problem when it comes to the wealth administration. By going through the article, one gets the reason as to how the contrast between the millionaire and the laborer measures the difference based on civilization. 

Source Three:

Bryan, “Cross of Gold Speech” (1896)

Physical Nature:

The article is a speech

Author:

William Jennings Bryan

Purpose:

The major objective of the speech was to advocate for bimetallism, in that as a result of Coinage Act of 1873. The United States did abandon its bimetallism policies.

The speaker that is William Jennings Bryan was not happy with the aspect adopting a de facto gold standard in the United States. The speaker did bring into consideration the reasons as to why the nation needed to standardize the value of the dollar to silver from the monometallic gold standard.

By reading the speech, one gets the essence of why America needed to abandon the monometallic gold standard and adopt the bimetallic policies. In that, the silver bimetallism policies would result in more gain to the citizens especially the farmers and other debtors would be in a position of paying off their debts.

Source Four:

Steffens, “Shame of the Cities” (1904)

Physical Nature:

“Shame of the Cities” is a book published in the year 1904, which is a collection of articles.

Author:

Lincoln Steffens

Purpose:

The book gives a report on the corrupt political machines in various cities of the United States, along with fewer efforts to address them.

By going through the book which is a collection of magazines, the audience gets much on how the authorities, as well as the political machines, were corrupt and ignorant of their deals. It did eat much into the United States economy to a greater extent since there was no transparency and accountability.

Video Documentaries

Mark Twain

Major Ideas in The Documentary

In the documentary, which is a Claymation film, the author brings to light the idea of being displeased with the state of humanity surrounding him.

Strengths and Weaknesses

Among the strengths are that the author that is Mark Twain achieves his objectives that are expressing the reasons as to why he was displeased with the humanity state. The weakness of the documentary is that it gives incredible facts on the state of humankind.

The historical idea in the documentary

The historical idea is the point he decides to set off in a hot-air balloon to his destiny

Prince of Steel

Major Ideas in The Documentary

The main idea of the documentary is an immigrant rising to being among the world’s richest people and a philanthropist legend.

Strengths and Weaknesses

The documentary explicitly brings into account the legacy and life of the immigrant into a more realistic story. Additionally, the weakness of the literature is that it is limited to a specific audience.

Important Historical Ideas

The historical ideas in the documentary are how the immigrant became a legendary philanthropist and the richest among the world’s richest people. It is through hard work and sacrifices along with humiliation that the immigrant managed how ways to the top.

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‘Subsidiarity And Proportionality As They Apply To EU Action Are Failed Doctrines. Neither Does Anything To Prevent The Pernicious, Creeping Competence Of The EU.’ To What Extent Does This Statement Represent An Accurate Portrayal Of The Limits On EU Law Making?

Subsidiarity And Proportionality As They Apply To EU Action Are Failed Doctrines

EU Actions

The aim of EU is to promote peace and values that ensure well-being of people.it is responsible of maximizing freedom of its citizens, justice that is void of internal frontiers and security. It ensures free movement of its people maintain respect of external borders, immigration, asylum and preventing as well as combating crime (Treaty on European union,2016).The EU is responsible of establishing internal market to sustain development in Europe. It must maintain a balance in economic growth and ensure stability of prices. The union should establish competition of social market economy to achieve full employment and progress socially. It must protect its people and improve their environment quality. It is its responsibility to promote technology and science. The union promotes territorial cohesion, socially and economically to ensure solidarity of member states (Treaty of Lisbon, 2007). It has a responsibility to protect its diversity in language and culture and safeguard cultural heritage in Europe. It must combat discrimination, social exclusion and promote equality of women and men. It stresses on solidarity. It must pursue set objectives appropriately in line with competencies conferred to it by the treaty.

Proportionality Principle

Proportionality principle in the European Union regulates its powers. It aims at limiting actions defined by EU institutions. The proportionality principle limits EU actions towards achieving treaty objectives. In addition, the form and content of actions must align with the pursued aim (Treaty on the European Union, 2007).

The article 5 of the European Union treaty lays down proportionality principle and sets criteria to apply it in protocol 2. Proportionality and subsidiary principle outlines all things done by EU and quotes areas that it does not have exclusive competence right. The principles thus limits involvement of EU in state matters not concerned to it. The Union acts within competency limits conferred to it by member states in treaty to achieve set objectives. Competencies not outlined by the union of treaties remain with member states. The proportionality principle of EU states that if EU is required to achieve certain treaty objectives, the European institutions to determine the need for legislative action must first examine them (European law monitor, 2016).

The European institutions determine other means needed to attain sufficiency such as encouragement, cooperation of member states through recommendation, financial support, and inducements to assume action through having a resolution. The union has various steps to follow to comply with proportionality principle. It should be very simple and display consistency to achieve objectives satisfactorily. It must legislate to the required lengths adhering to directions instead of regulations. It must create frameworks of directions instead of having details in their measures. It must provide many details to nation decisions (HM Government, 2014). It must respect national arrangements and honor the working of legal systems of member states. EU must ensure that it avoids imposing on regional, local authorities and nations.

Subsidiarity principle

The principle of subsidiarity states that the union acts on conditions that set objectives of proposed action are not achievable sufficiently, by member states at local, regional, and national level, and achieved best at union level. The principle explains that EU must exercise cooperation in multi-level governance in various levels of power. Actions done by the union must not exceed what the set objectives by the treaty can achieve. Article 352 of the treaty comments on the functioning of the EU enabling the council to act unanimously on proposals from commission after it has attained the European parliament consent. The EU enables the council to adopt necessary measures required to achieve common objectives without power. It must exclude objectives from security policy and foreign policy (HM Government, 2014).

The limits on EU law making

The limits on EU law making on article five of European law, indicate that competencies of EU are governed by conferral principle governs EU competencies, proportionality and subsidiarity principle governs union competencies. The conferral principal states limitations of union actions originate from competencies assigned to it by its member states. The treaties indicate member states that achieve set objectives (Treaty of Lisbon, 2008). The competencies not conferred in the Union and treaties stay with member states. The subsidiarty principle limits the EU actions to act only when member states cannot achieve set objectives efficiently and best achieved at the Union level. The proportionality principle limits the EU to function only when it is necessary to achieve treaty objectives. The union institutions shall use proportionality principle as outlined in the protocol when applying proportionality and subsidiary principle.

Competencies of the union

Competencies of the union in article three and four of European Union indicate that the EU is supposed to be exclusively competent in custom union, establishment of competition rules to ensure functioning of internal markets (Keystone, 2011). It shall be competent in monetary policy and when concluding internal agreement. Such cases include when conclusion is availed in legislative union acts necessary to enable exercising of the union. Article 4 continues with shared competency in member states in internal markets, social policy, social, economic, and territorial cohesion, fisheries and agriculture as well as conservation of marine resources (The treaty on the functioning of the European Union, 2008). It shall be competent in the environment, energy, transport, and trans-European networks.

Application of the subsidiarity principle

Subsidiarity principle applies to EU institutions and is important when carrying out legislative procedures. The principal monitors compliance and strengthens roles assigned to committees in the region (Fact Sheets on the European Union, 2016). The principle is useful while issuing early warnings. According to ex-ante early warnings, the national parliament and its chambers have eight weeks from forwarding of draft legislative acts to sending it to presidents in European parliaments. However, the council and the commission may give opinions for reporting that the draft does not comply with subsidiary principle. If one-third votes represent reasoned opinions, the draft is up for review. The institution producing the draft have the option of deciding whether to withdraw it, amend, or maintain it (European Union law, 2015).

Draft acts associated with freedom, justice and security have lower threshold, if it coincides with original content of ordinary legislative procedures, voters form the majority, challenge the compliance of the proposal when taking a legislative act. In cases when legislator detects incompatibility of the proposal to the subsidiary principle, he has a right to reject it subject to the majority (55%) of council members contributing majority of the votes in European parliament (orange card). The first yellow card to commission proposal dealt with exercise of taking collective action within freedom context and its establishment to service providers. Among 40 national parliament members, 12 rendered the content of the proposal not consistent with the subsidiarity principle. As a result, the commission withdrew the proposal.

Application of proportionality principle

The proportionality principle exercised in the international handelsgesellschaft case occurred in 1970. It was in the context of common agricultural policy (CAP) the fundamental rights in EU principles. The Cassis de Dijon Case (1979) the court commented that contents in alcohol and spirits were disproportionate and imposed by German law. The EU law demanded informing consumers through labels the proportionality principle dealt with invocation of state member of exception to EU law. The Cassis de Dijon case links to mutual recognition principle introduction, which inspired the drive in internal market. It relates to overriding reasons of public interest (Zorgautoriteit, 2013).

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Explain The Vision Of Harlem And The Vision Of Los Angeles From The The Novel Real Cool Killers And The Long Good Bye From Crime Novels American Noir Of The 1950s

The Vision Of Harlem And The Vision Of Los Angeles

The real cool killers discusses every day criminal activities involving killing using knives. Most people aim at killing Galen, A Greek with much money and likes black young girls. The long good bye discusses effects of being drunkard such as suicide committed by Roger Wade and domestic violence with evidences from Eileen accusations of killing her husband.

Harlem hospital center and Los Angeles medical center practices their vision of offering quality healthcare services to the sick, drunkards, and crime-affected individuals in the region.

Harlem Hospital center

Harlem hospital center is one of the members of New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation. It is a designed level 1 trauma center and Area wide burn center. It treats people with serious ailments in the community, and has the finest trauma teams. Its urgent care center has effected treatment by reducing waiting time. Specialized care is offered in level one emergency department, special Asthma treatment, and pediatric emergency units. The burn unit offers expertise in plastic and reconstructive surgery to prevent hypertrophic scarring that is unique to the minor community. It specializes in plastic and reconstructive surgery. It is also a heart care center in the American Heart association. It is affiliated with college of physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University. It engages in innovative programs including being a specialist in asthma. It is a referral center for tuberculosis (The city of New York 1).

It provides services for outpatient, inpatient admissions, and emergency department visits. It is acts as a nursing school and offers physician assistant program. Harlem Hospital Center is a health center cooperating with New York City. It has been affiliated with Columbia University College of physicians and surgeons since 1962. It has integrated with outstanding medical schools in New York to provide high quality medical care to the community. It has supported experience of medical students, training residents and physician assistants (The City of New York 2).

The vision

Harlem hospital has a vision of providing quality care that is competent and sensitive to culture and one that will be compassionate to the community. The quality care should be provided in a safe environment regardless of religion, ability to pay, nationality, and ethnicity (The city of New York 2).

Harlem Cancer control center

Harlem hospital meets its vision of benefiting members of the community by providing special medical and surgical quality health care to people who are economically disadvantaged. It is a vital force to economic, social, and political community. Cancer program offers high quality, advanced technical diagnosis center and treatment of modalities. The cancer program has received accreditation from commission of cancer of the American College of surgeons. The cancer committee registers cancer activities, and services. Harlem cancer control center (CCCH) assists in decreasing patient follow-ups. CCCH performs activities such as early detection, screening promotion programs, diagnostic, cancer treatment, programs involving patient navigation, early rehabilitation and various research protocols. The CCCH identifies and tracks patients having malignancies, colorectal screening, prostate cancer screening, and education. It acts as a leader towards development of the first state involving cancer control plan. It offers excellent cancer care to parents and offers early diagnostic facilities. It detects breast cancer, cervical cancer, colon, and prostate cancer. The patients receive adequate surgical care after initial assessment, adjuvant radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and other forms of supportive care. Moreover, efforts are made to attract patients to follow up care protocols (Harlem Hospital General surgery residency 1-2).

Comprehensive sickle cell center

Harlem cancer control center provides diagnosis, counselling and genetic counselling to affected members.

Asthma prevention project

Harlem is among the six asthma clinical research centers in the country. Asthma research team in Harlem hospital searches for causes and solutions of asthma among the 4% of asthmatic people in the country. It conducts clinical studies aimed at identifying risk factors, determines frequent emergency care for asthma care, and determines roles of stress, culture, and emotions in asthma morbidity (Harlem Hospital General surgery residency 2).

Level 1-trauma center/emergency services

Harlem hospital is a level 1 trauma center designated by the American heart association. It is equipped to handle heart emergencies and cardiac arrests. It treats patients with severe trauma among other major health crisis. It is a stroke center and a burn unit certified by the New York State emergency medical services burn center. The urgent care center in the hospital attends people having medical problems that are not life threatening. Patients are referred to primary care providers for follow-up treatment (Harlem Hospital General surgery residency3).

Basic care center for excellence

Harlem hospital is acknowledged as a Bariatric center of excellence by the American college of surgeons.

National center model TB center

The TB model center received a national grant to treat TB patients and provide other services. It uses a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach to treat patients with an aim of maximizing compliance and outcomes (Harlem Hospital General surgery residency 3).

Pediatric injury prevention program

The pediatric prevention program offered delivery and collaborates initiatives to the community. It reduces childhood injuries through offering safer playing grounds, supervised activities, and education to reduce injuries among parents and children. The program has facilitated building of 35 school playgrounds. The bike smart effort teaches third grade students street and bike safety (Harlem Hospital General surgery residency 3). The trainings have reduced accidents by 48%.

AIDS initiatives

The AIDS initiative program screens for HIV patients and those at higher risks of contracting HIV. It conducts treatments, offers social and psychological services.it provides emergency, alternate care, inpatient, and post discharge care. Moreover, there is hospice and long-term care in the hospital (Harlem Hospital General surgery residency 4).

Los Angeles medical center

Los Angeles Medical center (LAMC) is an integrated system that delivers health care in the Southern California Region.it provides a home to tertiary care program, which serves the community and members of the health plan in the region of South California.

LAMC offers special services such as  bone marrow transplant, cardiac surgery /Cath lab, certified breast center, chronic pain management, complex spine surgery, cytogenetic laboratories, electrophysiology, genetic counseling services, radiology, cancer program, OB/GYN special services, interventional neuro-radiology, minimally invasive surgery, emergency services, urgent care services, pharmacy services. It also offers NICU, Neurosurgery, neuro-Oncology, high risk obstetrics, pediatric anesthesiology, pediatric cardiac surgery, children specialty care, maxillofacial surgery, nephrology, PICU, Pediatricsurgery, pediatric oncology, regional research hub, radiation oncology, organ transplant, regional hub, surgery for movement disorders, surgical oncology, Urological, hematology, and vascular birthmark clinic(Los Angeles County 1).

Los Angeles vision

Los Angeles has a vision of striving for excellence of nurses to become the leading in nursing profession. It aims at being an employer of choice in nursing around Los Angeles county and Southern California. It is directed towards delivering quality care to patients, delivering best services to customers, and developing staff. It also aims at satisfying staff and advancing careers. It has employed highly skilled staff and nurses who provide care through collaborating with members of the health care team and collaborating with the community (Los Angeles County 2).

The nurses improve health and well-being of individuals, communities, and families through proper leadership, education, and service. Los Angeles integrates professional standards into their policies. It incorporates data obtained from benchmarking activities, research into the nursing practice to strengthen the body of knowledge in nursing. Los Angeles health care develops nursing workforce which works towards making of independent decisions, critical thinking which enhance professional nursing practice. The health care promotes a comfortable work environment, which fosters collaboration and respect to cultural diversity. It collaborates with patients, members of the community and families as well as health care team members, to involve them in the process of coordinating care through continuum care process (Los Angeles County3). It respects patient rights and families with an aim of developing sensitivity to ethical, religious, and cultural beliefs in the patient population. It has developed systems and processes, which promote proactive approach to continuouslychanging demands and the shifting priorities of healthcare environment. It recognizes the achievements of the workforce and actively involves in community outreach programs.

Safe practices

Los Angeles medical center meets its vision of offering safe care by supporting the National Quality Forum (NQF). The hospital has placed 30 safe practices that reduce risks to health care errors that harm patients. It has many employees including dedicated nurses, clinicians and physicians as well as care teams. The team has experts in early detection of diseases, prevention of illnesses in a proactive way and better treatment of chronic conditions. It attends cardiology and heart surgery cases (Kaiser Permanente, 2016). The medical center administer medicines safely to reduce medical harm, it avoids surgical complications and infections in the hospital.

Kaiser Permanente explains that Los Angeles medical center meets its vision of improving patient safety by offering perinatal care, conducting immunizations, having emergency department, conducting tobacco treatment, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. Los Angeles medical center excels in offering hospital care for heart attack, heart failure, pneumonia, and surgery. It participates in regular reviews in the process of evaluating bariatric surgical programs.

Inpatient care management

Los Angeles is involved in patient care management by avoiding harm, managing serious errors, having appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals, and conducting training in ICU and MD. Moreover, it readmits common acute cases.

Medical safety

It has computer ordered medication, and safer medication administration.

Maternity care

It is involved in maternity care through conducting early elective deliveries, caesarian sections, episiotomies, maternity care processes and performing high-risk deliveries.

High-risk surgery care

Los Angeles center has a section to conduct high-risk surgery care including aortic valve replacements, abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs, pancreatic resections, and esophageal resections.

Infections

Los Angeles controls and manages infections through detecting central line infections in ICU, urinary catheter infections in ICU, MRSA, and difficile following surgery, and availing surgical site after colon surgery. It controls blood stream infections using intravascular catheter.

Injuries

Los Angeles medical center meets its vision of effective care by controlling and managing hospital acquired injuries and ulcers. The hospital uses prevalence methodology to give a snapshot of pressure ulcers on selected days. It examines consenting and hospitalized patients for pressure ulcers and new ulcers after hospitalizations (1-8).

Loa Angeles as an opportunity employer

Los Angeles medical center meets its vision of an opportunity employer by employing registered nurse practitioners in the cardiology clinic, surgery unit, cardiomyopathy center, and nurse consultant. It employs new graduate registered nurses, clinical consultant in health care programs, and nurses in baby care units. It also employs registered nurses in level 1 trauma center emergency unit, and care coach who provides patients with integrated care through collaboration with clinical staff. Psychiatric registered nurses offer excellent skills in writing and communication. They educate nurses and patients to gather information and express sympathy on the telephone. Health technicians, clinical staffs, urgent care nurses and employs health coordinators.

Pediatric vision

Los Angeles Medical center has a vision of meeting pediatric needs, which largely affects children. It complies with HPP capabilities such as preparing in healthcare, coordinating with plans set for individuals at risk among those having special medical needs. Medical surge capability ensures designation of vulnerable children population demand special response and planning. The plan outlines how children will be transported from hospitals to health facilities especially during disasters. Pediatric beds are prepared for pandemic flu, improvised explosive device (IED), and major earthquakes (Molina, 8).

Emergency department

Emergency department care for pediatric patients, meet the needs of professional staff, educate them to improve on quality, offer support services, supplies, medications, protocols, policies and procedures (Molina 9).

In conclusion, Harlem and Los Angeles medical care center have a vision of providing competent and quality health care to their patients and the community. Los Angeles hospital meets its vision by offering pediatric services, emergency services, employment, infections, injury, and surgery departments. It also provides inpatient care, medical services, maternity care, and safe practices. Harlem Medical Center meets its vision by establishing Pediatric Injury Prevention Program, AIDS initiative program, national TB center, trauma center, asthma prevention center, sickle cell center, and cancer control center.

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Write A Chronological Report About The Use Of Questionnaires In Determining Environmental Risk Factors For Myopia.

Use Of Questionnaires In Determining Environmental Risk Factors For Myopia

Explain how researchers went from wide range of questions to specific questions, and also focus on specific factors such as time spent outdoors, physical activities and near work.

Background about questionnaires

Questionnaires have their origin from the first United States census in 1790. The U.S. Census Bureau collected data using schedules (questionnaires) which were supplied in paper form with headings having titles such as race, sex, age, and name. The Congress authorized printing of papers to make them uniform for use in the United States (U.S Census bureau, 2016). In 1940, questionnaires were used in counting the population and collecting data on housing. By 1960, the census were combining questions about the population and housing in a single questionnaire. The census taker mailed questionnaires to households and completed them (U.S Census bureau, 2016). Two questionnaires were used by the census bureau used two questionnaires between 1970 and 2000. Households received short-form questionnaires asking minimum questions. Sampled households received long-form questionnaire, which had additional questions about households. The 2010 census involved one questionnaire with only ten questions.

Gault (2012) comments that the larger proportion of current psychological literature is sourced from data obtained through questionnaires. Most people regard questionnaires as a reliable scientific method. Questionnaires take statistics, which begin by enumerating the fighting men in 1835. They studied the social phenomena.

Basic forms of questionnaires

Questionnaires are grouped into structured and unstructured questionnaires.

Structured questionnaire have definite and concrete questions, are prepared in advance and initiate a formal inquiry. They supplement and check previously accumulated data. Structured questionnaire are used in economic studies, social problems, in studying administrative policies and changes. Unstructured questionnaires guide the interviewer when conducting interviews. They are flexible to work with and are used in studying family groups, and personal experiences and beliefs.

Questionnaires can also be classified according to questions.

In open-ended questionnaire, the respondent is free to express his views and ideas. They conduct intensive studies of limited cases. The questionnaire allows raising issues without a structure to be followed by the respondents while replying. The order of questions is pre-determined by nature. The responses are not pre-determined. Interviewers can get extra information and unexpected suggestions. Qualitative questions are open-ended (Kirklees, 2003). Open-ended questions demand feedback and suggestions for improving certain situations.

Close-ended questionnaire has limited responses to stated alternatives. It is not limited but their numbers could be odd or even. They require respondents to choose answers from multiple choices given. The alternatives have yes or no choices leaving the respondent without chance to express their judgment (Singh, 2010). Mixed questionnaire are rarely used. They have pictures to promote the interest of answering questions. They are used to study social attitudes and pre-judice among children. Closed format questionnaires are easy to perform preliminary analysis. The questions are appropriate when calculating statistical data and percentages from known answers. Closed ended questionnaires are asked to different groups at different intervals to track their opinions on certain products.

Strengths and weaknesses–bring out strengths

Questionnaires are written interviews, which are carried by telephone, by post or face-to-face. They are used to research type A personality and asses events in life causing stress in human beings. Questionnaires are preferred because they are cheap, efficient, and quicker ways of obtaining large amounts of information from sampled population (Reja et al., 2003).

Data is quickly collected because they do not require researchers to be present unlike in interviews where researchers have to be present for clarification and explanation (Popper, 2004).

Questions are practical when assessing large populations of people where interviews prove difficult to use. Responses are gathered in standard ways, making questionnaires more objective than interviews. Questionnaires collect potential information from target customers. Questionnaires are cost-efficient especially when compared to telephone interviews (Surrey, 2016). Questionnaires are affordable and reliable when gathering qualitative and quantitative data especially when standard ways are used to gather information. Current advances in technology make questionnaires easily administered through emails and websites to target respondents with little or no cost.

Questionnaires are practical because specific questions can be asked to specific target groups to get accurate information. Open-ended questions are specifically practical when huge data require to be gathered. Speedy results are obtained quickly and easily through mobile and online tools making owners to gain insights in shorter times (Debois, 2016).

Questionnaires feedback is fast .scalability in questionnaires allows companies to send questions to large audience. Questionnaires are distributed to anyone at any place in the world at a low cost. Specific cities and countries are targeted to answer specific questions. Questionnaires do not require expertise since they are simple to use and easily understood by everybody with little education. It is also easy to analyze information without built-in tools and a background of statistics. Users of information can quickly interpret the results analyze them and turn the data into reports and visualizations (Debois, 2016). Analyzing reports enables users to easily generate predictions, create follow-up questions and benchmark with other organizations.

User anonymity

Online and email surveys permit respondents to maintain anonymity and ensure complete invisibility (Dilman, 2006). Questionnaires do not require the names pf the residents so that they are free to give any information they have in details. Respondents are comfortable answering the questions truthfully. Digital questionnaires give best anonymity and privacy resulting in most honest answers (Couper, 2000). The questionnaires are best for businesses. In addition, results are accurate using online questionnaires.

Email questionnaires have no time limits and no persons waiting for answers from the other end. As a result, the respondents take their time to answer the questions fully (Meadows & Wisher, 2000). Questionnaires have the biggest advantage of not limiting the number of questions asked. Thus, interviewers can ask as many questions as possible mostly covering a whole topic to gather adequate responses from respondents (Ross, 2005). Questions are short and directed to the point to make it easy for answering. They are efficient, and incur least costs when delivering since they can be delivered by hand, and there is no problem of having many inbuilt questionnaires. Questionnaires compare and contrast other types of research and measure changes. Positivists believe that quantitative data create new theories and test existing ones.

Weaknesses of questionnaires

Lacking conscientious

Questionnaires are regarded as weak because they lack validity and interviewer cannot measure the truth of the information given and change of emotions and feelings. It is impossible to measure thoughts put in the questions, and observe facial expression and reactions except when the questions are administered face-to –face (Popper, 2004).

Questions suffer a problem of interpretation because each person answers questions according to their own interpretation. What one person explains as good might be bad or worse to another. The results end up being subjective when there are no persons to explain the questions and give similar meanings. Skewed results are obtained when clarity is a problem and there lacks somebody to clarify the choices and answers asked (Debois, 2016).

Researchers have a disadvantage of asking questions according to their own decisions and assumptions. The assumptions may lead them not to ask various questions that are vital in the research. Respondents might forget important information and fail to answer on information already known. At times respondents chose answers before they have read the question fully, others skip some questions making it difficult to analyze data (Debois, 2016). Other respondents make spilt second choices, which affects data validity.

Dishonesty

  Questionnaires are disadvantaged in that they can present dishonest information since some respondents fear getting embarrassed and protect themselves from being tracked. However, respondents can be encouraged to be honest by being assured of their privacy and that they will not be tracked (Reja et al., 2003).

Difficult to analyze

 Questionnaires collect a lot of data. Open-ended questions allow individual answers that cannot be quantified and require humans to review them. Many open-ended questions give more data to be analyzed (Kirklees, 2003).

Bias

Respondents may be biased in that some may be interested in your products, services and ideas while others are participate depending on subjects of the questionnaires. As a result, the receiver of the information get inaccurate information and leads to inaccurate data. Imbalanced respondents become overly positive or negative.

Accessibility

Questionnaires may be inaccessible to persons with hearing disabilities and visual impairment. Illiterate respondents are ruled out from answering unless there is an interpreter. LTDL (2016) asserts that questionnaires are standardized making it impossible to explain misinterpreted questions. Some respondents forget vital information since questionnaire are given after occurrence if events. Various respondents fail to reveal important information required with thoughts of getting penalized after availing the right opinion. Evalue (2016) argues that it is impossible to go back to respondents who have not answered various questions, especially in their anonymous nature. Various questions may be answered incorrectly. Since questionnaire are most effective when short, simple and directed to the point, they are not used to answer complex issues.

Uses of closed and open-ended questions

Open format questions

Open format questions allow respondents to include their opinions in the answers in details. There are no predetermined set of responses, thus respondents are free to answer whatever they feel is right. Open-ended questions are used to get feedback and sourcing for extra information for improvements of certain areas (Ross, 2005).

Flatworld solutions (2016) explains that closed ended questions are divided into

Leading questions

Leading questions force the audience to give particular answers. Leading questions have equally likely answers. Choices in leading questions include excellent, superb, great, fair, good, and poor. The questions get opinions from audience using limited words (Mathers et al., 2007).

Importance questions

Importance questions ask respondents to rate the importance of particular issue, from given rating scale of 1 to 5. The questions help to understand significant things to the respondents and allow making critical business decisions.

Likert questions

Likert questions are used to ascertain the strength of respondents while agreeing to particular statement. The questions are used in ascertaining how customers feel on certain issues, services, and products. Likert questions offer choices such as strongly agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, disagree and strongly disagree (Reja et al, 2003).

Dichotomous questions

Dichotomous questions are simple and demand respondents to answer with a yes or no. the disadvantage is that they questions cannot analyze answers since there lacks a middle perspective. Closed ended questions only have yes and no choices (Graf, 2002).

Bipolar questions

Closed-ended bipolar questions have two extreme answers written at the opposite ends of the scale. The respondents are required to mark responses between the two. Examples

How would you describe XYZ corporation?

Efficient……..       …x…..     ……. Inefficient

Fast………..       ……x….      …………    slow

Rating scale questions

Rating scale questions rate particular issues on scales ranging between poor and good. Rating scale have even choices that excludes respondents from selecting the middle option. Respondent’s choices include such as good, fair, poor, and very poor (Reja et al., 2003).

Buying propensity questions

Buying propensity questions attempt to vary the intentions of future customers and determining the buying intention of respondents. The questions ask respondents their wishes on buying particular products, types of requirements they need and their will to buy similar products in the future. Choices given to respondents include definitely, probably, probably not, not sure and definitely not (Meadows, 2003).

Using questionnaires to asses risk factors for myopia

Saxena et al. (2015) explains that myopia is a common cause of visual impairment in the world. Myopia prevalence varies by age, country, ethnic group, and backgrounds. High prevalence of myopia is reported in East Asia especially in Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong. Lower rates are reported in India and South Asia (Dandona, Dandona, Srinivas, Sahare, 2002). The group conducted a study to assess the rates of myopia among school going children in Delhi and associated factors.

Explain how researchers went from wide range of questions to specific questions, and also focus on specific factors such as time spent outdoors, physical activities and near work.

Saxena et al. (2015) began by delivering participant information sheet to all parents for signing. The sheet explained the objectives and aims of the study, the detailed procedure of the research and adverse effects of dilatation. The researchers asked for permission to examine the eye, take vision, and administer questionnaires asking demographic questions, children habits. Eye dilation for refraction was required. Ten schools were randomly selected from two randomly selected districts. Structured questionnaires were presented to the schools using vernacular languages for easy understanding of parents and children. The answers were recorded in English. Questionnaires were directly filled from children details, while others were filled from interviews conducted through telephoning one parent. Time spent on various activities was asked individually each day of the week. Total hours spent engaging in each activity was recorded per week. Time spent at home and in school was recorded differently in each activity. Details were confirmed through cross checking them with their teachers and conducting telephone interviews with their parents.

Vision of the right eye was recorded as the smallest line read with or without errors using letter E from early treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) vision chart under ambient room lighting. Visual acuity was tested in the right eye followed by the left eye. A risk factor questionnaire was filled foe children unable to read six out of nine letters. Other questionnaires were filled for normal vision (non myopic group).

Bayoumy and Saad (2007) and Muhamedagic et al., 2015) gave structured questionnaires to students, which covered medical, personal and environmental data. Personal data asked about sex, school level, age, and area of resident. Environmental data asked about sources of pollution on the resident area. Pollution nearing their houses such as bread ovens, workshops that manufacture ceramic tiles, heavy traffic, refuse burning and carpenters. The questionnaires included questions on types of cooking fuels used and use of pesticides at home. Medical questionnaire asked about manifestations of eye strains ad previous ophthalmic problems.

Questions about reddening of eyes, headaches, difficulties in reading the blackboard at school were included in medical questionnaires. Family history questionnaire asked about consanguinity and family histories of RE. Children were given questionnaires asking about whether their parents belonged to the same family, or from different families. Wearing of glasses within families was asked. Economic questionnaires asked about social economic status of the family with choices such as highly educated with occupations reasonable for their education levels, and high or secondary educated with occupations below their education levels, and low level and illiterate with casual and semi-permanent employments. The questionnaires included questions about how much near work the child practiced in activities such as reading, watching television and reading. Authors of the questionnaires trained social workers who could assist each child to complete the structured questionnaires. Accuracy was ensured by having the social workers fill the questionnaires from information availed by each child and the authors revising the questionnaires.

Sherwin et al. (2012) undertook an ophthalmic epidemiological research on Norfolk Island. The area was chosen because of its minute population and inherent genetic and geographical population. Respondents filled Sun-exposure questionnaire. The questionnaires contained questions about the history of sun exposure and sun-protective strategies. Response categories included never, seldom, half of the time, usually and always. Questions on time spent outdoors when awake were included. The parts of the day spent outside during summer. Possible responses included none, quarter of the day, approximately half, three quarter of the day, none, and a quarter of the day. Categories were later combined since there were low numbers in the none category. UVAF photos were taken using cameras developed by colleagues and coroneo. The photographs taken used both reflected and visible light (control) and UV-induced fluorescent aided by two photograph systems that were portable.

Huang, Chang, and Wu (2015) conducted 12 cohort studies and 15 cross-sectional studies including 25,025 children aged 6 to 18 years, to assess myopia in relation to work activities. Questionnaires were designed with questions such as myopia, short sighted, near sighted and refractive errors. More questions included near work, studying, reading distance, and working distance. There were no restrictions on language. Two authors screened the studies after deletion of duplicate articles. Questionnaires asked personal information such as race/ethnicity of study population, age, and last name of first author. Near work, activity was determined through assessing reading, use of computers, playing video games, writing, and myopia development. Responses included three times reading, two times computer use, two times video games in hours per day.

Yingyong (2010) and Hsu et al., 2016). Conducted a cross-sectional analysis on population between October 2008 and September 2009 in Nakhon Pathom. He used questionnaires to assess refractive error, parental refractive status, hours per week of near activities (studying, reading books, watching television, playing with video games, and working on computer). The study was conducted among 377 children who participated in the study.

Dandona et al. (2002) conducted a random selection of village-based clusters to identify causes of myopia in children aged between seven to fifteen years of age. A door-to-door survey was used to enumerate 25 clusters. Examination included retinoscopy, autorefraction, occur motility evaluation, and visual acuity measurements. Examination of anterior segment, fundus, and media was done and filled in the questionnaires.

Wu et al. (2015) used a detailed questionnaire to conduct a study on factors associated with myopic shifts among primary school children. The first part of the questionnaire concentrated on near-work activities such as amount of time spent studying, watching television, computer activities each day. The average reading distance was assessed. Question son outdoor activities were also included such as time spent by children in outdoor activities for leisure (playing outdoors and walking), time spent on outdoor activities for leisure after school and during weekends. Time spent in sports during the week and weekends.

Vannas, et al. (2003) studied two conscript cohorts where garrisons were required to complete written questonnaires about their vision and risk factors associated. The questionnaires assessed risk factors such as demographic, habits, health status, and conscript families.

Questionnaire on light exposure asked questions on birth date, sunglasses, community, wearing habits, eye color, and community of residence. Two indices were used such as daily hours of darkness in each month and region and daily global irradiance (in KJ/m2)

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What Are The Biggest Things You’ve Learned In Life To Date?

Biggest Things You’ve Learned In Life

Professionalism

Professionalism is an important trait that has helped me adopt behaviors that do not disrepute social work profession. It will help manage personal and professional boundaries and constantly update professional development. Professionalism enhances conduction of organized discussions in teams, be accountable, reflect on the practice and consider future needs of workers (National association of social workers, 2013). Professionalism will enable me to check my behavior and not get influenced by nature of social work.

Professionalism skills create boundaries on what social workers should share with the clients. Example social workers should not share their personal life histories with their clients. Social workers should not be attracted into inappropriate contracts with their clients neither should they initiate illegal contracts. I have learnt that it is professionally wrong to engage into inappropriate relationships with clients. Professional social workers maintain their networks by understanding that nurses, physicians, accountants, executive directors, pastors among others are in their professional network (National association of social workers, 2013).Thus, they are expected to behave well and interact positively with them.

 Professional social workers continue upgrading themselves by educating themselves, growing, and accessing more knowledge about their profession, populations as well as standards and laws affecting the practice. Professional Social workers are aware of ethics code and ethical responsibilities of social worker. Professional social workers apply social work values, principles and techniques to assist people get tangible services, counsel individuals, groups, and families. Professional social workers have knowledge on human behavior, development, social, cultural, and economic institutions and the interaction of the factors (National association of social workers, 2013).

Independence of social workers

As an aspiring independent social worker, I have learnt to be reliable, and flexible. Independent skills have taught me to make personal professional judgment on various issues and concerns. Moreover, I learnt that independent social workers have expert parenting capacity and good skills of assessing risks. They have specialized guard ship and connections with personal reports. Independent social workers are available throughout the week, conduct assessment such as domestic violence, multi-disciplinary, internal, forensic, and sexual offender risks (National association of social workers, 2013). As a result, they earn constant income from activities such as independent supervision of workers outside the statutory sector. I have specialized in training teams in joint working. Independent workers own their own business, where they manage invoices and become very responsible of their work.as a result, independent trait has taught me to be responsible in social work and in my personal life (National association of social workers, 2013). As an aspiring independent worker, I have realized that I must gain technology skills to promote my business. Technology skills will assist me to open a website and social media accounts such as face book account and twitter to advertise my business and grow it.

Relationships

As an aspiring social worker, relationship trait has taught me types of relationships that social workers are not supposed to engage in. These include

Intimate contacts

Social workers are not supposed to engage in intimate contacts with their clients especially those involving sexual intimacy. They are not required to hug their clients, send personal notes give gifts to their clients and accept gifts from them (The policy, ethics and human rights committee, 2012).

Personal gain

I have learnt that social workers are not supposed to engage in business with their clients for personal gain. It is unethical because at times they may fight with their clients as they ask for their share of goods and services and earn a bad reputation over their actions (The policy, ethics and human rights committee, 2012).

Emotional and dependency issues

I have learnt that social workers are not required to share their personal lives with their clients, their emotional needs among others. Emotional needs arising from childhood experiences, marital experiences, aging, frustrations in their career, relationships issues are supposed to be personal and not to be shared with their clients. The reasons behind not sharing with their clients is that the judgment of social workers may be impaired leading to violations of boundaries and formation of dual and multiple relationships which are prohibited by ethical laws (The policy, ethics and human rights committee, 2012).

Altruistic instincts

Most workers are dedicated to their work, are caring and principled but they do not realize situations that exploit clients. Altruistic inclinations trait has enabled me to avoid situations such as engaging in clients life-cycle events, giving them their telephone numbers and attending their emergent situations. I have learnt that it is wrong to give gifts to clients at their holiday time. The reasons are altruistic gestures are at times misinterpreted by clients and trigger boundary confusion. I have come to understand that dual and multiple relationships are unethical (The policy, ethics and human rights committee, 2012).

As a result, I have learnt to overcome the challenge of engaging in these relationships unknowingly by employing good judgment that is consistent with ethical standards. Moreover, I have learnt to distinguish between ethical and unethical relationships. It is important to respect the way we as social workers give gifts and reports to clients. Confidentiality is the greatest form of respect social workers can give to their clients (The policy, ethics and human rights committee, 2012).

Communication

Communication skills in social work can be tricky since workers can be influenced to be empathetic their situations. I have learnt that proper communication skills in social work demand that I respect other people expertise and views on their situations. It is my work to be honest with them on their concerns and views and be equipped to develop an agreement and understand the aim of the work. Proper communication skills have taught me not to expose private situations shared with clients, their embarrassments, and shame. I have come to realize that it is unethical to share client’s fears with other workers and people in the community (The policy, ethics, and human rights committee (2012). I have changed to being reliable and kind for clients to feel safe and cared for.

Good communication skills will help me wait for clients to fully express themselves and not interrupt them or offer more information to them. I have understood that all kinds of people including the disabled and children have a right to be heard and air their views without interruptions. It is important to give them enough time and us the best communication methods to help them heal from their stressing situations (The policy, ethics and human rights committee, 2012).

Teamwork

As an aspiring social worker, I have learnt to offer clear direction and vision as I listen and provide the team with support. I have learnt to stay focused aiming for the success of the clients condition as I serve them, setting guidelines and adjustable benchmarks to attain desired outcomes, and being confident on what I require from others to help build on my skills and expand my portfolio. In situations when am supposed to lead the team, I have to express good leadership skills by being an example. In addition, I should also remain a part of the team by remaining open and honest on matters that require being communicated to clients. I must foster collaboration when competition is ongoing. As a team member, I am supposed to look for everybody’s strengths and weaknesses to build an effective team that will work out challenges and fix them. As a leader, I have learnt to bring the team in the area of ‘yes we can’.

Conclusion

In conclusion, I have learnt that being an effective social worker requires listening carefully to other team members and collaborate with them. I should not expose private issues discussed with other clients to other members. I should be in a position to understand ethical and unethical relationships, and not express my emotions to clients. I should embrace professionalism in all walks of life because am surrounded by nurses, teachers who are part of my areas of professionalism.

References

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If Republicans Fear Trumps Presidency, What do you Expect Minorities and Muslims

If Republicans Fear Trumps Presidency

Donald Triumph is now the elected president of United States in the year 2016 and will continue ruling until the end of four years. His presidency sends fear, and negative feelings to all minorities and Muslims such as African Americans, disabled people, American Muslims and Hispanics. Ozlar states that Muslims have mixed shock, worry, and trauma. Some people from the minority groups may be contemplating of going back to their countries, while others wait to unite and mobilize to ensure they have comfortable stay in America. The working groups staying in the city might move to live in rural areas and give in to spend transport fees with the fear of arising wars and confusion in the city. Others are still very angry after being insulted extremists, rapists, and criminals (Ali).

Some African-American investors and having their businesses in the country may opt to move their businesses to other countries fearing reduction of customers and attacks of their businesses. The alarms and cause of worries among the groups come from his comments during presidential rallies. Donald Trump’s rally in Minnesota, on Sunday, stated very well that after he becomes the president, he would block settlement of refugees in United States. Being a Republican presidential candidate, he stressed that he would target Somali communities residing in the state. Donald Trumph stressed that Minnesota experiences major problems arising from faulty vetting of refugees with large numbers being Somalis. Triumph addressed the crowd with major concerns on refugees in the state and indicated that they are allowed in the state without their approval, support, or knowledge of American citizens.

Trumph was against the plan of his running mate Hillary Clinton stating that she has a plan of importing generations of extremism, terrorists, and radicalisms in American schools and communities. Triumph stated that when he will be elected president, he would suspend refugee from Syria and radicalize Islamic terrorists from the country. He supports his idea of suspending Islam’s and minority groups out of America by stating that they join ISIS groups to spread extremist views through the country and the world. The recent terrorist attacks using knives in St. Cloud agitate him. Trumph states that admission of refugees will only be through acceptance by the local communities they are to be placed. Specifically admissions will be stopped in regions having earlier terror attacks. The Washington Post states that Islamophobia in United States never started with Donald Trump’s political campaign and will not end with him.

The former Bush speechwriter (Michael Gerson) stated that Islamophobia is an entrenched platform within the party of Republican. Gerson reported his observations in the last two cycles of presidential nomination where Republican candidates proposed their wish to have loyalty oaths from Muslims who wished to serve in the government. Muslims serving in American administration were ruled out since they acted as threats to the freedom of United States citizens. Iftikhar comments that Republicans argued that Muslim immigrants have an aim of conquering Americans and colonizing them. Islam religion in America is addressed as most murderous mayhem in the planet. Triumph being a republican and one running presidential rallies, took the advantage of his position to stress the already existing thoughts of Muslims by American republican citizens.

Iftikar asserts that Trumph placed total and complete shutdown of Islam’s entering the United States is required. Muslim rejection in America was clearly shown by Donald trump who denied Khizr’s wife to speak during the Democratic convention because she embraced a Muslim culture. Trump commented on Yahoo news that Muslim-Americans will be required to register with an official database from the government and be mandated to carry their identification cards every time. Donald Trump called Mexicans rapists suggesting a national policy of stopping people and frisking them, with special targets to African American community (Rapperport).

However, there is no reason for Muslims to fear, there are great expectations that minority Somali and Muslim groups not involved in terror attacks will be spared from harsh Trumph attacks. Ali comments that Trump called working minority groups privileged since they work for Americans, and save their money on American Bank accounts. Ozlar states that Trumph will relax and pull back his rhetoric as noted by many observers. The president victory speech after they met with Barrack Obama were measured in content and tone which were better than his comments during campaigns. Esther an Immigration reporter states that more than one thousand Somalis work in Minnesota international airport where he held his rally. Somali workers ensure normal and critical operations run each day in the airport. Moreover, other Minnesota Somalis work in occupations that help most Americans.

Esther adds that Africans own more than three thousand businesses. In addition, immigrants from Africa estimated to have buying power of $800 million each year in the two cities (Esther 2). As a result, Somalis contributing to better America’s way of life will be better positioned in the reign of Trumph. I expect that minority groups will receive double treatments, with terrorists being evacuated from the country and businesspersons and other community workers not being affected by the campaign against holding minority groups in America. To support my argument, Triumph concentrates on Muslims and other minority groups involved in terror attacks and does not mention any threat on those involved in good businesses that support the country economically such as working in airports and keeping large and small-scale businesses.

Esther in her reports states that Trumph’s commented on Sunday to place a restrictive ban on Muslims and other immigrants involved in terror attacks. Further admissions of minority and Muslim groups in America will be through acceptance by the local authorities. Ilhan Omar and Keith Ellison victory in Minnesota will regulate strict laws placed for the non-American citizens living in United States. Ilhan Omar is a 34-year-old Muslim and the first Somali-American woman appointed as the state legislature in Minnesota. Keith Ellison is also a Muslim representative who retained his congressional seat in Minnesota 5th District, in the race for Michigan 15th House district seat (Esther 1). Muslims and other minority groups require uniting and mobilizing to ensure they have neutralized the effect of Trumph rise on America as a great nation. Finally, Mr. Trump is no longer a candidate but he is a president-Elect of the US, so actions speak louder than words. So far, his nominated and possible nominees is clear indication of Trump is not a president for all.

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The evolvement of unified process

The unified process has evolved thus revolutionizing development of software, improving productivity and eliminating errors that cause failure in projects. Success in agile methods has come from evolution of the unified process. Unified process was originally introduced as objector in 1988, and as rational objector process (ROP) in 1996. It finally emerged, as rational unified process (RUP) in 1998.The UP is a framework-providing infrastructure to execute projects, and involved in software development (Anwar, 2014). The lifecycle model involves collaborations, interactions, and context. Enterprise unified process (EUP) was introduced in 2002. RUP was agilized online and in print form in August 2002, where a plug in was developed to make it resemble XP in all aspects. RUP is a process product that is marketed and developed by rational software corporation, providing details needed to execute projects using the unified process. Guidelines, tool assistance, and templates are included. RUP is a commercial process product that provides details and UP framework content.

Rational unified process

Rational unified process is a framework formed by the corporation of rational software, which is a division of IBM. A software engineering process offers disciplined approach to assign tasks, responsibilities in development organization. It aims at producing software of high quality that will needs of users within predicted budgets and schedule (Anwar, 2014). It is a process product that works closely to customers, groups of rational product and partners. RUP enhances productivity in teams since it offers guidelines, templates, and mentor tools for every development activities that are critical. RUP maintains and creates models (Rational software Development Company, 2001). It guides users how to use unified modeling language effectively to communicate requirements clearly.

The process is supported by various tools that automate various parts of the process in creation of artifacts such as programming, testing, visual modeling, and software engineering. It is a configuration process. RUP framework is adaptable, and tailored by development organizations as well as project teams dealing with software. It is an implementation of the unified process. RUP has sample artifacts, descriptions, and details to conduct many activities. It allows process customization (Anwar, 2014). Its name rational emerged from it being a tailored process guided by development, automated tools during process application, and its adoption of accelerated services for tools and process.

Web-enabled searchable knowledge base provides teams with templates, guidelines, and mentor tools for development of critical activities. It has extensive guidelines for members and software lifecycle portions. Guidance is offered to high-level processes and day-to-day activities. Guidance is obtained in published HTML format in the desktop. Tool mentors provide guidance in each lifecycle process. They are published in HTML format for easy access on desktops (Rational software Development Company, 2001). Rational rose include templates that offer guidance on structuring information. soDA templates helps in software automation and documentation. Microsoft word templates assist to document workflows.

RUP makes use of disciplines such as requirements, test, business modelling, change management, and configuration. More disciplines added later on include rational and articulated disciplines, which concentrated on management of requirements, verification of quality, iterative development with risks, visual view of model software, and control of changes. RUP improves customer quality and predict software development. Moreover, it is used during performance testing, UI design and engineering of data.

RUP building blocks

RUP building blocks describe required skills, explanations step-by-step and production as well as goals for achievement. The main building blocks include roles, which are sets of skills, responsibilities, and competencies. Work block represent what product will come out from given tasks. These include models, documents produced while working. Tasks is the third block-describing units of work assigned to certain role providing better results (Rational software Development Company, 2001). Disciplines categorizing work include, business modeling, requirements, analysis and design, test, implementation, and deployment. Supporting disciplines include environment, project management, configuration and change management.

RUP project lifecycle phases

RUP project lifecycle has four phases including inception, elaboration, construction, and transition.

Inception phase

Inception phase validates initial costs and budgets. It establishes business context, market recognition, and financial forecast. The phase involves establishment of business case and delimitation of the scope of the project. All external entities are identified that will interact with the system and a high-level is used to design then nature of interaction. All use cases are identified while significant ones are described. Business case include risk assessment, success criteria, estimation of needed resources and phase plan indicating dates of major milestones (Rational software development company, 2001). The inception produces a vision document of key features, main constraints, and requirement of the project.

An initial use-case model, project glossary, risk assessment is included. Several prototypes are shown, together with business model and project plan having iteration and phases. Evaluation criteria used in the inception phase includes actual expenditures versus planned expenditures, depth and breadth of architectural prototypes, priority of risks and schedule estimates as well as requirement.

Elaboration phase

 Elaboration phase analyzes the domain of the problem, establishes a sound foundation for architecture, develops plan for the project and eliminates risks in the project. The stage involves making of architectural decisions, identifying functional and nonfunctional requirements as well as performance requirements (Rational software Development Company, 2001). The stage involves built up of executable prototype in various iterations, according to the risk, scope, and size of the project. Elaboration phase produces use-case model while identifying actors. A software architecture description is produced, executable architectural prototype, revised list of risk ad business case and updated development case specifying process for use.

Construction phase

Construction phase involves development of components and features, which are later integrated to form product whose features are tested. It is a manufacturing process with emphasis on managing resources. Control operations optimize costs, quality, and schedules. The management transits through intellectual property development at inception and elaboration to the development of products for deployment during transition and construction phases (Rational software Development Company, 2001). The construction phase achieves user manuals, contains description of current release and integrated software product on appropriate platforms.

Transition phase

Transition phase delivers software product to the community. The phase conducts beta testing with an aim of validating new system versus various expectations of the user. Operational databases are converted, as users are trained and maintained. The products are rolled out to distribution, sales teams and marketing. The transition phase aims at gaining self-supportability of the user, achieving concurrence of the stakeholder consistent with the evaluation criteria (Rational software Development Company, 2001). It targets the baseline of final product and how to achieve it using cost effective methods.

Iterations

Iterations phase is a loop that releases executable product. Iterative approach is advantageous compared to iterative approach in that it mitigates risks earlier, manages changes, reuse level is higher, and the overall quality is better (Rational software development company, 2001).

Agile unified process (AUP)

Agile unified process (AUP) has similar names with RUP although they are simplified and the two are architecture centric. Elaboration phases of the two ensures that all technical risks are addressed. RUP and Agile methods are commonly used software development methods, which are both iterative. RUP is a framework that offers adaptability to development of software without considering its size. RUP is implemented by organizations that aim at minimizing risks and efforts since it requires minimal customization. It results in complex processes that demand documentation artifacts. However, agile methods are lighter since they assign developers with the authority of the project (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou, 2010). Moreover, the two methods are not compatible.

  AUP is easier to understand when developing software related to the business. RUP applies agile techniques such as modeling, test-driven design (TDD), and management of change and refactoring of database with an aim of improving productivity. Agile modeling is the basis for development and is a key concept introduced in AUP to model and document software. Thus, Agile methodology (AM) is a combination of values, practices and principles used to model software in a soft way.AM values simplicity, feedback, humility, courage and communication. It is simple and embraces the fact that systems and requirement will change in the project lifecycle (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou (2010. It accommodates various changes of requirements incrementally and gives rapid feedback from stakeholders of the project after release of software.

Agile unified process in banking

Agile unified process (AUP) is today used in banking because of its usage of monolithic and large legacy systems. Banks are forced to adapt the new service-oriented computing paradigms due to major advancements in development of software. Rational unified process could be used but it is not trivial in its customization. Agile unified process (AUP) remains the only fit method since it will deliver budgets on time, it will integrate heavy legacy using back-end application systems and has new client-user interface applications that are reengineered on modern service-oriented architecture (SOA) platform (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou, 2010).

Agile Unified process (AUP) is iterative and serial in nature. Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou (2010), explains that AUP has four phases including inception, elaboration, construction, and transition in its lifecycle. It has seven disciplines that express its iterative nature, model, implementation, test, deployment, configuration management, project management, and environment. The AUP lifecycle is serial in the large and iterative in the small, delivering incremental releases over time.

Phases of agile Unified process

Inception

Inception stage begins with definition of the initial scope of the project, estimation of schedule and costs involved definition of risks, determination of project feasibility and preparation of the project environment. The project team defines the scope of the project as a stage where the user desktop hosts applications in private banking. Daily tasks are automated by the ID system through global handling of customers. The SOA-based parent project architecture is exploited while many concurrent customer sessions are managed (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou, 2010). Lastly, customer information is sourced by the ID system that intelligently shares it in different applications to minimize redundancy and reduce time used to complete projects.

During inception, the team uses AUP to identify at least ten use cases and other key requirements. Cost and schedule estimates are made for later phases, which involves accurate and detailed planning of tasks scheduled for completion. Projects risks are identified with highest risks driving scheduling of iterations. The team identifies difficulties such as communication of new benefits to architecture to various users and manages production of useful results. The scheduling requirements are met to match with the innovative approach of the project. User commitment and management is maintained in all phases (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou, 2010). Incompatibility of various requirements of the project, the culture of the bank and infrastructure are satisfied.

Elaboration

  Elaboration stage identifies architecture of the lifecycle such as stability of the vision, stability of the architecture, acceptance of risk, planning of the project, compliance of the enterprise. Elaboration stage validates the lifecycle, evolves the environment of the project, and is involved in staffing the team for the project. Elaboration aims at ensuring that the team develops system that satisfies requirements as well as working skeleton referred as architectural prototype. Business analyst gather requirement as the development team prepare a mock-up demo having screenshots for functioning of defined software. User workshops are held, as comments are gathered, remarks recorded, and suggestions given. Correction requests are obtained in testing workshops designed for user acceptance. Changes are made while top management is signed off (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou, 2010).

 Risks are identified and prioritized while significant ones are addressed. Architectural risks could be addressed in many forms such as researching similar systems, conducting stand-alone test suite and establishing a working prototype. A working prototype is useful in show casing of the architecture and the functionality of the user interface. Project management ensures mitigation of usability and architectural risks. The ID, management of the portfolio, hosts core banking and customer relationship, fraud is detected and reporting of suspicious activity takes place. A management information system for private banking is established. Processes such as creation of the flow of the process, sequence diagrams, and use-case are conducted (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou, 2010). Use cases are written in the elaboration phase where daily tasks are described in detail, which are then documented by the technical members. That becomes the start of a new construction iteration.

Construction

Construction stage is involved in modeling, building, and testing the system. It also develops supporting documentation. The system is developed for preproduction testing. The features of the system are implemented to form two time-boxed iterations that lasts for 24 to 46 working days. The iteration result in efficient software release.

Transition stage

Transition stage is involved in testing of systems, users, reworking the system and deployment of the system. It aims at delivering the system to production process where the system is deployed to its target users. Initial release feedback leads to extra refinement, which are incorporated within the two transition phases. Extensive beta testing occur with fine tuning of current applications that are hosted. Significant defects are addressed. The product release milestone is passed as users exit the transition phase (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou, 2010). They include acceptance from business stakeholder, operations, support, cost and estimate acceptance, as well as reasonable estimates done.

Objectives of the lifecycle

The lifecycle defines initial requirements needed, accepts risks and process, plans concurrence and its scope. It aims at planning the project, and identifying the feasibility of the project. AUP is architecture centric and ensures that users have addressed technical risks. It is driven by use-cases, it is simple in that its deliverables are few such as source code and regression test suite (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou, 2010), streamlining of phases reduces market time. AUP defines few roles.

Iterative disciplines used in AUP

Modeling discipline assists in understanding organizational business as well as main problem addressed in the project. Moreover, it identifies appropriate solution for use while addressing the domain in the problem. Implementation discipline aims at transforming models to form executable code and perform basic testing level such as unit testing. Testing discipline evaluates objectives to maintain quality.it identifies defects, validates proper working of the system, and ensures that requirements are met. Deployment discipline plans for the delivery of the system and executes plans that avails system to its end users. Configuration management principle manages access to the artifacts of the project such as tracking versions of the artifact over time as well as managing and controlling changes. Project management principle is involved in directing activities involved in the project such as risk management, direction of members of staff, people coordination, and systems outside of the scope of the project. The process ensures timely delivery and within budget limits (Christou, Ponis, and Palaiologou, 2010). Environmental principle supports team by availing guidance, tools, templates, and proper process.

Unified process

  UP-based development case addresses breadth and depth of UP framework. Basic Unified process (BUP) is a major subset of RUP material. Unified modelling language (UML) is applied broadly, having standardization of the industry and a general purpose evolutionary. The modelling techniques specify, document, visualize, and construct artifacts in the intensive process of systems. UML is applied in software and hardware systems, domains, processes, and methods. UML promotes use-case-driven, incremental, and interactive process as well as architecture-centric (Scott, 2006). Software process engineering meta-model (SPEM) is a standardized language in modelling used in industries to communicate processes and their frameworks. However, enactment of processes is not described.

Elements of the unified process (UP)

Elements of the unified process include collaborations, contexts, interactions, iterations, linear approaches, sequential approaches, and iterative approaches.

Collaboration

Collaboration is an interaction within contexts. It captures what persons are doing certain activities on various products, thus establishing project elements. Roles are teams with responsibilities of various artifacts and activities. It is a work unit comprising of steps. Artifacts are information elements. Unified process defines artifacts, activities, and roles (Scott, 2006).

Contexts

Contexts emphasize static and structural elements of a collaboration and their spatial relationships. Contexts capture where activities are done and locations of production and consumption. Thus, unified process establishes contexts of a project. Sequential phases are included in the development cycle, which result in system generation. Phase is a major milestone comprising of a management decision point that concentrates on managing business risk. Phases include processes of solving problems (Mujumdar, Masiwal, Chawan, 2012). Iteration includes a minor milestone that is aimed at managing technical risk.

Phases in unified process

The unified process has inception phase that concentrates on establishing the scope of the project and its vision. It establishes the feasibility of the business and stabilizing the project objectives. Elaboration phase concludes with architecture milestone and concentrates on establishing the requirements of the system. It identifies the technical feasibility of effort put in and stabilizes the system architecture. The construction phase concludes with initial operational capability milestone and concentrates on system building (Scott, 2006). Transition phase ends with release of the product and concentrates on transitioning and system deployment to the community of the user. The inception phase concentrates much effort in business modelling and requirements discipline (Mujumdar, Masiwal, Chawan, 2012). The elaboration phase concentrates its effort on requirements, design, and analysis as well as implementation disciplines. The construction phase distributes much of its effort on analysis and design, test and implementation disciplines. The transition phase puts much on deployment and test disciplines.

Supporting disciplines

Unified process supports configuration and change management discipline to manage system configuration and change requests. Project management discipline manages the project. Environmental discipline concentrates on tools and process of the project in the environment. Business modeling discipline assists to understand business automated by the system and captures the knowledge in the business model (Scott, 2006). Requirements discipline concentrates to understand system requirement automating business and captures the knowledge in use-case model. Analysis and design discipline analyzes requirements and design systems. Such knowledge is captured in the design model. Implementation discipline implements the system according to implementation model (Mujumdar, Masiwal, Chawan, 2012). Test discipline conducts tests on the system depending on test model needs. Deployment discipline aims at deploying the system on deployment model.

Interactions

Interactions is a step and route to certain destination. It has an evaluation criteria resulting in demonstrable progress. An iteration is iterative in nature because it is repetitive involving working and reworking. It is incremental because it has additional activities and parallel where works gets concurrent within iteration (Mujumdar, Masiwal, Chawan, 2012). Unified process is case driven where iterations are evaluated and planned against functionality chunks.

Iterations show progress by evolving many chunks while managing the complexity and system integrity. They are subsystems for security, data storage, external communications, input and output as well as reporting. Unified process confronts risks from humans, technical, business. Human risks involve inexperienced, insufficient and untrained personnel. Technical risks include use of unproven technology and using technology that users are not certain of its results. As a result, iterations confront risk obtained from use cases and architecture by reconciling technical and business forces (Scott, 2006). Iteration approach offers explicit opportunities for use during partial deployment of the system

Application of the unified process

The process engineer should be aware of various guidelines before making decisions. They include addressing reasons for particular roles, artifacts and activities along with their application. Process engineers have to address results of utilizing artifacts (Scott, 2006). Engineers should balance roles, artifacts, iterations, extremist, and purist among team members.

In conclusion, the unified process is an evolution from Agile unified process and Rational unified process. The three have lifecycles stages, disciplines they follow and processes. Phases followed include inception, elaboration, construction, and transition. Disciplines followed include business modeling, requirements, analysis, design, implementation, test, configuration, and change management.

References