Provide three minimal pairs of English in conventional orthography.

LING 1000 – Do not post Fall/Winter 2020-2021
Assignment 1 1
LING 1000 Introduction to Linguistics
Assignment 1
Total points – 50
Please read carefully…

Assignment Instructions:
Students are permitted to (but not required to) work in groups of two on assignments.
Only one assignment should be submitted per pair and both students will receive the
same grade.
Assignments should be completed without outside material including dictionaries or
online transcription aids. The textbook, course handouts, and course videos are
acceptable aids as are the interactive IPA sites posted on eClass or in the course

All sound files are posted on eClass. The possible segments for this assignment are
shown in Appendix 1.
Note that grammar, spelling, and punctuation are all considered for all short answer

You should not need to use any outside sources other than
the textbook and course videos and notes.
Assignment 1 is due Fri., Oct. 23 at 9:00 a.m.
You may (1) print the assignment, handwrite your answers, and then scan and send as a
PDF file or (2) type your assignment and save and send as a PDF. You may use or
018.html to type IPA symbols. As well, you can download IPA fonts at
Do not include pages 1, 6, or 7 in your PDF.
Ensure that all questions are numbered, and pages are in the correct order. Do not retype questions.

All assignments should be submitted on eClass as a single PDF file according to the
following convention: LING1000B_Assignment 1_LastName_FirstName or, if submitted
as a pair: LING1000B_Assignment 1_LastName1_FirstName1_LastName2_FirstName2.
It is the student’s responsibility to ensure that electronic submissions are complete,
legible, and submitted on time. After uploading any file, download it to ensure that it
opens and is the complete document.
LING 1000 – Do not post Fall/Winter 2020-2021
Assignment 1 2
A. There may be an error in each of the following transcriptions, indicating an impossible
pronunciation of that word for a native speaker of any variety. Correct the impossible
error(s). If there are no errors, then write ‘No Errors in Transcription’. (4 points)

  1. penny [pɛnni] __________________________________________________
  2. pleasure [plɛʒɚ] __________________________________________________
  3. music [muzək] __________________________________________________
  4. Brooklin [bɹuklən] __________________________________________________
  5. fourteen [fɔɹten] __________________________________________________
  6. ankle [ænkl ̩] __________________________________________________
  7. jaded [d͡ʒeɪ̯ɾəd] __________________________________________________
  8. trees [tɹis] __________________________________________________
    B. Listen to LING 1000 Assignment 1 QB (sound file) and transcribe the English words you
    hear into IPA. While some are from different dialects and are pronounced differently
    than in Canadian English, they include only sounds in Appendix 1. Transcribe primary
    stress. (8 points)
  9. outlaughed
  10. microbe
  11. another
  12. sharp
  13. seven
  14. phonetics
  15. thinking
  16. joyfully
    LING 1000 – Do not post Fall/Winter 2020-2021
    Assignment 1 3
    C. Provide three minimal pairs of English in conventional orthography. Do not use any from the textbook, lectures, or
    handouts and do not use the same segments as in the example below. For each minimal pair, give the IPA symbols for the
    contrasting sounds and identify the phonetic characteristics that differentiate them. Specify whether the differences are
    ones of voicing, place of articulation, manner of articulation, height, backness, rounding, and/or tension. See the example
    provided below. (6 points)
    Minimal Contrasting Phonetic Type of
    Pair Segments Difference Difference
    cat and pat [k] and [p] velar vs. bilabial place of articulation
  17. _______________________ _________ _________________________ ____________________
  18. _______________________ _________ _________________________ ____________________
  19. _______________________ _________ _________________________ ____________________
    D. Write the following sentences in regular English orthography. Keep in mind that this transcription may not match your
    pronunciation of some of the words. Also keep in mind that some of the sentences are a little strange. (3 points)
  20. /ɡulz n̩ wɪt͡ʃəz maɪ̯t d͡ʒʌmp θɹu ðə dɔɹ/ ____________________________________________________________________
  21. /mɪsəz bɹaʊ̯n wɑkt kwɪkli pæst ɪm/ ____________________________________________________________________
  22. /ðɪs ɛɡzæmpl̩z əbʌʊ̯t ə hæpi lɪɾl̩ ɡɚl/ ____________________________________________________________________
    LING 1000 – Do not post Fall/Winter 2020-2021
    Assignment 1 4
    E. Answer the following questions based on the consonant inventory of German shown
    below (International Phonetic Association. (1999). Handbook of the International
    Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of international phonetic alphabet. Cambridge:
    University Press).
  23. State which segments are included in each of the following classes. (3 points)
    a. Voiceless obstruents _________________________________________________
    b. Non-continuants _________________________________________________
    c. Dorsal consonants _________________________________________________
  24. English and German are closely related languages. State one similarity and one
    difference between the consonant systems. Do not comment on individual segments
    but rather classes of segments. For example, rather than stating that English has [ɹ]
    while German does not, it would be appropriate to say that the class of liquids in
    English is larger than that of German, with English having both [l] and [ɹ] while
    German has only [l]. (2 points)
    a. Similarity:

b. Difference:

LING 1000 – Do not post Fall/Winter 2020-2021
Assignment 1 5
F. Examine the following mid-sagittal section and determine what English consonant is
represented by writing in the IPA symbol. Explain how itis produced. (4 points)

[ ]
LING 1000 – Do not post Fall/Winter 2020-2021
Assignment 1 6
G. Read Files 1.5 and 2.7 from the textbook. You do NOT need to consult any additional
sources to complete this question nor do you need to provide a list of references. If you
quote from the textbook, be sure to appropriately cite. For information on academic
integrity, citing sources, and quoting authors see

  1. Select one of Hockett’s design features of language. Explain the design feature in
    your own words, providing an example from spoken language. Explain whether or
    not this design feature is present in signed languages. Approx. 2 paragraphs (5
  2. Lip reading is a very difficult task. Why is this? Would some sounds be easier than
    others to lip read? Discuss in approx. 1-2 paragraphs. (5 points)
  3. As Denham and Lobeck (2013: 28) state, “While some ‘language myths’ are rather
    benign, some can be very discriminatory.” There are three myths about signed
    languages discussed in File 1.5.
    Create a questionnaire to determine whether others believe these myths. Survey at
    least five people to determine their views. How many people believe the myths?
    Why might they believe them?
    After having recorded their answers, explain to your survey respondents why these
    are myths. What was their reaction? Did you convince them? (10 points)
    This question may be answered in 1-page max, double-spaced, 12 point font.
    Denham, K. E., & Lobeck, A. C. (2013). Linguistics for everyone: An introduction.
    Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.
    LING 1000 – Do not post Fall/Winter 2020-2021
    Assignment 1 7
    Appendix 1: Possible segments for Assignment 1
    Other Consonants: [w t͡ʃ d͡ʒ]
    Other Vowels: [ɚ eɪ̯ oʊ̯ aɪ̯ aʊ̯ ɔɪ̯ ʌɪ̯ ʌʊ̯ iə̯ eə̯ uə̯]

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