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For This Assignment, Research A Minimum Of 5 Recent Scholarly Articles That Relate To The Concept On Which You Wish To Focus Your Research: Inflation

Inflation is generally the general rise in the price level, which leads to the reduction of the real value of money. The primary target of microeconomic policy in the modern economy is to contain inflation (Baumann & McAllister, 2015). There are different types of inflation, and if all of them are balanced, then it would have no significant effects on the economy, but real-world fluctuations are rarely fully balanced and cannot be anticipated. I got interested in conducting further research on inflation because of academic curiosity. I realized that inflation is a broad topic because it affects many economic sectors. For instance, Bernanke et al., (2018), says if inflation is not balanced, then it affects relative prices, real interests, and tax rates. Unanticipated inflations also lead to mistaken investments and irregular redistributions of income. Steps to reduce inflations come with costs such as lower output and unemployment. Generally, inflation is a broad topic that requires more academic research.

Practically, the growth in inflation is measured by the variation in the Customer Price Index (CPI). To apprehend this occurrence, Hansen (2016), in his article: A Study in the Theory of Inflation says that one is supposed to know the difference between the universal price upsurges that happen once and always and those prices that rise is constant over time. In the rise in prices, a distinction can be made in regards to the magnification degree. In some countries, inflation is measured under 10% annual normal inflation where some do not go beyond 20% yearly and in some states where price growth has surpassed 100% yearly. When the difference in the price is 50% in a month, this is referred to as hyperinflation.

Hansen (2016), says that the process of inflation can be instigated by unnecessary making of money by the monetary experts in a state. In such situations, the flow of cash grows at a higher rate than the services and goods that the economy provides, leading a rise in prices. The need for the country to finance its deficits, in turn, motivates the unnecessary making of money. The economic expectations of the agents on the evolution of future prices also lead to inflation. This is vital since operators can anticipate an increase in prices in short to intermediate term, seek to hastily integrate this to incomes and other expenditures set by bond. This can lead to severe inflationary pressures, which, when put in practice, can cause a rise in price more than anticipated.

According to Hansen (2016), inflation exists in different forms. First, we have monetary inflation. This is the artificial upsurge in the stream of money, and it is the main historical cause of inflation. It enables an increase in demand before there is a rise in supply. Secondly, there is price inflation, which is the natural hostile deflationary feedback of the market towards money inflation. By lowering the buying supremacy of all currencies in flow, and by reducing the buying power of credit built on resources, increasing prices strongly if somehow tardily frustrate the pleasurable artificial rise in the buying power which is the aim of monetary inflation. Price inflation increases demand and reduces supply. Lastly is the real inflation, which is the level at which inflationary reasons would affect the intensities of the price if every inflationary cause were deliberated, and the time difference was eradicated. Since it is incredible to measure precisely, it can only be done through evaluation, leading to figures or number of figures made up of reasonably inexact estimates.

The cited work relate specifically to the content of this paper in that it offers a clear insight and a broader view on the concept of inflation, especially the unexpected, which causes indecision around the impending prices, which upsets decisions on expenditure, saving and investment, leading to poor distribution of capitals and therefore affecting economic growth. The cited work explains that even if inflation is not so popular among the consumers, most do not like paying more for a product from time to time, also if a similar amount has augmented their earnings, and the administration has turned to be the repression of inflation in one of the most significant of its political-economic program. Malmendier & Nagel (2015), says that in most of the industrialized countries, inflation is being controlled through technological improvements, use of the deteriorating impact of unions, denationalization and the developing national and global struggle which are the main drivers of the cost of raw material and energy products hence the ultimate price of goods and services offered, rather than applying the anti-inflationary strategy of the involved government.

The materials researched was in line with the cited article. The 5 articles offer a vast knowledge of the concept of inflation. For instance, Gilchrist et al., (2017), says that it would be more practical to view inflation, not as money but emphasize on the real case-mix which would reflect on the inflationary concept; the production scheme constraints that affect the equilibrium amid supply and demand of goods and services, organization of prices absorbed by involved economic groups, and the taut circulation of earnings between the beneficiary groups. Inflation remains a complex concept which is yet to create the correct social cost and value acquiescence within specific objectives of merging in the multifaceted course of monetary union; hence, more research is required.

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For This Assignment, Research A Minimum Of 5 Recent Scholarly Articles That Relate To The Concept On Which You Wish To Focus Your Research: Joint Venture

A joint venture is among the most favorite international market access styles used by several firms, but a high rate of failure accompanies it. A joint venture is a distinct legal, organizational unit in which at least two independent partners economically, geographically, and legally participate. Many regional and international corporations use the mutual endeavor strategy as a way of entering the market, especially in developing countries (Dhir, 2017). I am interested in this concept due to my academic curiosity. It is a popular institutional form that is selected by less industrialized countries in their attempt to welcome direct foreign investments and knowledge. It is a broad concept through which partnerships with foreign investors will increase knowledge transfer through technology development, and also increase employment chances in the indigenous country and grow the flow of overseas exchanges.

After reading an article by Yan & Luo (2016), on International Joint Ventures: Theory and Practice, I grew academic curiosity on the topic of Joint Venture. A joint venture is used in individualistic grown economies as a strategic option. A foreign company cannot come into a new economy and open a branch straight in the resident market, in an attempt to solve this, the external company merges with the local company and forms a joint venture. The key requirement in understanding joint venture is that the foreign companies mutually decide with the local company to build a legitimate institution to part possession, income or loss, and other advantages attached to the business. Also important to this is that joint venture experience a high rate of failure due to variances in strategy planning, culture, and shaping.

According to Yan & Luo (2016), Joint venture is one of the most favorite international market ventures. It involves two or more organizations that are legally formed, each playing a part in the activities of making decisions of the jointly owned entity. A joint venture is said to be international when at least one head of the jointly owned entity is based outside the venture country of actions, or if the joint venture has a bigger operation level in more than one country. In an international setting which is changing rapidly, there is powerful technology and timely competition which make the main changes around the political and economic sectors of the world. Joint venture relates closely to the increase in employment as we get new owners and entity controllers. 

However, Yan & Luo (2016), say that the joint venture suffers a high rate of failure since it has more than two parent organizations. It is established that 47% of the firms are made up of three initial firms. A study in this article positions that if a joint venture is made up of many parent companies, then it means that it will be prone to failure.

Yan & Luo (2016), said that for the success of a joint venture, there should be a flow of essential capitals and a shared indulgent among the initial companies. The required capitals and achieved skill of joint ventures initial companion are crucial to propel the association, which creates hope and the needed indulgent. Companies are supposed to look for possible associates who have joint venture skills and must have enough information to offer balancing capitals. Strength both in the market and technology and export alignment are some of the other essential elements for the success of joint ventures. Different from industrialized countries, emerging countries require local parental mechanism and good technology to realize success in their joint ventures.

 The cited work relate specifically to the content of this paper in that it offers a clear insight and a broader view on how the concept of the joint venture influences the ability of the firm to distinguish their product assistances from those of contestants and how they will decide if supporting companies will help in standardization of the configuration of their products arrangements across markets so that they can give their ventures more operating autonomy. In their article, Van der Meer-Kooistra & Kamminga, (2015), say that changing particular partner’s strategy, selecting the right strategy for joint venture and the competitor’s action should be emphasized during any alterations in the venture. The article provides that the dynamics of the owner of the enterprise and the collaboration of the partner are supposed to be accustomed to possible variations in the needed strategic respective, ability and the accomplishment of other proprietors in the joint venture.

The materials researched was in line with the cited article. The 5 articles offer vast knowledge on the concept of a joint venture. For example, Shepherd & Zacharakis, (2018), carried out empirical studies by meta-analysis to investigate the link amid culture and decision-making tactics. The results in this article show that characteristic cultures prefer a forcing approach to moreover cooperative cultures. This means that cooperative cultures employ thinning, negotiating, and problem-solving tactics than that used in a capitalistic setting during joint venture. Killing (2017), pointed out that to manage joint venture and get successful results the critical factors needed are the performance, development of a powerful human resource, practices founded on several listed features, quality performance, training competence, adaptation and flexibility, technology performance, sharing of resources.

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By Examples From Different Decades Since 1950, It Is Clear That The International Policing Role And Strategy Of The United States Was Once Essential, But Should Be Discarded As Ineffective And Counterproductive.

America as the World’s Police

As one of the main aim of a superpower, the United States has presumed the part of world’s policemen. Referring to a moral duty to maintain freedom and democracy all over the world, America takes part in external battles and exerts unparalleled global power. Ullman (2018) says that the word ‘world’s policeman’ triggers different reactions though almost no one denies that police are needed. This is mainly because no country has ever taken the position of being the world’s police or elected by a majority. Like other nations before it, the United States just assumed the role of upholding global law enforcement and carried it in its personal self-interest (Beckley, 2018). This began during the Cold War, which offered the United States a good reason to assume the world’s policeman role. Through the use of examples from different decades since 1950, it is clear that the international policing role and strategy of the United States was once essential, but should be discarded as ineffective and counterproductive.

First, during the cold war, the world was bipolar with two military giants which were competing – America and the Soviet Union. The America associates were weak comparatively since they were still recuperating and upgrading their economies after the World War II, due to this U.S required to be ubiquitous everywhere in the world to retain Soviet imperialism in check since security was perceived as a useless game: again by one side was a proportionate defeat by the other (Ullman, 2018).  Secondly, in 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, and the U.S saw this as a test of its willingness to use the military force. The actions taken by the United States and its associates suggested that to the international community that the U.S had the will and capability to respond to severe aggression and some other threats to international order. 

Recently, according to Russett, (2018), the United States took part in the cooling of the Syrian war with the intervention of the U.S military, which was authorized by Congress. They pointed security reason as the reason for bombing Syria, but no one considers that Assad threatened Americans. He never said it or took such actions. Equally, the U.S rule for many years now it has been providing weapons to ruthless and unethical kingdoms in the Arab states and autocrats in Asia and Latin America. Most of the time, when these governments want to repress its population, it applies the types of equipment made by the United States. This selective outrage is not a true agent or a retaliator of sufferers of prejudice. It is just a global hamhanded hegemon, who has autonomous geopolitical and economic benefits that control what it does in any situation (Andrade, 2016).

America was not appointed by anybody to be the world’s policeman, and by taking this role, the government destabilizes the morals that it purports to defend like privacy, liberty, impartiality, and even harmony. The attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan left many people dead, most who were seriously injured, and left unethical authoritarian governments in control of the societal remains. Although this is the case, the law of accidental outcomes cannot be cancelled, and the threat cannot be compared to the interventions that begin modesty since no one knows what is on the other side which is comprised of Iran and Russia (Russett, 2018).

In conclusion, assuming the role of world policeman affects other conflicts of other people, and a self-proclaimed leader leads to bitterness and a desire for vengeance, which may lead to further tensions. No person loves an intimidator, particularly if it is an arrogant superpower equipped with weapons of mass destruction.

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View The Scenario Called “Critical Decision Making For Providers” Found In The Allied Health Community Media

Critical Decision Making For Providers

Leadership and Vacation

Mikes Case

Mike is a lab technician who has been late for work in many cases. The job is very vital for Mike since he is the main benefactor for his new family. The supervisor has talked with Mike concerning his lateness and the probable result of termination if he continues to be late. Mike seems to take his talk with his manager earnestly. He leaves his place 20 minutes earlier so that he can reach his workplace at the right time.  He arrives at work on time, but on his way to his unit, he encounters a spill on the floor. If he takes time to clean the spill, he will be late and put his job at risk. Nevertheless, this is not his work. This scenario poses questions on the kind of decision that Mike should take: must he report the spill and risk being late again, which may lead to termination of his job? Or should he overlook the spill and believe it will not have consequences? This paper examines the two options, and a consideration on the result of every option is given.

Consequences of a Failure to Report

The hospital will be safe if MMike reports the problem. Mike can make a call to the supervisor and tell him that he will be cleaning a spill in the lobby. However, he is afraid that his job might be terminated. If he fails to report, then the person responsible for cleaning will clean the spill.

His decision to report or not seem to lead to negative results for him in any way. He will be late if he reports the spill. If he fails to report the spill, he may not be late, but there will be a threat of the spill causing a calamity. Since he is afraid to lose his job, he ignores the spill and goes on to clock in, which result in an adverse effect, especially to patients. His failure to report leads to falling down of a patient. The patients get very a lot of injuries, and her hip might be broken. Mike is in a dilemma because confessing that the fall of the patient might be a straight result of his botch to clean or even report the spill, which may lead to his termination.

The failure of MMike to report has adverse effects on the facility. The fall of the patient costs the facility time and resources and may tarnish their reputation. The patient is also affected negatively. The tumble has caused her harm, which could lead to longer stay in the hospital, reduction in freedom accompanied by fear of falling and depression.

Impact of Failure to Report

The failure to report leads to general adverse effects to every involved person. The safety of the patient is compromised by failing to report the spill. The safety of the patient is the priority since any fail or injury to patient leads to negative impacts on the patient and the facility, on top of the negative impacts, the financial effects of the patient affect the facility too. According to Silva & Hain (2017), CDC says that by 2020, the cumulative cost of fall injuries will be $67.7, leaving falls among the 20 most costly medical situations.

On top of the negative financial effects, the fall of the patient may bring about legal problems. The patient may sue the facility, which will lead to more expenditures.  Legal act against a health facility will lead to undesirable advertising about it, which will have impacts on its ratings and gratification marks. The fall of the patient will have more workload on the staff since more monitoring and assessment will be required.

Role of Management

Mikes scenario presents an enlightening chance for readers in directing their workforce to avert such a fault from taking place. As Mike’s manager, use of evidence-based management and leadership would be the best way to inspire the workforce. When workers are engaged, they lead to good outcomes (Tzeng & Yin, 2015). Employees can be betrothed when they are contented, eager, and industrious. Before punishing Mike, the manager is supposed get an image of the whole scenario. The manage show knows the description of mikes job, his programme, salary, last evaluations, and the number of workers he engages with. This will offer the manager a view of the work setting around Mike and give a close look to any sections that may be triggering his job dissatisfaction, which be the cause of his usual lateness. Having regular interaction sections with staffs gives the managers clear insight into the individual lives of their workforce and could know what is affecting their capability to do their work well. In the case of Mike, he has a newborn. Maybe he is having problems sleeping well through the night, and perhaps he is not able to wake up early for his job.

In conclusion, leaders are supposed to have the best methods to make sure that their staff are satisfied in their work and can give the best attention to patients. Implementation of evidence-based management and leadership will foster good communication among the staff and the management, ensuring sustainability in health care facilities.

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Serial Killing

Serial killing is among the most baffling crimes around the world. Serial killers can be described as people who kill four or more persons in not more than 30 days, with a crucial period of cooling off (Ardila, Alfredo, and Feggy, 68-85). The serial killer may take weeks, months and even a year to cool-off. , and thus it gives a valuable point of reference. Regrettably, it restricts the investigation of these delinquencies, since it does not include most of the natural features of serial killing such as the varied impacts of the mass media on serial murderers together with the tendency to select preys from definite walks of life. The main aim of this paper is to inspect serial killers from different perspectives and its interaction with other disciplines to get an understanding into the wider social and historical settings that make up the operational requirements for such actions.

Disciplinary Contents and Diverse Perspectives

Researchers have used many diverse psychological, sociological and biological theories in their attempt to understand the nature of the serial killing.  Some reasons for these criminal behaviors is a predisposition to violence together with a combination of personality, biological and environmental factors. Serial murder is an act dominated by male. Serial murder is closely tied to the broad social and historical background (Cummins, 159-178). This is apparent when these kinds of killing are taken into consideration concerning several historical variations that have taken place for the last few years, mostly associated with the increase in modernity. Therefore, although in the course of human history there have always been people who took part in serial killing, in the earlier years it was not conceivable for a person to be a serial murderer. Serial murdering is solely a contemporary thing, a creation that has been comparatively perpetuated by current societal and social situations through which criminologists can offer inner understanding by emphasizing on the comprehensive established outlines, incentives, and chance constructions under which serial murder takes place (Fridel, Emma, and James, 234).

To chart the societal construction of serial killing properly, it is important to look at it from a behavioral perspective and from a modern construct perspective (Wiest, 356). Serial murder is not a fresh act that has sprout in similar with the contemporary world, and it is a widespread act that can be drawn through history. It is as old as the human species. Although the practice of serial murder has appeared to be historically reserved for those with some higher power, our view towards this practice is new currently. Serial killing is an embodiment of the central stressors of their time. With the birth of the modern era, a culture of violence has grown, which is mostly built on the moral and sensual attraction to evil. So, if the serial killers are a byproduct of their time periods because of the central stressors, then they only a revelation of the fundamental issues within our culture (Cummins, 23).

When serial killing is examined concerning the individual biography of the murderers, and as a phenomenon, it requires to be examined concerning the broader social and historical setting. Serial murders are patterned in own self-image of modernity. Modernity as a concept means the social alterations that have taken effect in the world, the one that has led to new experiences due to the interventions of the actors who constructed it. These social changes come from the movement of societies, shifting the collective, family-based communities into a larger urban community where there is a change of social relations. Due to alteration of the functioning of the society, a society of strangers has been created where no one knows there immediate neighbors due to lack of a social element in the larger city centers. Due to this broad historical changes linked with modernity, it has led to a modernizing process on the crime of serial killers together with how they have come to be viewed by the society (Cummins, 89-114).

As a historical construct, serial killing is not new but with the rise of modernity, who and how the serial murder is carried out has changed. With the societal changes explained above, the serial killer has been constructed socially by various parties who are interested in giving them more consideration by community as a societal delinquent, which has led to social retort entrenched in anxiety and also captivation (Ardila, Alfredo, and Feggy, 68-85). As a direct result, the serial has attained a lot of consideration from the mass media, resulting in their celebrification founded on their actions of notoriety, a statistic that has also been echoed in popular culture. Just like any other celebrity, positive or negative, they have all drawn their fans, which has led to the creation of fandom where serial killers at the center. Nevertheless, unlike normative fandoms, because of deviant actions carried out by serial killers and the stigma attached, their fan also adopt the stigma by mere association, which leads to a need for their fan identity to be managed through diverse strategies of identity management (Cummins, 23).

Representation of Serial Killers in Modern Media Forms

The modern media forms represent serial killers as heroes, celebrities and icons. In western values, in particular, the serial killers are the theme of the extensive reporting in broadcast and theatre media. Researchers have argued that these portrayals by mass media denote two images of a serial murderer: as a monster and as a celebrity (Cummins, 89-114). The media fosters the philosophy of celeb. In our current earthly predominant modernism, the panorama of realizing celeb has developed so necessary such that it aptitudes to free people from any helpless obscurity creating them to be known way above the regulations of attributed positions such as class and family relationships. For certain individuals, the potential of being a celeb is just tempting, while to some is an all-consuming desire, to a situation where someone who does not have any degree of fame is termed as a deep disappointment. Serial killers are not invulnerable to the pleas of celeb. Most of the scandalous American serial killers appeared to be happy about their personality rank and flourish on the consideration they got. Therefore, the serial killer’s protest to the police once said, “How many times do I have to kill before I get a name in the paper or some national attention?” (Wiest, 356).

Movies are media outlets that present serial killers as heroes. The fact that most reality television shows, start with true crime programming is a thing worth in the analysis of crime and celebrity. The complex symbiotic relationship between reality television and the process of becoming a hero is supposed to be scrutinized. Different movies have provided transgressive heroes (Fridel, Emma and James, 234). These are heroes who are perceived not to be breaking the law and cannot be convicted of any specific crime, but they are famous of killing and pushing at the boundaries of morality and transgressive acceptable social behavior. This is meant to provide constant public pleasure, but fans may adopt this by association with their hero and practice it in reality.

Heroes in movies later become icons even after their death and through articles their deeds are explained or even on the internet. Reading the stories about serial killers may trigger a person from copying these deeds. The articles and videos in the media sources explaining the iconic acts of serial killers may psychologically lead to the development of deviant behavior and eventually cause a similar effect and actions (Cummins, 159-178).

Conclusion

Determining whether or not there is an empirical relationship between violent and criminal acts is a complicated task since there are many factors and forces that shape the behavior of a criminal especially on a personal level. Different contexts, ranging from the daily setting, TV shows, peer groups, news media, books, individual education experience, habits hobbies, the culture, and the community, and the cultural constructions that make the culture build our thinking and behaviors. The behavior of serial killers is propagated by the relationship between static factors that cannot be changed such as personality and genetic predisposition, and the dynamic factors that are greatly shaped by the aspects of the environment and culture of the serial killer. It is not easy to single out one aspect such as mass media effects as a causative factor among a lot of risk factors and influences that lead to the conduct of a serial killer.

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If A Project Is Complex And Uncertain More Time Needs To Be Spent Scoping The Project And Making Sense Of How The Project Will Contribute To The Overall Organizational Strategy. For This Post, We Will Discuss The Link Between The Project Scope And Strategy.

The Link between the Project Scope and Strategy

 Project scope is an outline of what is expected to be handed over to the customer after the completion of the project (Joslin & Müller, 2016). However, these various combinations of variables shape the choices of the product and the service to direct what the organizations are set to offer to their customers. “Projectification’, or working through a project helps in the grouping of the right strategies so that the organization can achieve requirements of the customer. This is a key concept that creates a link between project scope and strategies. I am interested in this concept because it helps in defining the resources and the capabilities of a company to deploy the right strategies and by way of their requirements according to the scope of the project especially on the processes involved and the deliverables (Kerzner & Kerzner, 2017).

After reading the article by Morschett, Schramm-Klein & Zentes (2015), who wrote an article on Strategic International Management, I found that I needed to carry out a further research of the topic due to academic curiosity. I found out that the variables spelled out in a project scope which includes the nature of the selection of the project, the way the project is resourced, the comparative effect of the project on the practical extents and the tactical selections that the organization is supposed to take so that to realize the provisions of the project scope, re-count to the skills, operational practices, the workforces and most importantly the strategies employed by the organization. I realized that the competence of the organization is its ability to deliver its strategy through the project scope. This was a broad topic and it attracted my attention and wanted to carry out more research.  

According to Morschett, Schramm-Klein & Zentes (2015), it is clear that the concept of the link between the project scope and the strategies can be best explained by showing how the top management has to go through the process of sense-making of the control and support to fulfill the requirements of the project. The authors further explain that when an organization is presented by project scope, they seek to provide the best strategies based on a reflection of their past applications and also propose a need to augment their strategy for better routine.

On the other hand, they argued that when an organization shows flexibility and look for the good strategies in its place, it becomes more copious about the project scope in terms of how they chose to acclimatize on the guidelines of the scope in through the best strategy that they thinks fits the project. However, they argued that the concept project scope and strategy have pros and cons. They pointed out that this concept will have effects on the exclusive nature of the project that works to customized resolutions, and also, too much suppleness may lead to confusion and may expose the individuality of the organization to risk.

The authors found out that the concept of the link between the project scope and strategy is strategic direction that an organization is set to take so that it can carry out its duties and also increase its congruence with the business environment. There has been vitality in the tactical formation of most organizations but under the general way distributed by the sophisticated order tactical choice, it was found that it is compulsory for the organizations to conform to this concept. The encounters of these kinds of vitality were found to increase the aptitude to comprehend and distribute the project scope.

The cited work relate specifically to the content of this module in that it offers a clear insight and a broader view on how the concept of the link between project scope can be applied in diverse situations and lead to realization of positive results.

The materials researched was in line with the cited article. The 5 articles offer vast knowledge on the link between project scope and project strategies. For instance, Shirazi, Kazemipoor & Tavakkoli-Moghaddam (2017), in their article on Fuzzy Decision Analysis for Project Scope Change Management, say that the project scope determines the strategies that are required to realize the project scope. This means that the one aspect is as a result of the other; if there is no project scope, then strategies will not be produced. Further they go on to argue that strategies determines how a company works. This shows that the connection between project scope and strategies play an important role in the growth of a cooperation. The other three articles listen in this papers are also in consensus with the argument by Morschett, Schramm-Klein & Zentes, (2015).

From my interment research I found that there are enough material in the platform to help me reduce my knowledge curiosity. The few materials presented in this papers are just some of what I covered and increased my knowledge. I found that the concept of the link between project scope and strategies is a broad topic that requires more research.

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You are required to submit a book review on Gateway Arch. The book review should be 750-1000 words long.

Review on Gateway Arch

It should cover the following elements: first, a clear identification of the author’s main point, or THESIS; second, the DEVELOPMENT, or the manner in which the author proves the thesis; finally, your CRITIQUE of the work.

Book Review

The author of the book Tracy Campbell elaborates about Gateway Arch in St. Louis which is a monument mostly revered for western expansion in America. The arch is heightened at 630 feet and is deemed to attract millions of tourists, and it is famous in the whole world. Campbell tends to uncover the complicated and very troubling history about this structure through a cultural, political and social perspective. The book makes an examination on how many crucial participants within the divergent motivation in relation to their ambitions, greed and civic pride led to the fruition of the Gateway Arch but at a price that the country is paying constantly.

Thesis

Tracy Campbell examines how the vital participants in the different motivations in relation to their civic pride, greed and ambition led the Gateway Arch to fruition but at a price that the country was left to pay regularly. This is a clear explanation that there existed authorities who were behind the building of the Arch who led to the success of its construction and also the fact that people are still paying the price for its development. This statement is the center of discussion in the whole book. Additionally, the statement is used to reveal to the people more about the arch.

Proof of the Thesis

He starts by putting the gateway within the situation of the current history. In the process of developing his argument, he answers comprehensive questions concerning the arch, like “Who benefitted from its construction? Who lost?” (3). The author tries to answer these questions by clearly identifying those who profited from the construction of the memorial, who are the local real estate developers and the architect who designed the arch, Eero Saarinen. He also mentions the people who lost, especially those who owned houses and carried out businesses in the area that the arch was built, the people who were willing to preserve the history of the country, African Americans, and even the city of St. Louis. Moving away from the traditional urban histories through a close examination of the built environment, he challenges the reader who have questions centered on the landscape like “what was there before,” and why food the cities look the way they are.

According to him, “the Gateway Arch came from a grand and failed experiment in urban planning” (3). The legislators at St. Louis did not find a good thing to do with the land standing adjacent to the river long before the conception of the design by Saarinen and it was a problem that came from making the city the modern trading post. In general, Tracy Campbell underplayed the issue of race in St. Louis. In the first chapter, he mentions briefly that the city was segregated from the laws of Jim Crow, and then he explains a situation where one plot to improve the conditions of St. Louis included setting up a parkway through the riverfront district so that they could displace the population which was mostly African Americans. The white Opponents curtailed this only by using the threat of invasions by the blacks to their white neighbors.

Critique

The author, Tracy Campbell, presents us with a story full of drama, encompassed with obstacles that the Gateway Arch had to go through to come into being. In my opinion, the writer writes this book intending to bring out the truth that the construction of the arch as a tourist attraction site was advised from a different angle compared to reality. He says that “tourists are presented with a mythical version of history” (1). To express this in a different way, a country that was passing through a hard time after the WWII and the Korean War, and a lot of buildings in the part of the downtown that was abandoned. The project was opposed mostly by the city, and a very long list of setbacks was listed among them being the social problems and the racial problems. These problems were so much that the constructor failed to achieve the completion of the work. This is where we are left wondering about the true history behind the monument. What was there before? What was the main beneficiary of the arch? Who really went through a loss, and what was the situation like?

After the occurrence of World War II, the city might have focused its efforts on rebuilding the front of the river with a monument which they referred to as a Gateway Arch. But now the big question is did the author really provide us with the full details about the arch or they were just scanty and only focused on what the general public wanted. The story behind this arch still remained unknown because most people believe there was more than just building it. Some critics say it was to hide the effect of the war, while others say it was a way of removing the black Americans from the city of St. Louis.

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a) Using examples and references from the main text, articles, and other relevant readings, discuss how prior to the 20th century women in the US became educated, in spite of societal assumptions and expectations about women.

How prior to the 20th century women in the US became educated

b) Using suggested articles posted on Bb (week twelve folder), and/or from your own research, discuss how issues of race, socioeconomic status, or sexuality, disability, further complicate women’s experiences in higher education

Women’s & Gender Studies

Every generation, there is always a minority group that is neglected, and it is always fighting so hard for change. For instance, everywhere you go today you will hear in the news of the gay and lesbian groups fighting for their rights. Prior to the 20th century, it was a larger portion of the population that was fighting: the women. Throughout the 19th century, women in the US fought for equal rights under the law and most importantly the right to access education. It was tough for women to access education due to the fact that they were seen as people who should stay at home and take care of the children (Dyhouse, 2016).

Women and men were expected to take different roles in society prior to the 20th century. Men were expected to lead a public life, whether involved with working in a factory or even socializing with people of the same ideas either in clubs, public places, meetings or even bars (Dyhouse, 2016). Women, on the other hand, were generally expected to live a largely homebound life. Taking care of the cleaning, cooking, and rearing of the children. Women were not supposed to spend free time in social places and were strictly supposed to carry on duties involving Maintainance of the family, from laundry to sewing socks (Davis, 2016).

Davis (2016) says that mainly due to these believes and traditional expectations for women prior to the 20th century, a few number of them had the same opportunities as men to education. Giving a woman education was regarded as subversive, and a violation of the right order of society. On top of that women were not allowed to participate in politics even voting was not allowed. They were grounded to their husband such that they were not considered full human beings at all. Although some female monarchs were experienced some time back, it was always due to the accidental death of the male heirs. Though there were some exceptions, women were purely shut out of education.

Women strived to get an education, and they had to devise means. There was a growing emphasis on domestic instruction and promotion of attitudes of mind which were perceived as the best way of educating future wives and mothers. This affected the whole sphere of education for women. Through different women historians, it has been seen that these practices played a significant role later in the fight for the liberation of women (Nash, 2016). Domestic science as it was called was considered to be a substitute for genuine science. Specialist instructors were developed for household work throughout the whole system of informal education.  Domestic instruction was developed by a few numbers of women who had attained the status of professionalism and a degree of individual independence strikingly at variance with the domestic ideology they were looking to instill into the women.

After few women attained enough education they organized rallies, protests and meeting all over Europe and especially in the United States, with an aim to bring the right of women into the course and public consciousness. Libel minded men and philosophers joined women for they know the value of education. They all pushed their agenda forward (Davis, 2016). Through this agitation, a reexamination between the relationship of men and women and the role of women in society was done. Gradually, these ideas and organizations extended steam. In 1869, the national women suffrage association was established with the main aim of getting women the right to education. Founded by the strong woman Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other vital players in advocating for the rights of the women, Susan B. Anthony, the association also encouraged women to start working outside their homes and interacting with others (Maynard, 2017).

Nash (2016), asserts that socioeconomic status, sexuality. Disability and issues of race complicate the experiences of women in higher education in many ways. The gaps between policies governing these issues and the realities to whoever these policies apply to be vital in the way education are administered. Intersectionality theory was developed so that there can be an understanding of social inequalities such as race, gender, class, and sexuality that focuses on the mutual constitutive natures, posing a potential to reveal the social inequalities. According to Dyhouse (2016), intersectionality is an aspect of critical race theory in education. The intersection roles of race, class, disability, and construction of gender play a significant role in education especially for women in this case.

Maynard (2017), in his article, says that antiracist advocacy movements in the last few years have pointed out the underlying discrimination in the education policies, the pedagogical approaches and the curricular materials that are applied in different levels of schooling and higher education. These policies devised according to racial lines affect education for women. From a structural view, the women express the inferiorization of their identities as related to race, mostly with the ascription of heritage being given to their nonwhite counterparts. This affects to a great extent how women acquire education in a racial environment. Racism remains a primary point of concern in education since it is the central point of oppression in daily situations in schools. Racism is also a crucial component in how well race scholars perceive themselves and their view of other people in the world. Racism is also a point of group cohesion and activism (Davis, 2016).

Negative social comparisons in the lower socioeconomic status groups such as women may complicate their ability to acquire education. Despite the education system being recently expanded, the levels of participation by women and the chances of academic success are still low (Davis, 2016). The disadvantaged and the minority groups that enter the higher education system face a lot of discrimination due to their socioeconomic statuses, and this has scared most of them from attending educational places. This is one of the obstacles that is widening the gap to access to education by women. Although a large number of university entrants has been recorded mainly from the people from disadvantaged backgrounds such as women, few have enjoyed success in higher education due to discrimination based on their socioeconomic status. Whiteness, in socioeconomic basis, represents beliefs and assumptions that put the interest and views of the white people at the core of what is seen as the normal thing in daily living (Dyhouse, 2016). This socially constructed perspective leaves the nonwhites in a situation where they find that anything they do, and it is not in line with what is approved by the whites as something wrong.

Nash (2016), points out that sexual identity disparities in higher learning affect the enrollment and completion of higher education in the United States. Many women experience sexual disadvantages in the achievement of higher education in social environs. This makes the attainment of education to be complex and gendered. Women are socially unprivileged especially during the attainment of education. From adolescent through college, sexual minority groups mostly women need some intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities.

Women with disabilities are painted as a particular picture in society. Their statistics are always presented everywhere making them look like a lesser being. Women with disability are also placed in individual education schools alienating them from the broader community (Dyhouse, 2016). This creates a particular notion of a lesser group in the community painting a complicated picture for them. Through special education, a certain kind of sexual role stereotype is created. This stereotype affects women with disabilities and taking part in higher education. Women with disability are double discriminated as people with disability and as women society. Disability is a socially constructed category that is mostly contested and redefined. Historically, it has been used to define, segregate and oppress women (Maynard, 2017). Disability is a personal matter that relates to a certain identity and the sense of self of a person. Critically, disability is a social construction that is mostly used in remaking oppression and inequality. In the United States, learning disability was fashioned as a tactical move to protect children from middle-class families from any downward mobility through low achievements in school. In other cases, learning disability is used in a negative manner. For women, learning disability used to mean that women were mentally challenged to pursue education. Even after being given freedom to go through education, at higher learning institutions, women are perceived to be unable to partake certain courses due to their disability (Nash, 2016).

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Analyze the nature of Mollys education within her family. What values and competencies is she taught?

Nature of Mollys education within her family.

Gary Simmons claims that the policy of assimilation that removed biracial children from their families was “based on the paternalistic belief that there is little of worth to Indigenous culture

“Rabbit-Proof Fence” is the only film that highlights the question of forced assimilation. It features three Aboriginal children who run away from a state-managed school and walk for over one thousand miles back to their parents along a fence that was initially set to deter rabbits from the farmland.  It revokes classic memories of long treks made when returning home. In this film, home the home is not as decent as it would have been worth for someone to travel that long. It is a hut made of twigs. The people living their hunt for lizards for their breakfast. Molly is the oldest of the three children in their family.

Molly had just joined her mother after having spent many months with a foster family. She was in love with the foster family, even better than other families where she had been before. However, she was so worried since she was not sure how long she and her mother will be staying in their new apartment. They have been evicted out of such kind of houses previously. He sister was left at the foster family care. Molly is seated in a quiet corner on a carpet in the library, and she told her story in an interview about her reading and writing in a third-grade classroom. This conversation was just one of the many ways through which Molly expressed the sentiments of her education with her family.

Although there is a hopeful nature painted on Molly’s life and education, her family is not stable, and she is on bleak of dropping out of school. The Federation for community planning, intergenerational poverty, and alienation from public schools have not been helpful especially to most of the low-income families where Molly comes from.

 Molly is only fourteen years old, but she can trace a direction through the wilderness. She traverses the desert to find her family. Desert has been her friend from time immemorial, it gave her shelter, food and sustained her. The skills of bushed craft and survival tactics from someone who knew them. Her stepfather, who was a former nomad from the desert had taught her. She had memorized all the directions they once traveled. She says that it was the north when riding from Perth to Mogumber siding, and the west settlement. She had also memorized the sun when it appeared behind the clouds of rain at many intervals during their tour on their first day. This made her know that she was in the right direction. This is a clear indication that even though Molly’s family was poor, she had learned something from it. She was bright, and if taken to urban schools she could perform.

Molly is passing through difficult situations with her family. There are wrought social inequities. The rich urban kids bring some discrimination in the classroom, and it undermines her ability to focus on school literary practices. There are challenging cases of students such as parents being in prison, being placed in foster families, there is community violence which is taken up by policymakers from middle-class, professionals and educators in the development programs and the larger community in ways which encourage deficit of perspectives. The interpretations of life experiences are used to reinforce the assumptions of deficiency in the families that live in poverty, the hard stories that most of the students bring to class undermine the attempts to make most of the experiences of the students including Molly to matter in any positive way. There it is essential to acknowledge all of the experiences that students bring to school and create a literary perception that is in support of them in the midst of the realities which need to be conceptualized especially on their meaning to urban students’ school literacy experiences.

Although Molly is full of determination and ambitions, first and foremost she is dedicated to her family. We see how before her mother died, Molly leaves her desire to pursue her favorite career and an opportunity for her to further education to stay with their family at home and help them. This shows the stud bonds of family and shows how she is humble and selfless. Nevertheless, Molly does not at any time lose her motivation of going for her aspiration of being a nurse.

Molly is taught so many competencies and values. From the “Rabbit-Proof Fence” by Gray Simmon’s, we can see that they are committed to progressive values even if they are facing a lot of difficulties. The children are taught the right skills such as how to clean the houses of their masters and to take care of their children. These skills are meant to help them later in life when they are forcefully assimilated in rich families. Molly and her sisters have been practicing these skills in their foster families. They are also taught to be respectful as seen when Molly is mocked by the rich kids in the urban schools but she doesn’t retaliate and also she shows respect to her teacher, Sharon. 

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In November 17, 2018, Around 3 Am In The Morning An Uber Driver Was Approached In Uptown Dallas By A Customer Who Requested A Ride Home To Prosper Texas. He Claimed His Friends Left Him And No Way Of Getting Home, Since His Phone Battery Was Dead He Offered To Pay The Driver 80$ In Cash

An Uber Driver Was Approached In Uptown Dallas By A Customer

Assault on an Uber Driver

        An Uber driver was assaulted on 17th of November by a customer who had requested him for a ride to prosper Texas.  He had promised to pay the driver 80$ cash after they reach the destination. Once they were at the destination, the driver requested for the pay, but the passage refused to pay. He jumped out of the vehicle and when the driver approached him asking for the pay. The passenger assaulted him. The driver suffered swelling, redness and pain on his left side of the jaw and the lower mandible.

        Due to this assault, the driver was not courageous enough to drive again for a few weeks, and this had so many effects on his earnings. The drivers used to earn something between 1200-1500 in a week but were cut by 60% since he could not drive during the late nights and in the weekends where most of his income came from. The fear inflicted into him by the harsh passenger caused him to fear for the rest of his stay in the uber business. Due to cut in his earnings, his lifestyle changed and he could not sustain his bills. He went through a financial crisis which made him change his way of living. This change in financial flow affected even his family. He was not even able to pay his rent for the months that followed, and he was forced to vacate his house and move to a smaller one. In the uber-company, they were being paid on commission, and the company also reduced his salary due to the low amount of money that he generated towards the company.

        The emotional attached to this horrifying situation was too much for the driver. Sometimes he would experience both high and low moods through his daily life. The depressing feeling persisted and even interfered with the ability to carry on with his daily activities and lost the interpersonal relationships.  He was faced with major depression with periods of prolonged, constant and deep depression. He started having sleeping problems, his appetite changed, he felt a lot of fatigue, self-hate, guilt, and he felt worthlessness. He could not concentrate and make sound decisions; he was always restless and could get irritated with anything small. His relationship with his family went down. He withdrew from his normal pleasurable activities and felt hopeless and helpless.

         He also developed dread feelings due to depression. These feelings persisted for a very long time, and it always made him worry about upcoming situations. This made him avoid people, and he had a lot of difficulties in coping with everyday situations due to anxiety disorders. Due to stress, he could experience confusion most of the times, and it was hard for him to concentrate. It became hard for him to learn new things and making decisions became hard for him. His work efficiency and productivity reduced. Most of the time when he did any poor work or something wrong, he would jump to defend himself and even sometimes he had problems communicating. He was socially withdrawn and lived in isolation. The financial and the emotional distress attached to the incident of assault made the driver so paranoid that he was forced to leave the job and look for another type of employment.