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Discuss Rithy Pan’s Use Of Clay Figurines, Archival Images, And Sounds In His Film ‘The Missing Picture’.

The Missing Picture

How Does The Film Work With Created Objects And Historical Documents To Reflect On The Traumatic History Of Cambodia During The Khmer Rouge Period?

Rithy Pan’s ‘The Missing Picture’ (2013) is a powerful documentary depicting the horrors of Cambodian Genocide under the ruling of Khmer Rouge from 1975-1979. The filmmaker’s choice to reenact his teenage experiences using human clay figurines raises captivating and challenging issues of representation. Illustrations of detailed dioramas compose the majority of the film that symbolize the harsh reality of mass killings of more than 25% of Cambodia population in less than three years. It is a search for a lost childhood resembling Panh’s search for a lost picture of his childhood. The missing picture unearths the truth about his traumatizing childhood experiences.

Panh’s film on Khmer Rouge genocide displays mass killings, identify destruction, and stress that accumulated among survivors. Pahn’s inspiration to use clay figurines was envisioned after visiting his maternal home after they had been expelled many years ago. He discovered changes that major changes had happened in his original home, which triggered him to request his assistant to produce a clay sculptor representing him in his original home. The clay figurines were modelled from wet clay obtained from the riverbed (Amazon, 2016). The clay used was a powerful metaphor. The figurines were unbaked leaving them fragile and impermanent. Most of forced labor done by Panh included shoveling dirt, which resembled clay work done. The figurines represented the dead family members and friends, and were symbols of genocide survivors who were not in a position to tell their experiences. The figurines in the Missing picture film represent the younger generations of Cambodians murdered in 1970s. One of the darkest episodes represents painful memories from the loss of his parents and sisters.

The film explains the reality of people long gone and their sufferings in the hands of Khmer Rouge. All screens are full of blood shed with devastating films of sufferings in forced labor. Clay dioramas recounted memories of his experiences when he was a young man and forced to work in Cambodian fields, which spelt death (Romney, 2014). It was a devastating firsthand account when a social revolution was terrible and destroyed the lives of Cambodian’s. The archival footage existing in the film reflects the era of Cambodian history. It betrays realities of daily life insisting on life of communists, which is distorted by cruelty, revolutions, and struggle for victory. Static clay figures reflected victims of forced labor in their desperate conditions, but their experiences were not captured in newsreels or photographs. The clay explains that Khmer Rouge overworked them as if they had no blood and would not get tired.             The sculptors in the film represent masses of workers, children, and adults who hauled loads of earth and rice on yokes on their shoulders as they moved across landscapes reduced to calcified lunar surfaces. Panh aimed at expressed the bitterness inside workers in its most direct version using clay sculptors (Netflix, 2016).

Truth about sufferings and experiences of Cambodian people was easily told using clay sculptors, although their first hand evidence was missing. The figurines resembled toys that enabled children to reflect on traumas and abuses encountered during the time. Moreover, they presented the childhood of Panh and his stressful encounters (Romney, 2014). The figurines used reminded Panh when they were captured with his family at eleven years and driven from Phnom Penh home. It was during this time that his father decided to go without food until he dies instead of eating animal food, which would lower his dignity. Hunger was great and killed his mother even before he could eat trapped fish brought by Panh. The toys are direct to the point on evils he faced in his childhood making the film easily understood by children. The film is full of killing acts, which were abusive and trivial to citizens.

Clay images in the film are beautiful, although the harrowing effect is revealed by the gentleness of the carvings. Khmer Rouge had destroyed personal property and left all clothes dyed black and one spoon for all individuals. Panh arranged the clay figures in intricate diorama sets representing his family in a lively patio in Phnom Penh (thatched hut built by his mother in the forest). Muddy rice paddies represented fields where his mother was forced to work. The pictures of roughly painted figures strikes the eye especially the way they are tilling the rice farm. The figure representing his father was dressed in a white suit with his brothers figure with a guitar and Panh’s figure dressed in an orange shirt and red short (Yue,2014). The figures later stay still in the dirt as they lay on wooden slat beds in the infirmary. The stillness of their picture reminds people of the lost people and pictures which cannot be retrieved.

The archival footage of child laborers indicated the fatigue, starvation, and cruelty that existed in Cambodia. Khmer Rouge footage prompts the memories of Panh’s, thus allowing clay figures to solemnize the unmoving life. Images of canisters that were rusted filled each scene in a distorted way. The archival images rest in the vaults of Bophana Audiovisual Resource center. The archive was founded in 2006 to act as the preservation for history of film industry in the country (Yue, 2014). Figurines that were dressed colorfully stood in a flashback scene as they watched Apollo moon landing (Romney, 2014). The carvings burst into sheers of joy as they played in the pouring rain. The figurines indicate that the children had nobody to care for them and get them out from the rain, since their parents were already separated and taken to work in the firms.

The documentary cinema is cast in sets of leaves, water, wood and clay as figurines are used to create a picture of what actually happened at the time of Cambodia genocide. People living in rain forest villages witnessed hunger, suffering, starvation, diseases and death. The film captures the pain of Panh using clay figures to indicate the reality of the experiences they had in Cambodia. Clay figures are armed with wooden spoons working under forced labor, wearing black clothes. The figurines were also in resistance as indicated by tiny gesture and silence. The silence indicates the denial of all human rights by the communists, and oppression they faced. Forest sounds could be heard from the film, voices of playing children and tiling of the earth. The story is much personal as depicted by the pain and anger of people working under forced labour and children crying as they desperately look for their separated parents (Amazon, 2016).

Khmer Rouge was involved in massacre of more than two million people through a fanatical communist movement that imposed forced labor, control, and execution of Cambodia citizens from their villages. The Khmer Rouge aimed at transforming Asian country into classes agrarian Utopia which resulted in community destruction through killings which led to confrontations from the rest of the world. Cambodian genocide is explained as (pol pot) Khmer Rouge party leader attempts to centralize and nationalize the society of peasant farmers in Cambodia overnight, according to Chinese Communist agricultural mode (United States memorial museum, 2016). Years before Genocide occurred Cambodia population was more than seven million with most [people being Buddhists. Genocide was triggered by seization of Lon Nol from power by the government in 1975, which lasted until the overthrawal of Khmer Rouge by Vietnamese in 1978. Harsh political climate and social unrest brought about genocide. The region remained devastated until 1980s.

Khmer Rounge scandal

The Khmer Rounge was a cruel revolutionary group, which was committed on Cambodian society revolution. Khmer Rouge soldiers comprised of young boys who were uneducated and peasants from the province who matched into phnom Penh, which was the modern capital. Most of them had never been in town before.

The army displaced Phnom Penh forcing its occupants to march towards the countryside leaving behind all their belongings. The captives were forced to dig canals and tend crops. All forms of self-expression such as freedom of worship, culture among others. Families were separated as children were recruited into labor brigades that were mobile. Former government officials were forced to surrender their positions as the capital cities were brutally emptied. Hospitalized patients in white gowns were forced to stumble with their IV bottles. Children screams were heard as they searched for their parents (United States memorial museum, 2016). Khmer Rounge continued to recruit more members since the group was originally small. Many people in Cambodia were disappointed by the western democracy because of many deaths in Cambodians resulting from strategy of the US to include Cambodia in the Vietnam War.

New recruits joined the Pol Pot’s Khmer Rounge guerrilla movement because of the heavy attack of U.S and the alliance between Lon Nol’s and U.S. By 1975, Pol Pot’s force grew to more than 700,000 men. After few days Khmer Rouge took over Phnom Phen, policies of collectivization were implemented by pol. The government controlled all schools, hospitals, communal labor, and institutions among other property. Pol Port admired Mao, which meant communism, and Stalinism, he had a vision of creation of new Cambodia that was based on Maoist-Communist model. He aimed at restoring the country to its primitive years.

The citizens would participate in rural work projects while removing western innovations. Khmer Rouge attempted to centralize and nationalize peasant farming overnight in Cambodia. Khmer had a special believe of laboring all Cambodia citizens for collective arms federation (United States memorial museum, 2016). Persons questioning the new order were tortured and killed by guns, while members of the movement were killed since some were suspected traitors and spies for foreign powers. The policy would eliminate opposers of the movement through death. Cambodia genocide was merciless since it forced all people from their villages and hometowns and killed those unable to walk long journeys such as the old, disabled, young, and handicapped. Those who refused to free from their homes were immediately killed together with those who opposed the new regime. The entire city was left with nobody as residents were evacuated from their homes. Citizens civil and political rights were abolished as major separation were done between parents and their children. Parents were sent to different labor camps. Slavery was practiced among those who managed to travel the long journeys marching to the desired directions. The captives worked on minimum rations endless working hours while most of them were not paid. Most people who lived survived on public communes, which resembled military ballacks.

Food shortages and medicine were common due to mismanagement of the economy and rampant contagious diseases killed Cambodia citizens (United States memorial museum, 2016). Khmer Rouge ended up killing most Cambodians since they could survive starvation, illnesses, slave labor that made them incapable of working physically. Kang Kek Iew used the slogan ‘to spare you is no profit; to destroy you is loss’. Opposers included professionals, doctors, lawyers, journalists, upper class member’s students, and professors. There was a major shut down of factories, hospitals, schools among other private institutions. Former owners of the closed institutions were killed and their employees murdered together with their extended families. People found speaking a foreign language were killed on the spot together with those who wore glasses since they were thought of as traitors and in association with the west (The museum of modern art, 2016). Showing emotion was forbidden since those found crying or smiling were killed. Most killings were inspired by militant communist transformation propaganda, which believed that intellectuals and journalists were great threat to the state.

Khmer Rouge targeted religious and ethnic groups such as religious enthusiasts, Muslims, Christians, Vietnamese, Thai, and Buddhists, who were all persecuted. Christian missionaries and Buddhist monks were all killed while temples and churches were burnt. Minority groups were relocated by force while use of minority languages was banned. Khmer Rouge executed some members and interrogated its personal membership after suspicions of sabotage and treachery (World without genocide, 2015). The ability of individual to work determined their survival. As a result, the handicapped, ill, and children suffered greatly for their inability to work physically daily. American Embassy by the time was concerned with Cambodia and the effect of Vietnam War.

U.S. embassy in Phnom Penh was not interested with victims. Khmer Rouge led to loss of more than three million Cambodians. More than 25% of the population died from Khmer Rouge policies such as forced relocation, forced labor, malnutrition, and mass executions. Hills (2014) adds that Panh and his family were moved to Khmer Rouge labor camps where they were forced to work for more than twelve hours each day. The hours were spent cultivating rice fields, building roads, burying the dead and hauling rocks. Breaks were few where interpersonal contacts were restricted. There was minimal food, which caused the death of her mother father and siblings. Most people encountered major sufferings after end of Khmer Rouge, where thousands flew to Thailand; some were forced to eat leaves, roots, and bugs found along the way. Some starved to death. Those who migrated to Thailand suffered from typhoid, malaria, cholera among other illnesses, which they spread to the origins in the camps.  Over 650,000 people died year after Khmer Rouge fall. Khmer survivors suffered stress, depression, and lack of treatment for various diseases (United States memorial museum, 2016).

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Critically Reflect On What Have You Learned From The Literature On Knowledge Translation And Barriers To Evidence-Based Practice, (Specifically Grol And Wensing 2004; Strauss, Tetroe And Graham 2009)

The Literature On Knowledge Translation And Barriers To Evidence-Based Practice

A brief statement from you about what you have found surprising in this topic

Evidence-based practice improve patient outcomes through conducted researches on various medical problems. However, most registered nurses have not engaged in continuous evidence-based practice, because of resistance from nurse leaders, politics, and organizational cultures. Despite the benefits realized from evidence-based practice such as introduction of new medicine, there are still no mentors to guide older personnel in nursing profession on how to conduct evidence-based practice. Other nurses who joined the profession many years ago resist to various changes brought by recently graduating nurses. Evidence based practice reduces complications among patients and reduces cost of health care. Despite efforts to increase awareness on evidence-based practice, few organizations report using evidence-based practice while caring for their patients. The most surprising fact is that experienced nurses who have served longer sentences in health care are least interested in learning evidence-based practices. Other health care centers do not allocate funds to finance evidence-based practices in their budgets.

It is surprising that some nurses are conservatisms who refuse to change to new cultures. Culture is a huge problem affecting health facilities where many nurses explain that evidence-based practice is not their culture when confronted to conduct the exercise. They claim that evidence-based practice was not originally integrated in the nursing profession and thus will be hard to introduce it along the way. Proper methods of knowledge translation involves exchange, synthesis, and application of ethical knowledge when users and researchers are interacting. It is important to note that evidence-based practices require effective methods of knowledge translation to assess review and utilize scientific research when conducting evidence based practices. It is surprising that many nurses have not learnt effective methods of knowledge translation, which acts as the major barrier of passing knowledge from researchers to users.

2          What you understand evidence-based practice to be

Duke University medical center (2) explains that evidence based practice is the integration of patient values, clinical expertise and best researched evidence into the process of making decision while taking care of patient. The accumulated experience of clinicians, their skills, and education is their professional expertise. Patients forward their unique concerns, values and expectations to the nurses who use evidence researched using sound methodology to give the appropriate treatment and medication. Evidence based practice is the combination of best research evidence, clinical expertise and values of patients and their preferences. Evidences gained supports patient care and creates opportunity to achieve optimal outcomes and quality life Patient encounters trigger evidence based practice because questions are generated from varied experiences, especially on effects of therapy, diagnostic tests utility, disease prognosis and etiology of various disorders. Clinicians require having new skills such as efficiency in searching literature, formal rules application while using evidence to evaluate clinical literature (p.1).

Steps involved in EBP process

Evidence based practice begins with assessing the problem of the patient which raises questions from care given to the patient Duke University medical center (2). The nurses constructs informed clinical questions from the case. A good question clinically contains the problem of the patient, defining their important characteristics such as primary problems experienced, existing conditions of the disease, their ages and gender that are important to diagnoses of disease and treatment. The question contains methods of intervention, prognostic factor, and exposure considered, drugs prescribed preferred surgery and tests.

The comparison with the intervention is indicated either between two drugs. The question lists what should be accomplished, symptoms to be eliminated, and methods of reducing adverse effects (p.1).

Acquiring the evidence is the third step where nurse selects appropriate resources and conducts appropriate research. Evidence is acquired through conducting various studies including case series and case reports, which include report collections concerning treatment of individual patients. However, they have minimal statistical validity. Case control studies involve patients with specific conditions compared with normal persons. Researchers identifies factors related to the illness. Medical records are used to recall when collecting data. Cohort studies deals with patients taking particular treatments or exposed to certain conditions. The outcomes are compared with other persons not exposed to the treatment. Randomized controlled clinical trials are experiments carefully planned introducing treatment with an aim of studying the effect on real patients. Methodologies such as randomization and blinding reduce bias and allow researcher to compare between control and intervention groups Duke University medical center (2), (p.5).

Randomized control trial provides sound evidence of effect and cause. Systematic reviews focuses on critical questions answering each question. The process involves conduction of extensive search of literature to select studies having sound methodologies. Studies are reviewed and assessed for their quality while results are summarized according to criteria of the question under review. Meta-analysis analyses varied studies on specific topic and using statistical methodology to combine results and report them. Cross-sectional studies define relationships of diseases among other factors in defined populations. They lack timing information, exposure and outcome while only including prevalent cases. They commonly compare diagnostic tests. Qualitative research answers questions regarding responses of humans towards potential problems of health, describing, exploring, and explaining health phenomena under study (p.6).

The fourth step is appraisal of the evidence to determine its validity and usefulness in clinical practice. The nurses then gets back to the patent to discuss their preferences while integrating evidence with clinical expertise as well as applying it into practice (Duke University Medical center (2)(p.6). The last step is self-evaluation where the nurse assess the performance with the patient.

3          Choose one area of your practice, critically reflect, and articulate what currently underpins or drives it. You can be honest here, it may be that it is underpinned by best evidence or by habit ‘this is the way it has always been done’

Policy, research, and ethical frameworks underpinning practice of dietetics

Guiding principles underpinning professional conduct include beneficence (taken actions should aim at doing well). Non-maleficence principle explains that dietitians should take steps that prevent causing harm to others. Justice principle ensures fair treatment of people. Fidelity aims at becoming faithful to promises made to others while autonomy principle describes that individuals have the right to choose freely their own direction and their consequences

Dietitians must support and protect health of persons using the service, and health of the community at large. They are required to behave in ways that justify trust and public confidence. They are required to enhance and uphold a good professional reputation. Dietitians are accountable for practice individually, thus responsible of answering omissions, actions, directions and advice from other professionals (Douglas(1). They must care for service users entitled to competent and safe care. They are required to adhere to country laws.

Dietitians understand limits within their area of practice and be in a position to look for advice and refer other professionals. They practice within legal and ethical boundaries required in their profession by understanding the need of respecting and upholding their rights, values, and dignity. They derive best care standards even when there is personal incompatibility (p.1).

4          Critically reflect on what have you learned from the literature on knowledge translation and barriers to evidence-based practice, (specifically Grol and Wensing 2004; Strauss, Tetroe and Graham 2009) that you can take with you in your practice? If you had to change practice in your setting tomorrow, what would be uppermost in your mind?

Knowledge translation

Dietitians require knowledge on Knowledge translation (KT), to synthesis information, exchange it, and apply it in ethical situations when interacting with users, researchers, policy makers, managers, planners in healthcare and public care, as well as researchers across disciplines. More interactive groups include providers of health care across formal and informal settings, private sectors such as venture capital firms, distributors, and manufacturers. Dietitians are involved in knowledge translation to create new information and apply it in respective fields to yield beneficial outcomes in the society. Dietitians use KTstrategies to define research questions, formulate hypotheses, identify best research methods, conduct research, interpret findings, and contextualize findings. Dietitians apply findings to resolve problems and practical issues (National center for the dissemination of disability research (5) (p.1). KT continues dialogs, interactions, and partnerships between different knowledge groups. KT knowledge translation is an interactive process, a nonlinear process, requires multidirectional communications in multiple activities and ongoing collaboration among dietitians. It is oriented in impact and makes use of diverse knowledge of users.

Knowledge translation and evidence-based practice

KT moves knowledge based on research into practice, matching with engagement of evidence-based practice (EBP) among dietitians. Diet Practitioners make decisions in their practice depending on integration of research evidence added with clinical expertise and unique values of patients (Sudsawad (3) (p.1).

Models of knowledge translation

Dietitians use CIHR model of knowledge translation to identify a research cycle where interactions, communications, and partnerships occur. Dietitians begin by defining research questions and methodologies, conducting research, publishing research findings in accessible formats and plain language. They place research findings in sociocultural norms and other knowledge, making decisions and taking actions from research findings, and influencing rounds of research depending on impacts brought by use of knowledge (Sudsawad(3)(p.3).

Barriers to evidence-based practice

Dietitians avoid practicing evidence-based practice because of barriers such as lack of enough education and skills as well as knowledgeable mentors, tools required and adequate resources to engage in EBP. Moreover, lack of time and organizational culture are additional barriers to EBP. Health managers fail to provide enough support to nurses to conduct EBP. Workshops and seminars are not availed to train nurses on processes to follow and skills needed along with ways of their implementation (Laura(3) (p.1).

If you had to change practice in your setting tomorrow, what would be uppermost in your mind?

Evidence-based practice requires effectiveness from nurses and other healthcare professionals. Organizing workshops and seminars frequently will be the foremost practice to include in health care. Most healthcare workers joined the medical profession more than twenty years when evidence-based practice were not introduced, thus welcoming mentors in workshops and seminars will equip them with necessary skills required in practicing evidence-based practice.

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Valves Activities (Functions and Maintenance): Control Valves, PSV’s, PRV’s,MOV’s, MV, HP Valves & Steam Traps

Valves and their functions

Valves are devices that direct, regulate and control flow of fluids such as gases, liquids and fluidized solids. They vary amount of flow in fluids, relieve components, and regulate downstream system. They open, close, and obstruct passageways partially. Check valves prevents and checks fluids flowing in one direction.

Valves have a body and bonnet. The body forms outer cover containing internal parts. The bonnet is the part through which stem passes. The body is made of metallic, brass, cast iron, alloy steels, gunmetal, bronze, and steel. Ports allow passage of fluid through valves. Valve member and discs regulate flow by obstructing Bonnets (Den, 2016). The disc is an obstruction that is movable in the stationary body regulating flow inside the valve. The seat forms the interior surface of the body contacting the disk forming a tight seal to avoid leakage.

 The stem is responsible of transmitting motion from controlling device to the disc. Gaskets are mechanical seals preventing fluid leakage from valves. Valve balls is used in high-tolerance applications and heavy duty. Springs are used in loading to shift disks in various positions by default, but still controlled with an aim of repositioning the disk. Relief valves use springs to shut valves but at the same time permit excess pressure to open valves against spring loading. Valve actuator is involved with operation of disk and stem assembly. Actuators are manually operated hand-wheel, manual lever, motor operator, pneumatic operator, and hydraulic ram (Den, 2016). Valve packing is used to prevent leakage from spaces left between bonnet and stem. Fibrous materials are used for packing such as flax, Teflon. It is compressed to prevent loss of fluid and damage of stem valves.

Valve maintenance

Slight leakages are maintained by tightening eyebolt nuts using equal force on both sides. Addition of gland packing in the stuffing box is done through rotating hand wheel in anticlockwise direction all in full open position. Globe and gate valves are availed a back seating arrangement in total full open position. An angular scriber is used to remove old packing and replace it with new correct sizes with open ends placed at 180 degrees with each other. The spindle is cleaned and lubricated since it is located above area meant for packing, exposing it to open atmosphere with much dust and harsh conditions of weather. Smooth valve operation is maintained through protecting the spindle-threaded portion. Lubrication of the spindle is done periodically with grease gun applying grease (Valvulas, 2009). Generally valves should be stored properly away from contamination with hard particles in the pipeline.

Types of valves

Control Valves, PSV’s, PRV’s, MOV’s, MV, HP Valves, & Steam Traps

Control valves

Control valves are widely used in processing plants to regulate pressure, levels of fluids, temperature within desired range. Control valves manipulates flowing fluids such as chemical compounds, water, gas and steam with an aim of compensating load balance and regulate variable processes. They consist of a sensor, transmitter, and controller to compare variable process. The controller sends correct signals to final controlling element. Control valves regulate pressure and rates of flow in fluids (Solken, 2016). Globe valves are used for control because of their flanged ends that ease maintenance. Control valve modulates flow by moving valve plug as related to ports in the valve body.

 Pressure control valve (PCV) acts as the initial line of defense for primary safety.

PCV is a device that acts proportionally opening and closing to increases in pressure. PCV controls generation of excessive pressure found in fluid line thus used in applications that require reduced pressure to cylinders between valve output and cylinder. It is used in hydraulic and pneumatic circuits to prevent production of excess pressure. PCV increases passage of flow to reduce pressure and decrease C/S area in cases of increasing pressure. Damaged PCV negatively affects actuation of hydraulic component and fluid lines. Example, PCV controls fluid pressure flowing to the cylinder or hydraulic actuator (Fukui seisakusho Company, 2016). High volume check valves is installed to allow reverse flows rapidly.

Pressure relief valve (PRV)

Pressure relief valve (PRV) is the relief device on a vessel filled with liquid acts as the final move to protect vessel and fluid line from bursting. The valve does not open suddenly but proportional according to increases in pressure. It opens fully after sensing excess pressure to relieve excess fluid, avoiding disasters, and accidents. it does not release excess pressure until the pressure in the vessel exceeds designed criteria (Fukui seisakusho Company, 2016). PRV operates is in operation when there is excess pressures and remains idle when the pressure is rising in the vessel. However, damaged PRV destroys equipment that generates pressure and injures workers around. Example, boilers having PRVs do not generate excess pressure in boiler vessel. Spring loaded PRV expands when axial load is over designed pressure-causing opening of valves so that excess pressure is relived. Relief valves are used when the drop in line pressure is higher than 3% of set point and backpressure is over 50%.

Types of pressure relief valves include

Conventional relief valves

Conventional pressure relief valves (PRVs) operations are directly affected by changes in back pressure. Use of conventional pressure relief valves is prohibited when built-up backpressure is higher than 10% of set pressure at 10% over pressure. Built-up backpressure allowable at higher maximum is used for excess pressure higher than 10%. Conventional relief valves are reliable and versatile in cases of proper sizing. However, it has a negative effect on backpressure when valve is releasing pressure, thus accumulating pressure in protected equipment.

Balanced bellows relief valves

Incorporation of bellows minimizes backpressure effect on valves operational characteristics. Bellows surround area equal in size to inlet orifice area, which is free and well ventilated from backpressure effect on the relief valve discharge side. Allowed pressure of relief valves is 10-50% of set pressure. Balanced bellows relief valves have no backpressure effect during accumulation of pressure and its release (Fukui seisakusho Company, 2016).The only disadvantage is its release of flammable and toxic substances to the atmosphere through vents found in bellows.

Pilot operated relief valve

Pilot valve is a small valve used for safety and has a spring. Smaller pilot valves that are self-actuated control and combined main relief in setup operated by a pilot. Relief valves makes use of process fluid that is circulated via pilot valve in application of closing force on safety valve disc. Operation of pilot operated valves is assisted by chosen arrangement having minimal margin between pressure set on relief valve and operating pressure found in protected equipment (Fukui seisakusho Company, 2016). The only disadvantage is blocking of inlet of the pilot valve tubes by wax, ice and hydrate. Vacuum relief admits external fluid preventing excess vacuum in the internal.

Pressure safety valve (PSV)

PSV is a relief device installed on compressible fluid and vessels filled with gas. The valves open suddenly and fully after reaching set pressure. Conventional safety relief valve the opening characteristics are affected by superimposed backpressure (Fukui seisakusho Company, 2016).

Steam traps

Steam traps are automatic valves that is used in filtering condensed steam, gases that are non-condensable including air without allowing the steam to escape. Industries use steam to heat and mechanical power among other uses that prevent loss of steam. The steam trap valve is self-contained to automatically drain condensate from enclosures having steam and prevents loss of steam. Moreover, it permits controlled flow off steam at an adjustable rate. Extra steam traps allow passage of non-condensable gases and avoiding escape of live steam. Steam traps allow consumption of steam in negligible amounts (Fluid control institute, 2008).

Steam trap mechanism

Steam trap mechanism are operation principles developed to automatically discharge condensed and uncondensed gases. Common mechanisms rely on differences in pressure, gravity, and temperature.

Types of steam traps

Mechanical traps

Mechanical traps have rising and falling floats depending on levels of condensate, with an attached mechanical linkage, which gradually opens and closes valves. There is direct relationship in operation of mechanical traps and levels of condensate in steam trap body. They have a three years’ service life. Mechanical traps include float traps and inverted bucket (Fluid control institute, 2008).

Temperature traps

Temperature traps valves are driven off or on through expansion or contraction from differences in temperature. Condensates are removed soon after formation to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. Condensates are removed at temperatures below forty degree centigrade. Examples include thermostatic traps, Bi-Thermostatic traps and bimetallic traps.

Thermodynamic (TD) traps

TD traps perform when there are differences between dynamic response and changes in velocity of flows in incompressible and compressible fluids. Entering of steam, the disk is forced against the valve seat by static pressure over the disk. Static pressure in wide area overcomes the steam high inlet pressure. Condensation of the steam leads to reduction of pressure existing against the disk and trap cycles, making TD trap into a time cycle device that opens in presence of steam (Fluid control institute, 2008). As a result, premature wear occurs and shutting of trap in case the non-condensable gas is trapped in the disk.

Venturi nozzle traps

Venturi nozzle traps wok depending on two-phase flow while removing condensate from systems of steam since steam and condensate undergo many stages. It has complicated sizing that does not allow escape of steam. Eddy currents that are erosive are eliminated and contaminants carried along with condensate. Condensate chocks nozzle protecting from steam loss during removal of condensate.

Metering valve (MV)

Metering Valve (MV) control fluids to actuate and govern different types of equipment and mechanisms. Their scale of color on stem is exclusive; the flow is controlled in both directions and has micro-fine needles. The styles are straight and right angled and straight. They have a metal-to-metal sealing, torque seated and its quarter design is triple eccentric. There are no leakages while seats do not rub each other (Orton, 2009). The valves are fire tested thus being fireproof. MV valves are used to process fluids, hydrocarbons, geothermal steam, sour and hot gas, hydrogen, and oxygen, abrasive service, acid, chloride, and caustic services as well as sulfur recovery. The temperature is limited to -196 degree centigrade to 818 degrees centigrade. The pressure is limited from full vacuum to 450 Bar. Materials used to manufacture it include superduplex, Monel, Inconel, Alloy 20, titanium, aluminum, and bronze.

High performance (HP) Valve

HP valves have double offset seat/stem and disc geometry that provides super sealing with reduced seat contact and wearing out. It has many sealing edges that are machined and tapered. The shaft is a single piece that is designed to provide maximum strength and CV. Its internal position of the cast disk is designed to stop preventing excess travel of the disk and maintain optimum contact of the disc and seat. The stem packing is adjustable and centered equipped with oversize bearings that reduce leakage of stem and other emissions that are fugitive. There are disk spacers that place the disc in center of the seat to avoid seating distortions. The proof stem is blown out to avoid injury and loss of products (Milwaukee valve company, 2010). The pressure and mechanical design combined is repeated to get reliable sealing performance with prolonged life cycle. The connection of the stem and disc only permits minimal losses of motion and strength. Examples are P series Lug with lever 21/2”-8”,HP series Lug with Gear 21/2”8”, HP series Lug with Gear 10”-24”,HP series Wafer with lever 21/2”-8”, and HP series Wafer with Gear 21/2”-8”.

Motor operated valve (MOV)

Motor operated valve (MOV) is important in piping and plant system. MOV valve are large in size and applicable in many ways such as pump discharge. The motors fully open or close valves in pipelines. Example cooling water lines that process pipelines that do not require fluid control. Motor operated valves are used to totally stop or allow flow of fluids. The valves are not applicable in throttling purpose since they serve off-on service application. MOV are of many types including gate, butterfly, and ball valves all having actuator control (USNRC Technical training center, 2010). Electric motors often mounted on the valve, geared to the stem of the valve to ensure closing or opening of the valve when motor is operating. Motor operated valves are applied during frequent operations, and when locations of valves is hazardous, inaccessible and in remote places.

Open/close valves

 Open/close valves automate manual open close valves like sanction valves, pump discharge, boiler feed water isolation valves and product line valves.

Itching valves

Itching valves require degree of control such as gradual opening and closing. It is applied in IBD valves, boiler main steam valves, boiler start up vent, reflux lines (USNRC Technical training center, 2010).

Precision flow valves

Users enable continuous control in Precision flow valves by making use of feedback from field to controller that is unavailable in other valves operated by the motor. Examples include injection valves.

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An Understanding Of Social Theory Helps Social Workers Maximise The Welfare Of Service Users/Carers’. Critically Analyse This Statement In Relation To One Social Theory Covered In The Module.

An Understanding Of Social Theory

Introduction

Functionalism is a social theory established by Emile Durkheim. Together with social theory, they define the status of organizations and roles played by social workers to create equilibrium in the society. The paper explains functionalism theory by Emile Durkheim in depth together with its functionality in the society. In addition, it defines social theory and relates its responsibility in social work. Social workers use social theory to assist them meet the needs of people in the society and in particular the older adults aged 65 years and above. The paper ends with definitions of some words used while describing theories and critizing functionalism theory with alienation theory.

Functionalism theory by Emile Durkheim

 Durkheim functionalism theory views the society as a whole system, and as interconnected parts, whichform the whole. According to Pope (2016), Durkheim assumes the tendency of system equilibrium and considers the possibility of social order. As a result, he views structures according to their contributions to the perpetuation and or evolutionary development of the society. Durkheim perceives that commonalities and consensus are the basis of social order. He concentrated on social order problem and the positive effects of social institutions. Durkheim explains that all parts in the society are related and are agents of socialization and they contribute together to maintain the society as a whole.

Emile Durkheim uses Functionalism theory to visualize social structures more important than individual. It explains that individuals are born in the society therefore becoming products of social influences surrounding them such as families, religion, media, and education (Trueman, 2015). Social consensus, integration, and order are the main beliefs in functionalism theory since it allows the society to progress and continue because it shares norms and values meaning individuals have common goals and interests to conform and minimize conflict.

Functionalism theory discusses about the adaptation in relation between the environment and the system. Durkheim argues that social systems should have degree of control in their environment. Shelter and food should be provided towards meeting physical needs of members. The economy is the institution that is concerned with the function (Trueman, 2015). Functionalism theory interprets every part of the society and their contribution to stability of the whole society.

  Durkheim explains that the society consists of parts and each part is functional and operates to make the society stable. Durkheim visualizes the society as an organism where each part must function and no part can work alone. When one part experiences a crisis, the other parts must adapt to fill the void in one way or another. The functionalist theory explains that societal parts are composed of social institutions, which have different needs with particular consequences that follow when they are not met (True man, 2016).

  The consequences are there to shape and form the society. All parts depend on each other to function. The institutions defined by Durkheim are family, government, economy, education, religion, and education.

Functionalism theory explains that institutions exists to serve a vital role to make the society function as a whole body. Institutions that do not serve as whole they die away. New institutions are created when needs evolve or change. The government contributes to making the society whole by providing education to children and families at cheaper prices. The people pay taxes to make the society run and is used by the government to make it run and the whole society. The family depends upon the school to offer appropriate education to the children who will end up in good jobs. The jobs will raise and support their families as well as assists their parents financially (Emirbayer, 2000). As a result, the living standards of the whole society will be raised. The societal rules give orders that ensure stability in the society. The society produces enough food for its people. If the rules are not appropriate, they are changed and its people forced to adapt to the new forms of order, production, and stability systems.

Functionality theory emphasizes on consensus and order existing in the society. It is a consensus that focuses on social stability and shared public values. As a result deviant behaviors change and disorganization in the systems to achieve stability. Social problems are created when one part of the system is not working affecting all other parts in the society. Durkheim argues that it is important to analyze the society and describe its functions. The equilibrium is met by proper functioning of social systems. Example the state should provide education to children using taxes from their parents. However, if the state does not provide proper education, the children drop out and become criminals. As the system adjusts, it introduces rehabilitation centers and jails as well as other means to punish the criminals and make them law-abiding citizens.

Ziyanak and Williams(2014) explain that Durkheim viewed crime and delinquent behavior as a normal and necessary occurrence in the social systems. Criminal actions triggered formation of a consensus among individuals and what they thought could be ethical and moral norms to abide with. Functional perspective explains social institutions as collective means of meeting social and individual needs. Durkheim writings are vital towards understanding deviance. Durkheim argues that crime and small numbers of ill individuals in unnatural settings does not create deviance but the actions are important in the society.

 Crime is a crucial function. Durkheim used Functionality to describe deviant behavior in the society. He noticed that deviance results in positive benefits to the society since they are used to differentiate between right and bad ideas in the society. In addition, crime influences non-criminal population and strengthens creative conscience through creation of boundaries for human conduct and approval of deviants (Ziyanak and William, 2014). Durkheim explains that crime is a normal force functioning behind social order and moral parameters. Thus, it is inevitable and important in each society. Durkheim points that division of labor had economic benefits as well as increasing production of goods, affluence and economic success. Punishment corrects the guilty individuals and scares off possible imitators. Further, it prevents violation of the societal cohesion. Durkheim explains that anomic suicide originated from human activities that lack proper regulation and consequential sufferings. Suicide cases are a result of moral degradation, social deregulation, and consequences of divorce, death of spouses or being single (Zinayak and William, 2014)

Durkheim discusses functionalism theory to explain ways used by societies to maintain internal stability and survival through time. He used solidarity to explain social stability. Moreover, functionalism differentiated between solidarity in primitive societies and ensure organic solidarity in complex modern societies. According to Durkheim, mechanical solidarity held together traditional and primitive societies. Societal members live in small groups that are not differentiated. Durkheim explains that communities share strong ties within the family since they perform similar tasks which results in similar values and symbols. However, Durkheim observes major contrasts between traditional and modern societies. In modern societies there are weaker family bonds, there is complex division of labor since each member performs their own tasks.

Durkheim argued that the functionality of the modern society would eventually destroy the mechanical solidarity in traditional societies. However, Durkheim observed that modern societies never fall apart, instead they depend on organic solidarity since there are extended division of labor. The members of the society are forced to interact and exchange with each other to provide for their needs. Further, functionalist perspective explains maintenance of stability in societies as well as internal cohesion, which is important in ensuring continuous existence over time. Each part in the society works together naturally and automatically to maintain overall social equilibrium. A change in one institution precipitates changes in other institutions. Dysfunctional systems in an organization eventually die out since they do not contribute to the total maintenance of the organization.

Summe, Scholl, and Webb (2007) explains descriptions of Anomie according to Durkheim.anomie is a reaction against social controls of the society. It is the breakdown of normal behavior in the society. Durkheim explains that deviant behavior originate from a state of anomie. Durkheim explained that crimes happened to release social tensions and thus cleanse purging effect in the society.

Discussion on how social theory helps social workers (at least three ways on how functionalism helps social workers) linking it to examples of contemporary social work practice. Eg coproduction, personalization,

Functionalism theory helps social workers to interact with their environment and enable them use behavioral theories and social systems. Social workers engage with vulnerable people having difficulties of participating in the society fully. Social workers use functionalism theory to promote the well-being of human and redress human suffering and injustice (Hudson, 2000).

  Social work theory assists social workers to explain the situation of the client and predicts their behavior. It assists in predicting a starting point for social workers. It helps social workers to have an organized plan of their work reducing wandering happening in the practice. It offers a clear framework in social situation and offers accountability to their work. It gives social workers a perspective to conceptualize and address the problems of clients and decide on appropriate interventions. Social workers use social theory to identify knowledge gaps about practice. Social theory to be defined in general and then Functionalism to be defined in depth.

Social theory helps in understanding human behavior and meanings of unique situations experienced by clients. It acts as a guide in the practice of social workers by offering a holistic approach to analyze clients and serve them better (Genitty et al., 2014).

Social work definitions

Larkin (2006) defines social work as interventions given to individuals and the environment, it addresses connections between client systems and clients themselves and their interrelationship with the society. Social work aims at creating personal and environmental changes to improve people’s life and living conditions. Social work aims at identifying the poor, oppressed groups and other vulnerable populations and helping them pout of problems.

Larkin (2006) explains that social work addresses the interaction between people and the environment. It concentrates on ways of improving the lives of people and facilitates transformation and growth through skillful evidence based interventions. Mullen (2014) asserts that Social workers consider evidences and draws conclusions from assessing cases, conducting intervention planning and selecting outcomes that pertain to his professional work. Evidences may be direct or indirect.Larkin (2006) continues to add that social workers concentrate on helping the underprivileged members of the society, strengthening the well-being of people and addressing the welfare of the whole society.The Irish Association of social workers (2011) defines social work as a profession that promotes social change, solves problems in human relationships, empowers, and liberates people to enhance their wellbeing. Mackie (2007) explains that theories of human behavior in social work identify areas where people interact with their environment. Human rights principles and social justice are important to social work.

Social workers

The college of social work (2013) explains that social workers are responsible of transforming the lives of mentally ill older adults, promoting their rights and needs among those living in extreme marginalized and silenced societies. They are responsible of making sure that they reduce staff costs without compromising the quality of services offered. Social workers ensure personalization of services and safeguarding of human rights. These are done through building professional relationships and empowering people in their communities and families. Social workers manage conflict and support people to manage their own risks.

 Social workers know the legislature and apply legislation process as required. They access practical support and services. They work with other professional to achieve best outcomes to people. Social workers promotes change in the society, help solve relationship problems and empower and liberate people in the process of enhancing their well-being. Social work utilizes theories of human behavior and social systems to identify interactions of people and their environment (Moriarty, Baginky, and Manthorpe, 2015).

Social workers and their roles in maximizing the welfare of old adults

Social workers and older persons

Social workers regard the older populations as their primary clients. Adults aged 65 years and older are referred to health facilities where lower age limits are predefined. Social workers attend to adults living independently within the community, with their families or guardians, those able to attend day care services, those living in sheltered accommodations and those in high dependency long stay residential units (The Irish Association of social workers, 2011).

Assessing needs of the older adults

Social workers assess the needs of older adults, manage their stresses, offer counselling and therapies based focused to get solutions. They conduct advocacy work and develop group and communities they live in. In addition, they assess forms of abuse either physical or emotional, and complaints regarding standards of care given. Social workers cooperate with their children, spouses, grandchildren to assess the need s of older adults and meet them. They give them advice and information, intervene in times of crisis, offer basic support, therapies, manage their critical situations and counsel during bereavement. They mediate during conflicts and manage them. They offer assistance while navigating the set bureaucracies such as home care and nursing home (The Irish Association of social workers, 2011). They offer training courses and assign support groups to carers and family members. Carers who might not be family members are trained and given extra information on how to look after the older adult, are issued with confidentiality information in cases when the adult is suffering mental health problems. They are directed on ways of supporting them according to required care per each condition. The multidisciplinary team is also involved to bring back information on special needs and circumstances of carers and families offered to the older person. Social workers realize the needs of the older adults, explain them and outline ways 0f solving them.

Material well-being

Social workers have a duty to realize the material wellbeing of older adults, which includes a reasonable standard of accommodation in long stay facilities. They state that older adults have a right to have adequate possessions and sufficient money that maintains reasonable standard of comfort. Older adults require adequate public provision to make sure that older adults have adequate housing and realistic system of income support (Chu & Tsui, 2008).

Emotional well being

Social workers have a role to realize emotional well-being of older adults. Failure to properly function among older adults results in depression. Conditions such as bereavement, isolation, and lack of effective transport services indicate threats especially among the disabled adults (Bilton et al., 1996). However, social workers ensure they avail day care services and counselling to cover such threats.

Social inclusion

Social workers provide ways of having the older adults accepted in the society and contribute to it. Social workers work with voluntary services and public systems of support to increase mobility and participation of disabled older adults (Cree, 2000). They access institutions and agencies that offer wheel chairs among other assistive devices to the old.

Physical well being

Social workers offer medical care, occupational and physical therapy to counteract negative effects of disability and illnesses among the old (Knowledge and skills statement for social workers in adult services, 2015).

Interpersonal relationships

Social workers offer transport services and other forms to increase mobility, which will strengthen interpersonal relationships (Beres, 2010). The older adults can contact with their friends and family to give life good quality.

Self-determination

Social workers ensure that they create awareness and skill to be self-determined to reduce dependence on other people (Ritzer, 2013).

Social assessments

Social workers aim at maximizing the opportunities of older adults and enhance their quality of life in their social systems, rights, and needs. Social workers identify practical and emotional needs as well as appropriate support. Social workers study the older person, their family, and carers. They identify needs in terms of accommodation, food, shelter, hygiene, partners and their integration in the isolated or integrated communities. Social workers make conclusions about their self-esteem, emotional health, stress levels, cognitive ability, learning ability among others (Bisman, 2004).

Advocating on behalf of their clients

Social workers advocate services in the community needed by the older persons. They work with local authorities and social welfare services to network and lias with resources in the community. They offer information to families and clients on benefits and support services. They empower clients, support, and encourage them (Reckwitz, 2002).

Motivation

 Social workers listen to clients and offer different types of motivation. They give them convincing reasons to change their lifestyles as well as helping them to adjust and transition to various changes in life (British Association of social workers, 2002).

Counselling

Social workers offer counselling to clients on ways of managing stress, how to cope with bereavement and loss, and ways of managing addiction and adjustment. They identify strengths of the older persons and term them as unique. They engage in-group works with carers, clients and families by forming advocacy groups and carers groups (Dominelli, 2000).

Working with families and carers

Social workers negotiate between family members in case of conflict and mediation. They offer therapy skills and family work. They assess risks, manage issues such as domestic violence, emotional abuse, and financial stress, and self-neglect. Social workers are responsible of controlling domestic violence, abuse, and discrimination of the old (Giddens, 1997). They act like case managers to handle complex cases that involves service managers and high-level managers in the HSE.

Respect and dignity

Social workers ensure that older people enjoy their independence despite any disability. They ensure that all members of the community respect them. Their social, religious, cultural, and political views are recognized and respected. Social workers stress that older persons have privacy rights and total control over their lives and their environment (Reed and Alexander, 2009). They ensure that the old are involved in decision-making and in discussions affecting their lives.

Elder abuse

Social workers have a responsibility of eradicating any form of abuse among social workers. It is their responsibility to investigate, prevent, and conduct interventions in cases dealing with sexual abuse, neglect, and physical issues. Social workers avoid situations that cause harm, distress, and violation of human rights among older adults (Alexander and Reed, 2009). As a result, they prevent occurrence of all material abuse, discrimination and financial abuses. Social workers have certain duties to perform when abuse is suspected. These include facilitating multidisciplinary assessment of the capacity of the older person in respect to their ability to care and protect himself or herself. They are responsible of assessing financial, social, material, and family circumstances, special needs, and accommodation. They identify extent of support from neighbors, friends, and carers among other well-wishers to the family. They assess the capability of the carers to care for the older family member (Milne et al., 2013). They lias with healthcare services such as hospitals, psychiatry, and geriatric of old age persons. They work with private and voluntary care services, primary care teams, and communities. Moreover, occupational therapists and primary care teams are involved.

Physiotherapists, home care and home help managers are involved to offer extra information to careers’ and family members (Leary, Tsui, and Ruch, 2014). Social workers are involved in crisis intervention and prioritizing protection of their clients. Example they mediate and employ conflict management skills to offer resolutions after an abuse has occurred. They take legal action on behalf of the old (Banks, 2006).

Definition of key terms

Assessment      the exercise of identifying emotional and practical needs as well as appropriate supports.

Advocacy        the local authority

Networking     it is the process of linking with community resources, active retirement, and day centers.

Counseling      it is the act of giving therapy to stress management and dealing with loss and                                             bereavement (Coleman, 2016).

Placement                    sheltered accommodation.

Alienation theory

Blunden (2016) reports that alienation theory discusses people and transformation of their labor into powers that rule them. They act as if they are driven by supra human and natural law. Alienation originates from the belief of inanimate commodities having valuable human powers, which enable them to govern activities of human beings. Cox (1998) explains that max developed alienation theory with an aim of revealing human nature, which lies behind impersonal forces that dominate the society. Max shows that aspects of our societies are results of past actions done by humans although they appear natural and independent. Encyclopedia of Marxism comments that alienation is a state of people becoming foreign to their worlds. Coser (2016) states that Marx alienation theory reveals that features of capitalist society such as political economy, the state, and religion have alienation conditions.

Critique

Max through his alienation theory of alienation dismisses the fact that factors in the society are interrelated and must work together to have proper coordination in the community as outlined by Durkheism. Marx adds that social systems are controlled by super powers that enable them to govern their actions. However, this is unlike the argument of Dukheism who states that social systems in a society control themselves and their environment. Their interrelation helps them adapt to changes occurring in the society.

In conclusion, functionalism theory aims at establishing the equilibrium in the society through interdependence of factors in the society. Social theory helps social workers to identify the needs of the older adults, assess them and identify ways of assisting them.

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