Impact Of Adult Learning Theory
Professional Development Plan
Adult learning theory was made formal by Knowles in 1978 and then graduated to be a method of practice of professional development for adults referred to as andragogy. This model is centered on a belief that learning is a life-long process which and it is essential for adults to understand it so that they can continue learning through all the stages of life. The initial concepts of this theory were; it is through the satisfaction that adults find the need to keep learning, Learning is also centralized in the life-long instances, the experience is the best resource for the learning process, adults have the urge to self-direction and adults’ learners have taken learning at an individual level. Change theory, usually referred to as transformative theory is an advancement of adult learning theory according to research that Mezirow did in 2000. He found out that a reflection on knowledge accrues the needed effect to promote future action banked on the motives and incidental learning that took place when performing within the boundaries of the adult learning theory (David, 2016). The theory elaborates that learning can occur out of the existing knowledge or when someone acquires new knowledge. The theory also says that when the knowledge is changed completely, a specific change occurs for the learner that may lead to a new kind of experience and perspective. This was a crucial development on the adult learning theory since it changed the understanding of deep learning that may take place later in life. Motivational theory recognizes the need for intrinsic motivation and outlines three basic requirements that should be fulfilled to enhance autonomy, competence and a feeling of belonging (Alberset al., 2016).
These theories are so important in the customization of my study. These theories are the roots of many competence professional development plans and training programmes. Application of these theories can lead to learning that enhances the standardization of the outcome. I will be able to develop a plan that will give individuals the power for self-actualization, self-directed and internally motivated. They provide the power to who and what will determine the outcome and how to measure it. The models promote autonomy and individual freedom in learning.
These theories overlap in most cases. The all promote self-concept. They give the adults the power to choose what they would like to learn and even how to learn it. The also encourage experience. They are all for mature people, and they are based on a pool of experience which is the main resource for their personal development. Readiness is another aspect. Bayerlein & Jeske (2018), say that for an adult, it is most likely to learn what will be applicable in life by then. The three theories are problem centered. Adults will allow learning if what they are learning will help in finding a solution to a problem. Internal motivation and the urge to know are other ways through which these theories overlap. Adults will be driven mostly by internal motivators such as the need to know what they don’t know. In my professional development plan, these give me an upper hand because I will be able to plan for what adults need in their learning process.
The theories present some disparities between themselves. adult learning does not recognize the context and social mechanism of constructing meaning and knowledge. Change theory does not consider the social context of learning and leaves out the value of other types of learning. Knowing this is important to the development of the professional development plan because I will be able to include other factors of learning such as collaborative learning and social factors that enhance professional education.
I will develop a strategy that will give a complete connection of experience and the new things to be learned. This strategy provides five crucial elements that enhance this aspect; elaboration, refinement, restructuring, feedback, and consolidation.
Elaboration or dissonance is the creation of a link between the new knowledge and what we already know the existing knowledge of the learner is challenged and proven to be incomplete. This challenge can be done internally when the learner is trying to think through or externally through a teacher. The type of the task, available resources, learner’s motivation and the stage of professional development of a learner will play a significant part in dissonance (Bayerlein & Jeske, 2018).
Refinement involves examining and sorting through the information to hold the essentials that make sense. This will be acquired through the completion of tasks, reflection, research and even discussions which will be critical in helping the learner get information on different concepts.
In the organization phase, the learner restructures their ideas according to the vast information acquired. This is where the learner does a reflection in action, they test and re-test the hypothesis to get a sense of the knowledge and organize that knowledge in an understandable form to make sense.
In the feedback phase, the learner has gripped the new knowledge and can test it against what others believe. The feedback is meet to improve the learner’s schema or make the learner to consider finding more information.
The consolidation phase is where the learner gets a reflection of what they have learned. They reflect on the cycle they have gone through not only in the increment of knowledge but also the whole process of learning.
It is in nature for people to follow new things anytime they arise and give a comparison between what we can see and what we already know and then reflect on the difference. This will provide me with an opportunity to build concepts that make sense depending on the data collected. It is crucial for the learner to think and reflect on the strategies that are being used and to the extent to which they are appropriate in the use of the available material. This strategy gives the learner this picture hence a very fundamental approach (Albers et al., 2016).
Another importance accrued from this strategy is how it integrates the new knowledge with the existing one. Scholars have established that transformative learning is achieved when a connection is created between the new knowledge and the existing one.
According to Bayerlein & Jeske (2018), at the level of the professional development plan, this strategy is very relevant and helpful because it adopts every information available to guide every development decision. The strategy is rationalized and all-inclusive. This strategy is an outcome-based strategy that relies on every aspect of learning. It is essential to understand how people from different professional background learn, and then both the learners and the trainer are supposed to remember that the process of learning is a process through which knowledge from a different professional field is weighed against a critical examination and possible outcomes. This kind of understanding is crucial for all problem-based strategy.
The strategy is also using transformative and experimental learning with a good learning framework that accommodates everyone. The approach uses educational and cultural environment changes to operate on the aspect of experiential learning. Ethics and professional behaviors are easy to learn but understanding them across different professionals’ needs is hard. This strategy uses the aspect of consolidation and feedback to demonstrate them across different environments. Students from diverse backgrounds are asked to observe, record and discuss incidents according to their professional affiliations. The theory of perspective transformation plays a significant role here since it helps in attaining the competencies.
The strategy also supports the reflection and examination of the learner-teacher assumptions depending on their field of professionalism to see where change is needed. Learning and thinking are social aspects which are structured and influenced by the setting and tools in a specific professional background. Each professional context has its power and value of education. Observational of the performance and how the trainer behaves as a role model, reflecting in and on that action and then getting the feedback is an essential principle of professional development that the strategy applies in teaching and learning in a different professional setting (David, 2016).
This plan is ethical for its users and can be afforded by the organization. Ethically, this plan is related to a variety of educational, philosophical social and other psychological theories and most effectively the andragogy which provides a classification of how adults learn best and their attitude towards learning. The plan has also considered a variety of aspects that are found in adult learning and the implication that they will have to the role of the learner and the trainer. This strategy is presented as a cycle but depending on the ability of the learner, and you can enter at any stage. Masalimova et al., (2016), say the from an ethical point of view, strategies for learning are supposed to develop and then select a system of evaluation that fits each learner on their expected competencies. The policy also outlines what to be measured, how to measure and who to measure which offer a clear ethical framework. The learner is also given the outcomes to help in the development and consolidation of their skills, knowledge, and attitudes. The learning processes are interactive because it offers collaborative learning measure where the learner is allowed to engage with others to increase their opportunities for learning.
The plan will be manageable by the organization since it is in line with the mission, vision and curriculum outcome of the organization. According to David (2016), a well-structured plan should conform to the mission and vision of the organization to describe how the organization can respond to the environment around it. The institution should also vindicate and be clear on their mission, vision, programme, and development of curricula, strategies of learning, the programme of assessing and evaluating learners concerning an educational plan and the in context various professional field. With such a clear programme from the institution, it is easy to prepare a plan that will be manageable.
My plan is adjustable to dealing with specific differences. The ability of the organization to support my professional development plan will play a major role in dealing with individual problems. Liaising with the human resource will be a boost in determining professional fields for each learner. Through the human resource, I will be able to match every learn to their specific mentor and then provide every mentor with the training and the resources that will be required to make significant improvements to the learner.
This plan will offer the learners conferences and workshops to increase their knowledge of practical issues. Workshops will help each learner to know the recent developments in their fields and then update their knowledge and skill as they learn new things. Studying the career goals of every learner will enable us to discern the desired outcomes. Speaking with individual learners will allow me to know their professional roles and positions, the responsibilities of their jobs their levels of income and other factors that will determine the kind of outcome they need individually (Masalimova et al., 2016).
One of the issues about my plan is that there is a low expectation of success if there will be poor motivation to learn unless the learners are sensitized on the expected value of success. This does not include the balance that exists between the different competing drives of hope and expectation of learning as opposed to the time and the effort that is needed to carry out the process. In addressing this issue, I will hold motivational talks with the learners to sensitize them on the expected outcomes and create an urge in them to work hard and carry out their learning in a steady way (Tuncel, 2019).
This plan also depends on the idea of social constructivism which is the zone of optimal development. The model will only be effective if the learner can link what is acquired with the existing knowledge. This problem can be curtailed by holding conversations between the learners and the tutor to articulate what is known already and extend the proximal development zone by involving new ideas in the context of current understanding. This link up of ideas will enable the learner to acquire remarkably high standards of knowledge that will be in flow with the initial one.
Generational and cultural differences are some of the significant factors to consider when making a professional development plan. General understanding of the culture of your organization is vital because every organization has a distinct culture. Cultures in organizations are as a result of company policies, associate’s contributions to the culture and the changes that the organization goes through in adapting to the changing times.
Generational differences also are important in the development of a professional development plan. Most organizations today are comprised of the baby boomers, Generation X, and millennials. Every generation here comes with its work habits, its ethics, and the communication skills that vary between them. It is hard for an organization to keep the culture in a workplace where there is generational parity.
Tahir et al., (2016) asserts that introducing professional training and development programmes in such a workplace is essential because it will offer the best solution to close the gap between these generations within the organization. The development strategy should stress on generational difference and offer the best way to bridge the gap between them. Assisting individuals from different generational cultures to work in harmony and reduced conflict, the development programme should help them in achieving a cross-cultural view in understanding each other.
Professional development is an essentialessential aspect ofof the improvement of knowledge and skills to foster quality. The dynamic professional changes that occur daily means that we should develop a sustainable plan to add more knowledge as it progresses. The awareness that more than the knowledge might change creates an environment where the professional development plans might reach a time when they are obsolete. A new venture may challenge professionals’ thinking, but this challenge needs to be addressed through teaching and learning. The norms and culture of a particular organization have a profound effect on the teaching and learning that will take place. The cultural environment may also act as a facilitator of individual and professional learning if its characteristics are among those enhancing development (Nicoglu, (2018).
The sustainability of the plan will depend on two factors: the trend of achievement of the learner after participating in the programme over a given period and the organization-based factor that is associated with the sustainability of the plan. At the organizational level, it is not important to institutionalize change. the professional development plan may lead to an increase in competence and job motivation of those involved. Sustaining these effects after the completion of the programmes has not yet been proven. The sustainability of the plan will depend on its effectiveness especially due to the characteristics. So, to sustain my plan, I will promote a collective connection of the content of the course with practical in the field. This will make sure that the provisions of my plan remain relevant since they offer both practical and mental therapy.
Tuncel (2019), says that the sustainability of the plan will also depend on the characteristics of the culture of the organization. My plan is an all-inclusive plan that offers training to learners from different professional backgrounds and organizations. Creating a professional learning community through which the main aim will be to promote collaboration of different cultures will ensure continuous professional development. Having a professionally oriented platform will enhance the sustainability of my plan. The learner will be required to abandon their organizational cultures and demonstrate professionalism. The aspect of restricted professionalism, where the learners may focus only on their professional affiliations together with their organizational provisions will be discouraged. The learners will be required to show an extended professionality in which the learners will be involved in a learning plan and also have interest in other areas of professionality. Sustainability of this plan will depend on the self-efficacy of the learners. Self-efficacy is the ability of the learner to organize and carry out the stipulated actions successfully and as intended and at the ultimate end complete a specific task in a given context. This will reduce the possibility that the learners who complete the programme leave because of exhaustion. This will motivate future returns in the programme and usage of the plan hence its sustainability.