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Using Any Resource You Might Find Helpful, Write A Paper Regarding Development Of A Secure Infrastructure For The Project Organization As Well As An Effective Approach To Integration Of Cryptography For Your Project Organization.

Development Of A Secure Infrastructure For The Project Organization

Identify various types of attacks specific to malicious software

A malicious software harm host computer systems. They compromise the functioning of computers, bypass access controls, and steal confidential information and data. According to Singh & Khanna (2003), attacks spread to systems through email attachments, infected floppy disks, exchange of corrupted files, and downloads. Computer games also embed viruses.

Categories of malicious software

Singh & Khanna (2003) explain thatmalicious software are categorized into viruses (boot and file viruses), rabbit, hoaxes, Trojan horse (Time bomb and logic bomb), spyware, trapdoor, and worms.

Virus

Viruses are unique programs spreading to other software in the system. The program incorporates its copies in other programs. Singh & Khanna (2003) assert that viruses insert themselves in a deterministic manner. Viruses live in the boot sector, memory resident, compilers, disks, libraries, and debugger.

Virus attacks

Viruses are involved in overwriting in computer systems. Overwriting affects the memory of user data, and user program. Overwriting system data and programs corrupt the system and disrupts its normal operations. Viruses smash the stack leading to a buffer overflow after executing programs directed to specific virus codes (Singh & Khanna, 2003).

Types of viruses

Boot sector viruses infect the system’s boot sector to attain residency, and activated as the machine is booting. File viruses cause infections to program files. They activate after running the program. Polymorphic virus produce modified and codes that are operational. The produced codes are new and different after copying the virus, and transmission to a new host in the last stage. It is hard to detect and remove them. Stealth virus are programming tricks with codes that are hard to trace and understand. They demand complex programming methods to design their codes making it difficult to repair infected files (Hong Kong government, 2016). Armored virus hide modifications made to files and disks. They are involved in reporting false values into programs after reading files and data from the systems storage media. Companion virus are involved in creation of new programs while avoiding modification of existing programs. They contain all virus codes. Shell executes them and not original program.

Rabbit

Rabbit is a malicious software that replicates itself and is not limited. It is involved in depleting most or all of the resources of a system. It is difficult to recover the infected files since rabbit software re-infects infected systems. They exhausts all resources in the systems such as memory, CPU, disk space and time. They deplete resources, which denies access to users (Singh & Khanna, 2003).

Hoaxes

Hoaxes are false alerts that spread viruses. They resemble chain letters among other messages that appear important to recipients, who forward them to other users forming a chain. As a result, large messages are exchanged forming a chain and flooding resources in the network (Singh & Khanna, 2003). They waste bandwidth. They block network systems resulting in denial of access due to heavy network traffic.

Trojan horse

Trojan horse is a malicious program with added functional ability that is unexpected. It has hidden harmful features hidden such that users do not easily recognize them. They steal passwords in their self-replicating and self-propagating nature. Users require great expertise in case of an infection. They infect files when users install and execute infected programs. Examples of Trojan horses include Remote Access Trojans (RAT), Key Loggers, Password-Stealers (PSW), and logic bombs. They use spam and emails to transmit infections. Trojans hide in downloaded files, disks from trusted sources and legitimate programs (Singh & Khanna, 2003). Trojans search for personal information and send it to Trojan writer (hacker), allowing to fully control computer systems.

Types of Trojan horses include; remote Trojan horse which fully control computer system and pass it to hackers. Data-sending Trojan sends data back to hackers through emails. Example key-loggers log and transmit each key stroke. Destructive Trojan destroys and deletes files. Anti-virus software do not easily detect them. Denial of service (DOS) attack Trojans are involved in combination of systems computing power and infecting them to launch attacks on other computer systems. They flood the system with traffic causing it to crash. Proxy Trojans permits hackers to change computers into Host integration server (Host Integration Server). They steal credit cards and purchase with them as well as running organized criminal enterprises using specific user name (Abrams and Podel, 2004). FTP Trojan are involved in opening port 21 for FTP transfer and allowing attackers to use File transfer protocol(FTP) to connect to computer systems. Security software disabler Trojan stops and kills security programs including anti-virus software and firewalls. Most happen without user’s knowledge.

Spyware

Spyware programs are involved in exploring information system files. The stolen information is forwarded to specific addresses in spyware. Spyware investigates software users and preparations of attacks.

Trapdoor

Trapdoor is a secret entry point to a non-documented program. Trap door takes advantage of holes left in the security of a system deliberately by designers, to access the system. The trap door bypasses internal controls. Attackers figure out utilization of circumvention controls. Trap door is categorized into undetectable and hardware trapdoor (Abrams and Podel, 2004). Undetectable trap door is virtually undetectable, while hardware trapdoor are hardware flaws related to security.

Worms

 Worms are programs spreading their copies through the network. The damages caused in computer systems are irrecoverable. They are standalone program using the network to spread. They delete files.

Attacks of worms

Worms delete files; communicate information including passwords to attackers. They interfere with normal operations of the system (DOS), through re-infecting already infected system. They carry viruses often (Singh & Khanna, 2003).

Means of spreading infections

Worms spread infections through infecting one system to access trusted lists of hosts as well as spreading to other hosts. They penetrate systems though guess of passwords. They exploit security holes if they fail to guess passwords and access trusted hosts.

Analyze attack signatures related to these attack types

Attack signatures have unique alert name, alert time indicating time of detecting the alert, and an inter-alert time out that allows expiry of signatures leading to attacks. The matching depends on expiry of maximum time between successive alerts. Attack signatures include mandatory and optional components. Alerts specified within attack signatures are mandatory. Optional alerts do not lead to conclusion identifying absence of an attack. It has an alert weight associated and necessary condition for firing of the signature (Carey, Mohay, and Clark, 2002).

Identify controls used to mitigate specific attack types

Exploit of information through remote access software

Exploiting information via remote access software is an attack controlled by enabling tighter security controls on system access, features and monitoring real time usage among employees. Usage logs are generated together with deeply locking system configuration. Limiting time of accessing systems by users minimizes abuse of systems. Remote access are limited by installing screen saver timeouts on remote computers and strong passphrase requirements, locks out unauthorized users. Encrypting the hard drives of the system protects information in the system from being stolen and lost.

Sending out information via e-mail and instant messaging

Attaching sensitive information in emails is eliminated using system analyzer and filter keywords. Server and client -based content filtering catches and blocks sensitive information going out.

Sharing sensitive files on P2P networks

P2P software is blocked in the firewall to prevent entering and leaving the network.

Careless use of wireless network

Hindering harmful wireless networks occurs through controlling airwaves outside the office through using secure wireless hotspot for Wi-Fi users. VPN connects remote network and personal firewall to prevent users from connecting to wireless computers. Usage of proper encryption and authentication (WPA and WPA2) and enabling logging protects internal wireless networks. Disabling Bluetooth and using directional antennae.

Posting information to discussion boards and blogs

Information posted on blogs contains sensitive information and file attachments risky to the organization. Filtering content in HTTP and email communications at the network, blocks attacks

Worms

Worm infections mitigation occurs through applying appropriate security patches to the system, cleaning infected machine using AV signatures verified in detection of the variant, and changing local administration passwords for users of the affected system. Any network share passwords require changing and restoring systems to the network. Lastly, users require sending a notification to the security team, and monitoring systems for re-infection.

Develop strategies for managing malicious software as a component of an overall security management plan.

Trusted software

Malicious software mitigation occurs by strictly using trusted software and avoiding pirated software. Multi-state information sharing and analysis center (2005) asserts that users are required to test new software in isolated computers and taking regular backups of programs. Usage of anti-virus software detects and removes viruses. Updating the virus database frequently identifies new virus’s signatures. System administrators are required to install firewall software to prevent worm and Trojan horse functionality. Securing email attachments secures the system from viruses. Users avoid storing floppy disks in drives as the program starts, to avoid copying of viruses in the boot sector. Users avoid replying to email requesting for personal and financial information. They should not provide their passwords, respond to suspicious emails, open their attachments, or install unauthorized applications. Users should have strong passwords to lock their computers to protect screen savers. Remote computers require using strong passwords.

Firewalls

Firewalls control access by limiting inbound and outbound communications. Inbound communications are from internet to internal network while outbound communications are from internal network to the internet. Firewall is the first line of defense that strictly controls access. Firewalls require configuring for authorization to outbound network traffic. Outbound or egress filtering firewall prevents outbound communication to controller especially for bot-nets. Organizations should define communication policies acceptable outbound for their networks (Multi-state information sharing and analysis center, 2005). Acceptable outbound connections include SMTP to any address from your SMTP mail gateway only. It also contains DNS from internal server to any address to resolve external host names. There areHTTPS and HTTP from internal proxy server for users to browse web sites, and NTP to specific timely server addresses from internal timeserver. In addition, there are AV, spam filters, and patch management software to appropriate vendor addresses.

Intrusion detection systems

Intrusion detection system (IDS) identify the traffic in the network in real time. They use signatures to detect port scans, malwares, among other network communications that are abnormal. IDS placement is external and internal in organizations and exists behind the firewall. Organizations use IDS to visualize traffic that passed the firewall successfully as well as one approaching it. IDS ensure visibility of internal traffic attempting to communicate externally to the network (Multi-state information sharing and analysis center, 2005). It is useful where malicious actions originate from the inside of the firewall.

Defending computing environment

The process of defending the computing environment establishes assurance of adequate information. It occurs through;

Authorized local network devices

Users ensure connecting only authorized devices to the organization’s network. Devices such as USB thumb-drives, MP3 players, consultant, and personal laptops should be free of malware before connecting them to the network (Multi-state information sharing and analysis center, 2005).

Operating system patching/updating

Organizations should have their patching policies documented, systematically according to processes and procedures for use. Techniques used to monitor vendor sites for new patches and vulnerabilities require specification. The details should include personnel responsible for retrieving, implementing, and monitoring patches (Multi-state information sharing and analysis center, 2005). Testing methodologies and installation procedures should be included.

Operating system hardening

Operating systems require hardening to improve their capability to manage attacks.

Anti-virus updating

Updated Anti-viruses scan engines after vendors publish updates. Updated signatures acquired daily as well as monitoring anti-virus console logs that correct systems that failed in the updating process.

Change control process

Change control processes are implemented to review and document firewall among other changes in network before their implementation.

Host-based firewall

Implementation of host-based firewalls run in internal computers such as laptops. Application hashing capabilities identify trojanized applications after initial installation. They validate legitimately updated and modified applications (Multi-state information sharing and analysis center, 2005).

Vulnerability scanning

Scanning of vulnerabilities should be a routine in every organization. Scan results indicate vulnerable hosts and corresponding attacks.

Use of proxy servers and web content filters

Layer proxy servers involving outbound application and web content filters prevent users from unaware directions to malicious websites. Example, include proxy servers allowed by firewall to outbound connect using HTTPs and HTTP. Proxy servers and firewall egress filtering process contain infection, hindering it from connecting to hosts outside the organization (Multi-state information sharing and analysis center, 2005).

Email attachment filtering

They filter many types of attachment at system gateway. Extensions with documented business cases restricts unauthorized extensions (Multi-state information sharing and analysis center, 2005).

Monitor logs: Administrators are not required to rely on AV software and filtering of emails as a means of worm detection. They should monitor firewall logs, prevention sensors, DNS servers, proxy server logs, and intrusion detection. Monitoring should sense infections from worms.

SOPs

Standard operation procedures apply during compromisation of malware attacks. SOP are involved in delineating specific technical processes, checklists, and techniques used by teams in organizations. They indicate organization priorities are reflected in response operations. They minimize errors as the team responds to the incident. They require frequent testing for their accuracy and validity, and usefulness before distribution to members (Multi-state information sharing and analysis center, 2005). In addition, the absence of SOP replacement involves immediate action that minimize exposure to sensitive information. Infection is contained and prevented from spreading by having Users physically disconnect systems from internal network immediately an attack occurs. Blocking outbound traffic to external networks, reviewing appropriate log files, and conducting a forensic examination prevents spread of infections.

Analyze issues related to cryptography and public key infrastructure (PKI).

Public key infrastructure integrates many services associated with cryptography. Albarqi et al. (20015) asserts that it analyzes issues of confidentiality, access control, integrity, and non-repudiation. Non-repudiation ensures that senders and receivers of information do not deny sending and receiving the message in the future. Encryptionand decryption, digital signature and key exchanges are major functions of PKI. Public signature verification key verifies digital signature. Confidentiality avails information access to authorized entities especially when storing sensitive data in vulnerable locations such as laptops, and outsourced WAN. Cryptography changes data into manageable cryptographic keys.

Entity authentication service proves the identity of one entity to another. It hides secret details of information. Cryptography keeps secret private in authentication process. Data integrity and authentication ensures data chunks originate from entities and remains unaltered. Cryptography binds the data to the originator. Non-repudiation enables digital signing of electronic documents binding them to signatures. Cryptography provides evidences of signs from users.

Albarqi et al. (2015) asserts that PKI ensures that organizational boundaries trust each other’s credentials efficiently. PKI ensures use of end-to-end security services between entities and offers strong authentication of entities. PKI is involved in complementing Windows NT and windows 2000secret key infrastructure allowing users exploit extra security services across more distributed environments. PKI protocol operations include generation of certificates and key, generation of revocation list, signature, and validation of certificates.

Describe vulnerabilities mitigated using an encryption process.

Vulnerabilities mitigated using an encryption process include spoofing, tampering, repudiation, information disclosure, denial of service and elevation privilege. Spoofing process attempts to gain access to systems by using false identities. Attackers use user credentials and false IP address to abuse authorization information. Tampering involves modification of unauthorized data flowing over the network of two computers. Repudiation enables users to deny performing certain actions over a network. Information disclosure exposes private data (Choi et al., 2008). Denial of service process makes an application unavailable through bombarding a server. Elevation of privilege happens when users assume privileged access to applications despite having limited privileges.

Specify the type of encryption commonly used to mitigate specific vulnerabilities.

Asymmetric encryption

Asymmetric encryption is also public key encryption. It involves two keys combining to form a pair and related to mathematics used to encrypt message and decrypt it. They provide data encryption and validation of communicating party’s identities. It has slower computations, though secure than symmetric encryption (Waliullah &Gan, 2014).

Symmetric encryption

Symmetric encryption (private key encryption contains secret key shared by communicating parties. The sending party uses one key to encrypt plain text and receiving party uses it to decrypt cipher text to plain text.

Explain the impact on the organization of differing regulations related to encryption use by international governments

Differing regulations on use of encryption restricts international governments from accessing information from other global companies. There arises problems of sending and receiving information due to differing packet data. Moreover, various companies may have their encryption keys blocked because of exchange problems between receiver and sender of data. Data is exposed to attackers who sources confidential company information and uses it to exploit organizations and stealing useful and confidential information (Albarqi et al., 2015). Differing encryption rules gives access to attackers to infect system files with viruses and other malicious software.

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Analyze and explain the differences in ideology that might force an individual to commit a terroristic act?

Differences in ideology that might force an individual to commit a terroristic act

Ideology and motivation influence objectives of terrorists operations. Groups having secular ideologies and goals that are not religious often attempt discriminate and selective violent acts with an aim of achieving specific political aims. They aim at keeping their casualties at minimum amounts required to attain their objectives (Fiala, 2007). Secular groups perform violent acts to avoid backlash that may damage the organization severely. They also aim at maintaining the appearance of the rational group having legitimate grievances.

In contrast religious and millenarian oriented groups attempt to inflict as many casualties as possible, since they argue that losing life is irrelevant and best while involving many casualties. Religious groups assume that their co-religionists who lose lives are least accounted for because they will reap the benefits of their after-life (Guss, Tuason, & Teixeira, 2007). The religious groups argue that if the targets are non-believers, it is their moral duty to kill them because they deserve death. Groups motivated by political, social and secular issues target high symbols of authority such as government offices, national airlines, multinational corporations, and banks, that are directly related to social order established by the government. Secondly, secular groups commit attacks to representatives associated with social injustice, exploitation of the economy, political repression among others.

Nationalist groups strike with an aim of commemorating battles or were losses in a conventional struggle. Religious groups strike with an aim of marking particular appropriate observances (Guss, Tuason, & Teixeira, 2007). Most groups attack with an aim of commemorating anniversaries regarding successful operations, death executions of executives that were related to certain conflicts. Other groups attack on specific days important to enemies to give the required impact.

Do you think terrorists could be viewed as martyrs? Why?

Suicide acts are sub-sets of terrorism. A martyr is a person who upholds by being killed through unjust means. Martyrs are persecuted because of refusing to renounce or deny and comply with certain rights. Martyrdom relates to religious practices, since most people are killed because of their religion that is contrary to the expectations of the society. Terrorist are viewed as martyrs because they agree to die to safeguard their positions as loyal terrorists. Moreover, most terrorists receive teachings, which confines them to believe that committing terrorist activity will help them obtain a share in heaven (Adams, Balfour, & Reed, 2006). As a result, the suicidal terrorists among other are willing topay any cost including their own life to have heavenly share and achieve their set goals and objectives.

Reasons for committing terrorist acts

Terrorists commit violence acts to produce widespread fear, get recognized nationally, locally and internationally since they will get attention from the media. Terrorist acts are done to weaken and embarrass government security forces to make it overreact and become repressive. Terrorists steal and extort money and equipment as well as weapons and ammunition that are vital in the group’s operations. They aim at destroying communication lines to create doubts to citizens that the government is not providing enough security to protect its citizens. Terrorists aim at discouraging  foreign investments, tourism among other programs that assist the government to get revenues and support. Other terrorists acts are aimed at freeing prisoners, satisfying their vengeance acts, and turn into guerilla war by forcing security in the government to concentrate their efforts in urban areas. As a result, terrorists take advantage of abandoned rural areas to establish itself.

Do you think people who are willing to give their life for their cause are sane and rational or insane and irrational? Why?

I think people willing to commit their life for their cause are sane and rational because insane persons have no proper minds to follow instructions given by their supervisors. People committing suicides are first taught on various believes that make them want to commit suicide. Example, only sane persons note that their lifestyle is having a downward trend and desire to end their lives before they face the worst in earth. The economic conditions are stressing with most people having to stay jobless. Most youths are completing school with no ready job market to absorb them. As a result, they get desperate and join terrorist groups with a promise to commit any suicide act to earn a living.

Only sane people realize that they are facing difficulties and look for ways to improve their lives. In addition, the groups are taught various believes according to the terrorist associations joined (Guss, Tuason, & Teixeira, 2007). They are forced to swear to do any act that will benefit the group. Only sane persons are teachable and understand the teachings and meaning of swearing. The trainees have to agree to rules and regulations formed by various groups. In conclusion, only sane persons follow instructions given on where to locate themselves to commit suicide attacks. People with rational minds realize the advantages that come with committing suicide acts and way them with benefits their beneficiaries will get. They decide on best action to take with realization of and the end results that they will die after attacking certain areas.

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Summary Charles Hirschkind. 2001. “The Ethics of Listening: Cassette-Sermon Audition in Contemporary Egypt.” American Ethnologist 28, no. 3: 623-49.

The Ethics of Listening: Cassette-Sermon Audition in Contemporary Egypt

Hirschkind (2001) discusses the Ethical methods of listening to tape-recorded sermons among Muslims living in Egypt to enable them exercise ethical discipline. Auditing sermons was a regular practice among young men and preachers living in Cairo. The groups appreciated the technology of recording their preaching and auditions on cassettes to improve their work. Moreover, cassette sermons enabled them to live like devout Muslims. Proper audition of sermons demands for affective-volitional responsiveness from listeners referred as ethical performance. Hirsckind (2001) explains that understanding speeches in sermons requires listeners to hear with their hearts to deepen their hearing capacity. Hearing with the heart requires total body involvement and synthesis of moral reflexes that are disciplined (624).

What is Cassette Discipline?

Cassettes discipline ensures that cassettes are listened to while operating barbershop, cafes, driving taxi, buses and at home after returning from work. Tapes are sold on sidewalks, at bus stations, in front of trains, and bookstores located in the city. Cassettes discuss on social trends of Islam, women dressing, long white shirts worn by Egyptian men, scented oils, and incense. Run al-Azhar mosque is held responsible of conformity towards commercial Islamic texts. Some sermons are restricted if they deviate from accepted Islamic standards (625).

What are Ethics of listening to cassettes?

Young Islamic men rarely played cassettes in rigourous manner. They would not listen to cassettes at specific times during the day, such as when having mosque study groups. Cassette auditions of sermons was a regulated activity sometimes done in solitary or with friends. People conducted auditions in the evening after work or from school. Auditions of cassettes happened without ablutions (the act of worshippers cleansing their bodies before mosque prayers. People using the tapes attended the mosque on Friday and extended the sermon listening to tapes. Tapes were used for relaxation, to purify the soul and enrich knowledge. Tapes lead Islam to prayer, reading of the Quran, thinking deeper about the religion and draw them closer to God. Listening to cassettes removes fear, worries about money, and instead reminds people of the presence of God. Tapes remind people of judgment waiting for them, thus feeling them with repentance and humility. Tapes teach on common errors done and warns people not to repeat them.

Paul Stoller. 2009. “Wood, New World Circuits, Art, Intersections, Weaving the World.” The

Power of the Between. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 89-119.

Stoller (2009) celebrates the power of the between by showing how that it transforms people, changes their perception, knowledge, and living styles. Stoller explains how careers are shaped in decades of thorough research and reading. He tells tales of his apprenticeship tales to a Niger sorcerer, studies with Claude Levi-Strauss in Paris and his formed friendships with street vendors in the city of New York. They all bring together philosophical reflections on power, health, illness, love, and memory. It is the story of distinguished career and medications done towards agreeing with the impermanent nature of things (92).

How is the power of between realized?

Stoller (2009) indicates that fate places people between languages, culture, realities, and countries. Stoller demonstrates that sudden turns connect relativism with rationality, rivers with sand dunes, postcolonial politicians with ancient deities, West African villages with Harlem streets, urban art collectors with rural traders and finally sorcerer methods and chemotherapist (96).

What is the impact of anthropology on human culture?

Anthropology aims at discovering interrelationships between scientific human being models. Stoller asserts that a complete human being is a result of interactions between systems such as physical, biological, psychological, social, and cultural. People’s culture is influenced by their physical well-being. Responses to pressure and constraints towards the systems and the methods used to alter and manipulate them helps them to satisfy their needs (100-105).

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What Is A Biblical Worldview? Define What The Term “Worldview” Means. Use Descriptive Phrases To Support Your Definition

Biblical worldview is grounded in the bible and allowing it to set all aspects of culture and life. Humans believing in the bible are required to take biblical assumptions when approaching emerging technologies, arts, human behavior economic theory, theology, international relations, and medical science. A biblical worldview is culturally literate it involves complete love for God, through discerning and thinking deeply about his word. Biblical worldview is rooted in hope while approaching life and the world. Biblical hope is in Christ who is the sustainer and redeemer of the human history. Christian believers should not despair because they have hope in Christ Jesus (Stone street, 2017).

The Question of Origin – (How did life begin? How did humankind come into existence?)

The book of genesis 1:27 explains that God created man both female and male in the image of God. John 1:2-three states that life began with God who was the word and that the word was God in the beginning. Colossians 1:16 states that it is through God that all things were created. God breathed life in the nostrils of the man he had created to make him a living being (Walvoord, 2017).

The Question of Identity – (What does it mean to be human? Are humans more important than animals?)

Human are creatures created in the image of God bearing essential personalities such as intellect, mind, senses, feelings and will. Humans are more important than animals because they are the only ones among all creatures given the ability to make moral choices. The qualities enable man to commune with God and be morally responsible for their actions (Walvoord, 2017).

The Question of Meaning/Purpose – (Why does humankind exist? Why do I exist?)

Humankind exists to love and serve God to display the plan of God in his creation. Man created man to inhabit the earth and possess it. God intended man to enjoy creations of God, rule over earthly creatures, work, care, and cultivate his creation. Man was created to know God and commune with him. God expects man to obey his commandments, live by faith and glorify God (Reinke, 2015).

The Question of Morality – (What is meant by right and wrong? How should I live?).

Man has feelings and senses resembling those of God. He has the ability to make personal moral choices. The senses and wisdom from God tells man what is right or wrong.

The Question of Destiny – (Is there life after death? What will happen to me when I die?)

There is life after death. When all types of people die, their bodies separate with the soul. When the saved die, they go to the Lord’s presence. Jesus told the thief on the cross that he will be with him in paradise (Luke 23:43). I Thessalonians 4:16 emphasizes that there is a promise of a resurrection for believers. In 1 Corinthians 15:51-55,it is clear that  human bodies will be raised from the grave and turned into an imperishable form that do not decay or wear out. The souls of the unbeliever begins experiencing eternal punishment. Their souls are sent to hell and stays in conscious eternal toment Luke 16:19-31 1. (The people of the United Methodist Church, 2017).

How might/should a biblical worldview influence the way you think about, treat, and speak to others on a daily basis?

The believe that God created man in his image, makes all people worthy of honor and respect.

Thus, human beings should reflect Godliness in their actions. They should treat others with love and care to emulate Jesus. We should treat others with respect and be polite as we speak.

Interacting with the environment and non-human creation?

God has given man dominion over all creation in the earth. Human beings should care for the environment around them and protect non-human creation. Man has a responsibility to control and rule animals in the land. It I important to know that God provides for his creation through growing plants for them to feed on (Slick, 2008).

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Identify one innovation that has been developed in the last 20 years that has influenced the health care industry, such as: Telemedicine and Organ transplants

Innovation that has been developed in the last 20 years that has influenced the health care industry. Explain how evidenced-based research influences the health care industry.

Compare external influences on health care research.

Evidence-based research has influenced the health care research of infectious diseases, vaccines, and pharmaceuticals required in treating small pox and polio. Telemedicine research has enabled doctors to improve their capability to prevent, diagnose, and treat other related afflictions such as heart diseases and diabetes (Schlachta-Fairchild & Deickman, 2016). Many emerging new technologies in health care have provided new care options and treatment.

Telemedicine is useful in clinics, medical laboratories, nursing, assisted-living facilities and hospitals. Telemedicine is a technology caring for patients in forms of virtual office, virtual rounding, and visits. Telemedicine captures important medical data, gives diagnoses, offers consultation services, and transmits information from one location to another (Schlachta-Fairchild & Deickman, 2016). Web-based reports are given through secure internet connections, tracks in-house operations and offers a 24-hour help for users. Telemedicine makes use of standard telephone connections, webcam like Skype, video and still images. Computer rooms are used facsimile, robots, satellite transmission, and smartphones.

Smartphones are useful in telemedicine influencing the healthcare sector. They provide evidence based research through availing clear and fast access to digital images mailed electronically, allowing free mobility of oral/maxillofacial surgeons as well as medical, and triage specialty consults. Telemedicine applications are real time occurrences, which enable providers of healthcare to observe results of patients from one location and test their location in another location (Bloomrosen & Detmer, 2010).

Doctors immediately extend medical care and judgment regardless of the distance. Telemedicine information exchange (TIE), offers online, and an inclusive platform for telemedicine, telehealth for all users across the globe.

External influences on healthcare research

Externally telemedicine merges with emergency medicine such as improving audio and video communication between computers inside the office of the doctor and the moving ambulances. Telemedicine examines patients going to the emergency room with an aiming of saving their lives. The platform will greatly benefit stroke and heart victims. MedTV is a telehealth program and the largest telemedicine network attending more than 100 remote sites with over 31 medical specialties. The sector offers tertially care to more than 80 percent statewide prison population. More than 140,000 inmates are treated in rural areas (Edwards & Edwards, 2009).

The video application is useful in evidence-based research since doctors can view patients in remote areas, detect changes in their skin colors and textures, and offer a close examination medically. Patients with neurological and psychiatric conditions benefit by receiving feedback from their videotaped interviews using store and forward technology. The feedback given is quicker than normal response. Glucoboy is an innovative technology effective in assisting children with diabetes maintain a healthy lifestyle. The infrared technology and sensors deliver remote monitoring to providers (Edwards & Edwards, 2009). They detect falls, illnesses, and injuries.

Teleneurology advancements such as telestroke network links patients in rural areas and neurologists and enables diagnosis for stroke, palsy, and apoplexy. Teleconsulting with specialists enables provision of medical care in the initial stages of neurological impairment, speech therapists, and physical rehab. Video-teleconferencing system connects doctors with patients and has united more than 13,000healthcare professionals. Telemedicine in health offers medical services such as surgery, ophthalmology, family medicine, ambulatory, pediatrics, urology, and ambulatory care (Edwards & Edwards, 2009).. Externally medical technology offers advanced drugs and devices, new diagnostic procedures that improve life quality and check chronic conditions. Medical technology has minimized errors, ensured safety when issuing drugs, effectiveness, and efficacy. Information systems have improved efficiency when keeping records, budgeting and billing.

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Is There A Dominant Group In American Politics, Which Precipitate Political Inequalities? What Would The Pluralists Say? (2 Paragraphs, 2 Pieces Of Evidence)

Is There A Dominant Group In American PoliticsWhat Would G.W. Domhoff And C.W. Mills Say? (2 Paragraphs, 4 Pieces Of Evidence;

Please Note: You Are Required To Source From The Supplementary Documents For At Least Two Of Your Quotes Here.)

Domhoff (n.d) indicates that there are dominant groups in American politics that precipitate political inequalities. Predominant powers in United States include those having money, owning huge pieces of land, oil, natural resources, finance, agribusiness, real estates, and corporations among other income-producing properties. Money depicts inequalities in the political system in America because over a long time no other networks had grown. The class of people owning businesses, skilled artisans and the self-employed as well as physicians have economic power. Professionals with higher skills than ordinary citizens are interested in consumer issues and environment control. They set terms for the lower class to operate. The upper class amounts to one percent of the total United States population (131).

Political inequalities exist between the upper class and lower adult class members whereby the upper class socialize in county clubs that are expensive, young women from upper class families are introduced to the high society each year following parties, teas and balls. Upper class women introduce volunteer groups though junior league in the nation. The corporate community has power to fire and hire workers, use their incomes in tax-deductible ways such as charities and schools. They also chose where to invest their resources. Corporations display political inequalities by sharing common interests to make profits, are owned by same financial institutions, families, levels of education and work experiences. They have similar consulting firms, legal and accounting businesses.

Interlocking directors are dominant groups that share directions of the corporations. They are major owners and top executives in a corporation. CEOs socialize with upper class and have the opportunity to buy corporate stock below market prices, paid very high salaries and enjoy other advantages enabling them to join the upper class (133). Mills states that Private corporations obtain prime supply contracts, expand personal facilities under amortization of twenty percent per year, and tax privileges of five percent per year (370).  According to Domhoff Pluralists argue that voluntary groups influence the opinion of the public. Economic interest groups such as bankers, labor unions and industrialists as well as corporate leaders dominate and influence the public.

2.         Following discussions on representation and gender, please select a piece of advertising, which depicts a representation of gender or gender roles and answer the following questions: Where did you find the ad? What is it advertising for? (1 Paragraph; Please include a print-out of the ad, either embedded in your essay or stapled to the back page w/ link, etc.)

The advertisement is sourced from Social psych online.

Generate press.(2017).Culture and gender stereotyping in advertisements. Social psych. Retrieved from http://socialpsychonline.com/2015/08/culture-gender-stereotyping-advertising/

The advertisement is creating awareness on the existence of gender stereotyping among men and women in the cultural society. The advert stresses the difference in ways media portray different roles played by men and women in the society. The woman in the image presents as a teacher in a class room situation caring and teaching children. The media is stressing on the position of women in the society as carerers and educators. The woman are to be teachers to emphasize cooperation at home and in classrooms as well as other gatherings.

As a Sociologist, how is the representation used: to inform, convince, entice, sell, or to promote a product, interaction, ideal, etc.? What may a functionalist say here? What might a conflict theorist claim? (1 Paragraph)

The presentations informs the society on the roles of different genders in the society. The advert has mirrored culture and held values, and social norms in the society. The picture portrays that roles of women have changed in the society whereby women no longer belong to the kitchen but have now obtained education. Unlike men, women have acquired jobs to earn extra income and improve their living conditions at home. The standard society has changed as well as the roles of women. The picture portrays a woman teaching children in class which is opposite to the cultural women of waiting for men to give them money.

The media has changed the past picture of women as domestic workers and portrayed them as people who can in offices and perform equal jobs with men. Conflict theorists say claim that empowering women through offering them jobs makes an unequal society. However, according to the image the woman teacher is educating students to have a brighter future. The woman in the picture is working to improve the gender of both sexes and not only females. A functionalist comments that the roles done by people shape their beliefs and future. Women perform the teaching role according to the picture.

As a Sociologist, what values does your image seem to convey or transmit about gender or gender roles in society? Does the image challenge or reinforce cultural norms in the U.S.? Why? Does the representation fetishize, eroticize, exoticize or does it portray things accurately? What would a functionalist suggest? And a Conflict theorist or gender theorist? (1 Paragraph)

Many people in the cultural society strive towards gender equality and bring to an end various traditional conceptions. However, the popular media displays picture of men and women serving distinct roles in the society as expected in the traditional society. The media is so powerful in the way it portrays different gender because most people use the media to gather information and obtain new information. Gender stereotyping is common in advertising where women are not given the role of a speaker since most men take the position beforehand. Women are presented as users of products and not given authoritative positions. Women are presented at home and domestic environments while men are presented in offices. Women in advertisements are associated with body care and home goods. Thus, various advertisements portray men as not being equal to women according to various roles given. The picture concentrates with feminity and masculinity of different cultures. Masculine cultures display in areas that emphasize achievement, assertiveness, and materialistic rewards. Feminine cultures are displayed in advertisements displaying cooperation, modesty, and care.

The picture reinforces cultural norms in American culture since women are expected to care for other people and themselves. They are expected to perform domestic roles in the U.S. economy. The image displays a woman caring for children and educating them in classrooms. The image also challenges the culture of having women stay at home and perform domestic work. Apart from caring for children, the woman in the picture also earns money from her teaching job. The picture emphasizes on the present employment condition of women in United States labor force. There are many employed women in United States. The United States department of labor reports that 57% of women participate the labor force, where 26% are employed in computer and mathematic occupations. A functionalist suggests that teaching is a caring role best suited to women.

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Tourism Is An Evolving System: Examine Tourist Motivations And How These Can Impact On Destination And Activity Choice.

Tourist Motivations

Tourist motivations are factors influencing tourists to travel to certain areas. The motivations influence the behavior of tourists. Tourists chose certain vacation areas with an aim of healing their psychological depletion and have an opportunity to restore and replenish. Tourists desire to break from their normal daily routine to interact and change the norms to have a rest.

Tourist motivations and their effect on destination and choice of activity

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations

Push factors are intrinsic motivations while pull factors are extrinsic motivations. Push factors include socio-psychological motives such as a desire to escape from mundane environments, to explore and evaluate self, relaxation, regression, prestige, and to enhance kinship relationships as well as facilitate social interaction. Push factors allow versatile response to various external situations (Mahika, 2011). They originate from unique psychological states among individuals needs and feelings. They explain desires to go for a vacation. Pull factors are cultural motives including education and novelty. Pull factors brought by attributes of the goals identified among tourists in their experience. They depend on cognitively penetrable parameters and differ from one person to another. Pull motives explain the choice of destination.

Push motivation are internal forces influencing tourist destination. They include psychological, physical, seeking/exploration and social interaction. Psychological factors include escape and self-actualization. Physical factors include rest and relaxation, medical treatment, health and fitness. Social interaction factors include visiting friends and relatives, and meeting new people.

Seeking/exploration factors include novelty, culture exploration, and adventure, enjoying nightlife, and shopping. Pull motivation are external forces including tangible and intangible factors (Mahika, 2011). Tangible factors include transportation facilities, friendliness of people, variety, and quality of food, accommodation facilities, personal safety, price, culture and historical resources, good shopping, environmental safety and quality. Intangible factor include destination image and expected benefits.

Push factors

Escape from mundane environment

Tourists travel to gain a temporary change of their ordinary environments. They desire to attend environments that are different physically and socially. People desire to escape from anomic societies, filled with wars, conflicts, economic instability, and violence. They desire to have fulfilled aspirations. Moreover, people desire to run away from isolation and go for vacations where they will have new people to interact (Mahika, 2011). New socialization meets personal recognition needs. Tourists visit new places where they feel superior since their social position is unknown.

Exploration and evaluation of self

Tourists travel to re-evaluate and discover more of themselves. They act out of their self-images to realize areas requiring modification. Travelling to unknown and new destinations motivates them to think more and undergo a transformation process.

Relaxation

Relaxation involves spending time to pursue interesting activities. Tourists desire to travel to new locations and get away from their normal daily routines (Mahika, 2011). They get various tourist destinations that will allow them participate in their hobbies and self-fulfilling interests. Tourists in new locations behave in different attributes and characteristics.

Regression

Tours and travel allows people to participate in inconceivable activities away from their usual lives. Vacation offers opportunities of engaging in withdrawal behaviors from normal obligations to gain experiences from different places. The motive regresses tourists to simpler lifestyles. Motivation theory explains that a person’s needs are aroused when the mental equilibrium state is disturbed (Mahika, 2011).

Enhancement of kinship relationships

Vacation brings families and relatives together. As a result, relationships are enriched and enhanced.

Facilitation of social interaction

Tourists visit new places with a goal of meeting new people and gaining extra ideas from their own. Moreover, there are socializing opportunities offered which enhance social status.

Pull factors

Novelty

Tourists travel to new places and engage in new activities to gain new experiences. Curiosity among tourists motivates them to visit new places (Mahika, 2011).

Education

Tourists chose certain areas to have quiet locations for learning. They organize workshops, short courses, museums, among other education forums. Tourists also visit areas having rich historical reenactment where tourists learn historical events through participation (Mahika, 2011).

Destination choices

Push factors drives tourists away from their homes while pull factors attracts them to certain destinations. Resorts are best places to travel with an aim of relaxing and resting. Tourists attracted to quality of the environment, food, drink and accommodations attend popular places with high numbers of tourists for overnight stays. Travelers attracted by culture and history travel to countries with major cities and higher population densities. Travelers in search of places for entertainment destinations prefer countries having large cities, many hotels, and lower GDPs. They prefer Mediterranean countries (LaMondia, Snell, & Bhat, 2010). Families wishing to look for destinations with children activities during the holidays prefer large cities with many children opportunities. Travelers wishing to visit friends and relatives on holiday choose destinations with many large cities. Many large metropolitan areas present opportunities to connect with people. People interested with culture and language travel to far distant places.

Travelers purchasing products on holiday such as clothes travel to destinations with many large cities. Those buying books and music on holiday prefer going to countries with many large cities. Those buying crafts on holiday chose destinations with lower DDPs. Travelers purchasing food products on holiday prefer large cities. Travelers wishing to visit national parks and nature reserves during the holidays travel to countries having large areas of land and densely populated areas with long coastlines (LaMondia, Snell, & Bhat, 2010). The travelers enjoy beautiful landscapes, destinations with wilderness and people activities with ease of access.

Tourists traveling with children or alone chose closer vacation destinations compared with other groups. People traveling with children prefer traveling to nearby places to meet biological needs of children while adult travels aim at getting to their destinations to begin their pursuits (LaMondia, Snell, & Bhat, 2010).

People traveling with spouse, children, and other individuals prefer using a personal vehicle since the travel is itself an experience. The vehicle provides opportunities for side-stops and enjoyment with friends and family. People who have completed a full-time education prefer visiting places to explore potential areas of study during their highereducation levels. Highly educated people travel to large cities because of the rich culture and heritage (LaMondia, Snell, & Bhat, 2010). They use public transport since it is cheaper as compared to private transport. Household travels cover short distances and chose nearby tourist area to minimize expenses and enhance coordination. The unemployed and retired persons travel to Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy. Low-income travelers prefer surface ground transport while high-income travelers opt for air travel.

Females engage in tourist activities to learn new ideas and spend time with families and friends. Both genders desire to escape from monotony of life and spend extra time with their partners. People aged between 41 to 60 years conduct family visits to strengthen their bonds. Youths aged between 18 to 20 years visit new places to strengthen their relationships with friends and spouses. Young people aged 21 to 40 years visit places to explore themselves compared to people aged 41 years and above (Guha, 2009, and Jonsson & Devonish, 2008 ).

External motivators include the attractiveness of the destination site such as available tangible resources including beaches, recreational activities, and cultural attractions (Hsu, Tsai, & Wu, 2009). Moreover, the perception of travelers and their expectations include marketing image, benefit expectations, and novelty. Shopping is a destination characteristic influencing tourist choice. Food available and safety adds value to destination image.

Hong Kong and Taiwan travelers prefer areas with plenty of food and adequate security. People organize to tour developed countries in search of improved medical facilities. Taipei 101 is the most visited place in Taiwan because it seeks novelty, it is a place to meet new friends, it offers medical treatment and transport facilities as people enjoy nightlife (Hsu, Tsai, & Wu, 2009).There is a variety of high food and accommodation. Personal safety is enhanced and good shopping among other additional benefits.

Many people visit Taiwan because of its excellent medical technologies and medical charges, which are lower than other countries. It performs surgery for hip joint replacement, laser eye, cosmetic and liver transplant. It performs health examinations, assisted reproduction, and cancer screening services for lower prices. Hepatic medicine in Taiwan receives the highest accreditation in the whole world (Hsu, Tsai, & Wu, 2009). The clinics are located near from Taipei 101. As a result, tourists prefer visiting Taipei 101 to access competitive and affordable medical treatment.

Kenting national park offers cool places to form friendships and strengthen existing ones. The citizens in Taiwan are enthusiastic and offer a warm welcome to visitors. Taroko National park facing Pacific Ocean has many ethnic groups who follow their custom and share friendliness (Hsu, Tsai, & Wu, 2009). Sun, Moon, and lakes are good places for relaxation and when visiting friends.

People visit far-off destinations to view spectacular scenery, connect with nearby local communities, and encounter wildlife. Sparkling beaches and treks along pristine rainforest brings a relaxing and adventurous feeling to tourists. Urban tourism comes from a great interest in cultural activities such as museums, art galleries, and theatres (Pikkemaat, 2004). Historical and modern architecture are among factors motivating people to tour urban areas.

Cityscapes have entertainment parks, districts, and recreation areas and established shopping centers. Coastal and resort tourism are characterized with sea, sand and surf.

Tourists sit in deckchairs, lying on the beach to watch the sea. They engage in physical water activities such as windsurfing, snorkeling among others to change from normal daily activities and relax. Town dwellers embrace rural tourism since it is free from pollution and congestion, which is making life uncomfortable in big cities (Pikkemaat, 2004). Rural tourism is diverse and fragmented due to availability of many activities and markets. There are synthetic attractions, transport and information systems.

Educational tourism is growing to enhance careers, self-actualization, and development of jobs. School trips, spring break travels, study abroad opportunities, seminar vacations, and educational cruises are forms of educational tourism. Schoolchildren visit new places such as museums to observe world creatures. Seminars allow teaching various programs from astronomy to archeological works. Various vacations enhance skills such as protecting the ecology and building houses. Educational cruises educate specific subjects (Pikkemaat, 2004). Various educational destinations include Rome, Italy, which houses best museums and iconic sights from Roman Empire ruins to 18th century Trevi fountain. Tourists learn the Italian society modern artwork. London in England is famous for its museums and cultural sights. Its British Isles, Trafalgar square, tower of London, and Rosetta stone contain famous artifacts. New York City presents every culture in New York. Metropolitan Museum Art has art collection for study.

The image of the destination includes measurable attributes and immeasurable attributes. Tangible attributes are measurable and includes availability of different sites, scenery, comfortable environment, nightlife, and entertainment, shopping facilities, recreational and cultural facilities. Availability of local traffic, cities, accommodation, and restaurants, fair prices of goods and good climate attracts people to various places (Pikkemaat, 2004). Intangible resources include accessibility of the site, hygiene, safety, and contact with the locals, high quality accommodation, tradition and culture and food quality. Open mind among locals, freedom in the country, and quality of service, honesty, and interesting experience attract tourism.

Students visiting Australia value fair prices of goods as the major factor driving them to choose the destination. Other factors include experience, adventure, fun and variety, hygiene, scenery are attributes of the image destination (Pikkemaat, 2004). Austria is a tourist destination site because of its luxurious sites, quality accommodation, and restaurant facilities. The locals are open-minded and free to interact.

In conclusion, most tourists travel to rest and relax. Their destinations depend on available money, push and pull factors.

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Students Will Select A Bornstein Chapter And Write A Paper Regarding The Application Of The Chapter To Your Organization From A Social Justice And Technology Perspective.

Students Will Select A Bornstein Chapter

Introduction

Every organization wants to develop and improve their quality to compete against their rivals. Most organizations do not however have the proper ways that they can utilize to do this. Most of them ignore the important role that employees play and how they can utilize employees to reach their goals and objective. This paper will focus on chapter 18 that focuses on the improvement of quality of non-profit organizations. The paper will further discuss how different technologies can be incorporated into the project and their strengths and weaknesses.

Chapter Summary

The chapter chosen for assessment in this assignment is chapter 18 on improving the quality in a non-profit organization. According to the author, employees play an important role when it comes to performance of an organization. However, most project leaders do not pay much attention to the needs of employees. In order to improve the quality of a non-profit organization, it is important to groom employees by setting goals and objectives to be achieved. Identifying goals and objectives of the organization will require a needs assessment. The needs assessment will help the project manager realize deficiencies of the organizations which will then help in coming up with the necessary goals and objectives to be achieved by employees. It has been said that employees are the backbone of any organization and prepping them in the best way possible will see an improvement in the organization’s quality.

CVF, SWOT and 4Ps Analysis

CVF

Human Resources

This model mostly focuses on the morale, cohesion and human resource development (Quinn & Cameron, 1983). Employees need to be motivated and work together for the success of an organization. Teamwork in any organization is inevitable. Technology that promotes togetherness of employees like web conferencing, cyber-supervision through Skype and creation of virtual teams will help in providing cohesion among employees.

Open Systems

This model focuses on flexibility and external focus. It emphasizes on being ready, ability to grow and resources acquisition (Quinn & Cameron, 1983). In an organization this will mean opening up new ventures to see how well the employees and organizations respond. Social networking in Facebook and Twitter could open up the organization’s avenue to new markets. The organization can also use these avenues to grow and help their employees gain more.

Internal Process

This model stresses the need for information management, communication, stability and control (Quinn & Cameron, 1983). Availability of information is important as it leads to better needs assessment and better results. Technologies like outcome management databases and constituent relationship management databases can be used to provide important information for an organization when needed. These technologies will ensure that there is all information needed about the employees and how they are faring and how to improve their conditions.

Rational Goal

This model stresses on the importance of planning, productivity and goal setting (Quinn & Cameron, 1983). There are many technologies that can help an organization develop. Top Down Planner is one of technologies that can be used by organizations or individuals to plan on their goals and see how well they achieve them. With this kind of technology an organization can know if their goals are being achieved or not and how to rectify it. Employees can also be provided with this technology so that they can look into their personal goals and how well they are achieving them.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

The world today is dependent on technology. Organizations are utilizing technology to help them in achieving the best results there is. Incorporation of technology and daily activities that an organization undertakes will help in improvement of the quality of their products/services. Incorporation of technology will give the organization a competitive advantage over other organizations and cost advantages. An organization will use less money with technology than without it. This will lead to a better performance of the organization with maximum yields.

Weaknesses

For quality improvement changes need to happen. These changes need financial backing for them to be successful. Technology integration in an organization is an expensive affair. One of the weaknesses that may face the organization is therefore lack of enough finances to finance projects. If there is no talent or skilled personnel to handle technology in the firm, there will be a problem because incorporation will not be successful because there is no one to implement it. Many employees may not want to use technology and adapt to changes and opt to continue using their traditional methods. Lack of finances and talent are some of the major weaknesses witnessed when it comes to incorporation of technology for quality performance.  

Opportunities

Technology provides many opportunities to any firm. Technology will provide the firm with an opportunity to serve many more customers which will expand their customer base. When technology is used to improve an organization’s quality better products will mean more customers for the firm. Technology also provides an opportunity to have a competitive advantage over competitors because of better services and/or products. Better products and/or services will mean a greater market segment for the firm.

Threats

Even with better technology it is not guarantee that an organization will be without threats (Taylor, 2016). There are always new firms entering the market with better prices for their products and/or services. Quality improvement will not mean that there will be lower prices and that will not deter new firms from entering the market. This poses a great threat to an organization. Technology also comes with threats like cyber-attacks that would expose vital information about an organization to unwanted parties which will lead to information being compromised.

4Ps – People

An organization has to have the right type of employees with proper skills for it to improve on the quality of their performance. The project focused on here is to improve the quality of non-profit organizations. These employees should also be exposed to the right kind of culture for them to successfully implement goals and objectives of the organization. If developed properly people involved in the organization will have the right skills which means they will do everything necessary to ensure that quality is maintained. They will have the ability of using any type of technology to bring positive outcomes to the goals and objectives that have already been set. The author highlights situations that show the importance of employees to any organization, they should be properly motivated, their skills developed and provided with goals and objectives to achieve. With this, it becomes easy for the organization’s quality to be improved.

Social Justice and Agency Impact

Understanding the impact of employees and organizational culture to the general performance of a firm was the main reason for selecting this chapter. The contributions of employees to the general success of an organization has always been ignored even if it one of the most important areas of any organization. Employees have many things that affect them and most leaders are not aware of the situations. They expect their employees to be at their best always without taking into consideration about issues like low level morale and burn out. Most of the employees work without a goal or objective which leads them to lose focus. Understanding this is important for any project leader to help in improving the performance of the firm. This chapter provides me with information necessary to understand how to improve performances of my firm by helping my employees reach their goals and objectives that will help them remain focused while at the same time improving their morale.

Conclusion

Improvement of quality of an organization should mainly focus on the needs of the employees. Employees are the backbone of any organization and it is therefore important to consider them when coming up with the goals and objectives of an organization. According to the chapter focuses on, carrying out a needs assessment is an important step in realizing the deficiencies of an organization. The deficiencies will then help in setting goals and objectives of the organization to ensure that employees do not experience a burn out especially during audits. Incorporation of technology is an important aspect of improving the performance of the organization and improving its quality as discussed.

                                                            References

Quinn, R.E. & Cameron, K.S. (1983). Organizational Life Cycle and Some Shifting Criteria Effectiveness. Management Science, 29, 31-51

Taylor, N. F. (2016). SWOT Analysis: What It Is and When to Use It. Business Daily. Retrieved from www.businessdaily.com/4245-swot-anaysis.html

Zapata-Kelly, K. (2016). Quality Improvement in a Nonprofit Organization: Developing a Solid System In Congress et al. (eds.) Nonprofit Management: A Social Approach. Springer Publishing Company.

Assignment 5

My priorities in the Forrester Service Management and Automation Assessment Framework include service desk, problem management, communication, release management and roles and responsibilities that will be discussed in this paper.

The service desk is an important part of any organization (Mackey, 2010). It allows data to be easily distributed easily throughout the organization and this is why it is among the priorities. The organization’s service desk is not well equipped in terms of human resources. Its location is also poor which affects distribution of information within the organization. Moving the service desk into the work station where most employees are located will ensure that the service team is aware of any happenings within the organization that need their attention. An addition of operators will see that all the needs of the organization are met without overworking the service provider available.

Problems in an organization are inevitable at every level. Employees experience problems with the different infrastructures available in the firm (Mackey, 2010). However, with most of the problems happening, there is no proper problem management system that helps the employees in dealing with the situations.  The employees have to call contractors to deal with the situation which at times can be a nuisance. The issues are then directed to the IT operator who most of the time is not aware of happenings. Appointing one person who will communicate to the concerned party when an issue happens will reduce nuisance. Having back up plans is also important because important information may disappear but with backup the information will be easily retrieved. Some of the backup plans include creation of a cloud account and personal computers.

Release management is important in a company because it is an important part of software and IT. When there is no clear communication disruptions happen in the firm even when they can be avoided but having a release management system. Recommendations for release management include a system administrator who is required to manage miscellaneous activities like resetting passwords and monitoring dataflow. Another administrator will be dedicated to the system to ensure there are no delays and every issue is solved amicably. This will enable a chain of command to be created without any disruptions of the work that goes around the organization.

Communication is an important aspect of an organization. Communication provides an opportunity for smooth sailing of an organization because all the operations are in synch. Communication between IT and staff should enable any concerns to be easily put forward. There should also be documentation of the same to ensure that IT staff has dealt with it. This information will be easily passed around the organization. Recommendations include moving away from the traditional technology and be more focused on clients’ needs and how to deliver quality services. Everything should also be moved offsite for better communication processes.

Roles and responsibilities is one of the aspects that help an organization run smoothly (Erickson, 2012). When there is assignment of roles and responsibilities one person may end up being responsible for the entire organization which is not right. In this organization one person (Eduardo) is responsible for almost every area of the organization which will eventually bring commotion. There are many roles and responsibilities to completed in the organization including the RACI model. Getting feedback and ensuring that it is documented is important. This means that many people need to be allocated these spots so that everyone will know what their role it and thus the organization will be run smoothly.

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What Were The Most Important Developments In The Nature Of Islamic States During The Thirteenth And Fourteenth Century?

Developments In The Nature Of Islamic States During The Thirteenth And Fourteenth Century

The most important changes during 13th and 14th century in Islamic states emerged from Mongols invasions. The Mongols established the largest empire and ruled it. Their initial attacks interfered with major trade routes but eventually brought peace in Islamic states that allowed major developments. Mongols have their origin in Central Asian steppes around 1200 CE. Their clan leader Mongol Khan brought unity through his leadership. Temujin (clan leader) led the group in conquering Asia. His organized warriors resembled Chinese models into army groups of 10,000 and 1,000 man brigades. The Seljuks converted to Sunni Islam and acted as Sultans empowering nominal Abbasid Caliphs after capturing Baghdad in 1055 during their periodic control over Mesopotamia (82).

The Descendants of Mongol of Genghis Khan began by invading Persia and killed their rulers using the sword. They migrated west and defeated the Seljuks at Kose Dagh in Anatolia in 1243. The Mongols turned Seljuks into vassals. However, the Syrian Egypt Mamluk force halted the planned invasion to the west in 1260. The Golden Horde accepted Islam and became personalized in a great way. They tampered with excesses of the military rule. Its long lasting legacy was extensive tax system. Mongol administrators adopted the previous practice of collecting land taxes, which was owned by non-Muslims in lieu of salary and granting tax farms, placing measures that expanded revenues and not appealing to rural masses (90).

Before dissolving of Persian ilkhanate in 1336, before Tamerlane conquests (1370-1405), the Mongols left military states with respected authority and with regional autonomy.

Fragmentation and Reunification in the West

Power was divided effectively between Byzantines and Mongols. The Byzantines allied periodically with the Frankish Outremer along Eastern Mediterranean Coastal Littoral. The remains were left belonging to Seljuks was squeezed into the mountainous areas. The Principal areas connecting the West in the 13th century were Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. Holt explains that Syria had a fragmented land at the time of approach by the Crusaders in 1097 autumn. The rulers included men with a narrow vision and of little experience. Mongol invasions and conquests occurring during 13th and 14th century are very influential in the world events. Mongols are nomads from Central Asia who swept east and south. Mongol invasions during the 13th and 14th century destroyed unity among Muslim community through crashing Abbasid and regional dynasties. The group conquered China, India and Middle East, as well as the budding kingdom of Russia. Mongol’s rule brought peace compared to Pax Romana across Roman Empire in the ancient times.

Technology transfer in the chemical industries

Nitric and mineral acids

Islamic alchemist’s prepared mineral acids and named them sharp waters from distils of materials that produced sulphuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acids. Arabic nation and Latin nitrum denoted potassium nitrate in Arabic and Latin alchemy. The solution of sulfur with acids is formed with ingredients such as natrun, alkali salts, live natrun, eggshells, purified and sal ammoniac.

 The rocket technology

Mongols adopted rocket technology from northern China and through employments of rocketry experts as mercenaries for Mongol military. Mongol invasions spread invention through Mongol invasions in Near East and Europe in mid-13th century. Exported gunpowder recipes included 22 of them to make rockets. The rockets made in Ismail states were powerful than those made in China because they lacked a purification process. During the thirteen-century military engineer, Hasan al-Ramah began the first purification process of potassium nitrate. The process involved lixiviation of earth having nitrate in its water, adding ash from wood and crystallizing it. The wood ashes included potassium carbonates acting on calcium nitrate that accompanies potassium nitrate producing potassium nitrate and calcium carbonate. Gunpowder recipes amounted to 107 while 22 of them specifically created rockets. Explosive gunpowder included 75 percent potassium nitrate, 10% sulfur, and 15% carbon.

Arms and armor were introduced in Islamic states during the Mamluk period (1250-1517) in Egypt and Syria (Ottoman Empire). The Islamic armor was lighter and less extensive compared to European weapons. The weapons gave heavy protection and speed during their use in the hot chaotic climate of Islamic rule. The Islamic armor is conical-shaped helmets. Trade and armed conflict in east and west introduced firearms in the Islamic world. They included the plate, helmet, short vambraces, and greaves is Amon. The Islamic armor is conical-shaped helmets (107).

Institutions and mathematics

The golden age in Islamic world introduced institutions such as the public hospitals that replaced healing and sleep temples. Psychiatric hospital, public library, lending library, academic degree-granting university, and astronomical observatory research institute introduced. The first universities issued diplomas to Islamic students qualified to practice as doctors.

Among the scholars included polymath scholars in the 14th century known as Hakeem. The students contributed to religious and secular learning. During the Islamic Golden age, polymath scholars gained wide skills and knowledge, then scholars who specialized in other fields.

 Notable medieval Muslim polymaths included al-Biruni, al-Jahiz, Ibn Sina among others. Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi developed Algebra, algorithms and Hindu-Arabic numerals. Islamic geometric patterns and symmetry assuming many art forms such as girth tiling introduced in the 14th century. The patterns were formed using five sets of shapes such as decagon, hexagon, bow tie, rhombus, and the regular pentagon. The sides of the tiles have similar lengths with angles of 36 degrees offering five and ten fold. The tiles have strap work lines decorations that are visible than tile boundaries(108).

Trigonometry

Ibn Muadh al-jay developed trigonometry attributed to the law of sines. Calculus was a sum formula discovering the fourth power through a method determining the sum of integral power. Calculus found the volume of a paraboloid. The Islamic world imported ready-made rock objects into Europe. The French began importing raw materials around 13th century from the Islamic world. Their carvings copied pear-shaped Egyptian sewers but the surface decorations did not fully copy Islamic objects. The decorations concentrated in the silver-gilt mounts that featured Gothic ornaments in their fashion. Europe admired sophisticated Islamic ware and imported rock crystal and ivory from the Islamic world. Local artisans received commissions to copy them in most familiar styles. Muslims produced fine carpets and exported them to Europe.

Luxurious furnishings were bought in churches and palaces. European societies changed greatly during middle ages including the growth of towns, cities, and increase in population. City life and money attracted people to London. People were grouped into prayers (churchmen, monks, and priests), fighters (aristocratic, knights and warriors), and workers (serfs and peasants (109-11).

The Mamluks development

Mamluk era covers 1250-1382 and 1382-1517. The former is Bahri period while the latter is the Burji period. Muslims referred the two divisions as the Turkish and Circassia periods. The Mamluk dominated during the Turkish Sultans and fell into prolonged declining phase under Circassia’s. Mamluk saved Arabic-Islamic civilizations from destruction. Mongols destroyed Caliphate revived during Mamluk era and later established Caliph under Cairo surveillance. Mamluk supported industries and crafts and restored Egypt as principal trade and transit route between Mediterranean and Orient. Mamluk supported agriculture and trade. Culturally, Mamluk was appreciated for its support in historical writings and architecture. Most Mamluk historians were prolific chroniclers, encyclopedists, and biographers (114).

Agriculture transformed during the Islamic golden age. The Arab Agricultural revolution among Muslim traders enabled diffusion of many crops and techniques for use in farming. Crops not grown in Islamic worlds such as Sorghum, citrus fruits from china, rice, cotton, and sugarcane from India transported to Islamic states. There was increased agriculture mechanization that grew the economy. Urban migration and increased population levels are major results of high-tech agriculture. Bagdad city became the learning and trade center in the world because of increased urbanization. People of different ethnic groups separated narrow city streets developed as neighborhoods (121).

 Mamluk religious policies included endowment of madrasahs and extension of jurist authority and schools of law. Christian crusaders received a threat from Mamluk. The rise of Mamluk regime in the middle of the thirteenth century established many developments between religious and political authority. Mamluk secularized the political authority and the regime and protected Islam from Mongols and crusaders. It provided infrastructure and religious authority at home (138).

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Health care ethics: End of Life / Care of the Dying

End of Life / Care of the Dying

Introduction

End of life is simply a synonym to the word death.  It refers to the point of life whereby all the vital organs of the human body cease to function. There is an assumption that organs such as the lung, brain and heart cease to function more or less at the same to cause end of life. This is the definition of end of life before invention of life support machine.

Technological advances led to invention of a life support a machine which makes it very difficult to determine whether a patient has died or not. For instance, it is possible to restart the lung and heart of accident victim using cardiopulmonary resuscitation technologies and treatments. In the past end of life could be pronounced in case the brain of a patient ceases to function but that is not the case in the contemporary society. Currently there is a life supporting machine situated in the intensive care units which keeps a patient with a dead brain alive provided that his or her lung and heart are still functional. Due to these technological advancements a clear line has been drawn between life and death. Medical practitioners find it challenging to declare a given patient dead without risking legal interventions (Jonsen, Siegler & Winslade, 2015).

In the year 1981, UDDA was enacted to define end of life. With respect to this act, end of life to an individual occurs in case his or brain ceases to function permanently. The act was based on the fact that it is impossible for an individual with a non-functional brain to continue working. Brain cells are very complicated and delicate; they need supply of oxygen to function properly. However, when damaged they are irreparable. Medical practitioners can declare end of life of a patient in case there is neither flow of blood to the brain nor electrical activity.

Ethical Dilemma

What are some of the ethical issues faced by physicians when administering care to patients who are terminally or seriously? What are the pros and cons of these ethical issues?

Symptoms in End of Life Patients

Depression, pain and difficulty in breathing are the commonly known symptoms experienced by patients who near end life. Out of four patients near end of life, there is one suffering from depression. Approximately 75 percent of patients near end of life exhibit difficulty in breathing while the remaining percentage experience substantial pain.

There are two methods which are used to manage these symptoms in end of life patients. They include drug treatment and non-drug treatment.

Treatment of End of Life Symptom using drugs

This is the common symptoms management method used in most health care centers. Health care professional normally use this method because it is scientifically proven and provide desired results within the shortest time possible. However, studies have also proven that most of the drugs used in symptoms treatment negatively affect the patients. Some of the side effects of such drugs include; unconsciousness, delirium, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness and diarrhea. Patients and their family members have to make decision on whether to adopt drug treatment or not bearing in mind that it increases the chance of prolonging patient’s life (Grace, 2013).

Marijuana is a drug that is normally recommended for patients nearing end of life because of its commendable qualities. It does not only relieve patients from pain but also improve their appetite and reduce nausea. Consumption or possession of this drug is prohibited by several countries across the world. This is due to its side effects when abused. Marijuana is highly addictive and put the risks of end of life patients to addiction in case they recover from their illness and experienced prolonged life (Jonsen, Siegler & Winslade, 2015).

Treatment of Symptoms without drugs

Aromatherapy, massage therapy and hypnosis are some of the non-drug treatments to symptoms in End of life patients. It is the responsibility of the patients or their family members to decide whether non-drug treatment can be used in symptoms management. However, in the contemporary society, this type of symptoms management is used as complementary to the first method. Professionals normally recommend it in case the patient is not responding positively to recommended drug treatment (Grace, 2013).

Analysis of Ethical Common End of life Concepts and Problems

Two common approaches of end of life are palliative and hospice care. In this paper, clear view of these forms of care to end life has been provided. They have functional differences as outlined below.

Palliative Care

The main objective of palliative care is to relieve patients of their symptoms which also form one of the healthcare’s major objectives. Patients who are either terminally or seriously ill are subjected to palliative care because it aims at taking care of all the patient’s needs. Some of the needs of seriously ill patients include emotional, psychological and social wellbeing, management of symptoms and pain. There is minimal difference between palliative and hospice care as we will discover later in this essay. Both palliative care and hospice care provide patients with comprehensive care through use of interdisciplinary professional team. The only difference between palliative and hospice care is that while hospice care is restricted to patients glaring end of life, palliative care can be used for long term health care settings as wells as in patients in acute health conditions. Palliative care is not common in the traditional medical practice in the United States of America because its main focus in relief of symptoms does not form primary objectives of the American health care system. Provision of healing to injuries and treatment of illnesses form the main focuses of the American health system (Quill & Abernethy, 2013).

The following are two of the ethical issues raised through use of palliative care in patients: first of all, it is of benefit to the patient because it helps in pain relief to the patient nearing end of death; and secondly, it does not cause the patient any harm but relieves him or her temporarily of the sufferings. Since palliative care addresses both two ethical issues, it is recommend for patients nearing end of life because it relieves them of pain and other symptoms which may cause them to suffer. It is however, important to note that no so many patients chose to undergo palliative care when they near end of life (Grace, 2013).

Hospice Care

Hospice care is normally chosen over by patients who near end life. It involves development of a hospice care team comprised of social workers, nurses, doctors among other healthcare professionals with an aim of making the final day of the patient as comfortable as possible. Some of the factors addressed by hospice care include provision of quality life, management of symptoms, control of pain and allowing the patient to experience natural death.

Hospice care gives the patient an opportunity to experience good death when that time comes. The patient and his or her family members have opportunity to control circumstances and situations pertaining to the patient’s death. Members of the hospice teams are charged with the responsibility of providing their patients with hospice care wherever and whenever. Grief counseling in case of death, social services, nutritional counseling, and provision of spiritual and emotional support are some of the functions carried out by hospice team apart from medical care.

Ethical Issues of End of Life/Dying Care

Antibiotic treatments

Patients who near end life are prone to infections due to reduced immunity. High percentages of seriously ill patients are also subjected to antibiotic treatment. However, it is not a guarantee that these patients are relieved from these drugs in fact most of their symptoms end up alleviating. The situation may worsen to an extent that it would be pointless to administer antibiotic treatments to these patients.

This is where medical practitioners are faced with ethical dilemma. They are torn between withholding and continuing with administration of antibiotic treatment. Since antibiotics are part of the treatment routine and should be administered to seriously ill patients no matter the side effects. Most healthcare providers tend to continue with administration of antibiotic drugs because they believe that the side effects are due to treatable diseases but not to untreatable illness. Another ethical issue that has been raised on the use of antibiotic treatment on terminally ill patients is the capability of the bacteria to undergo mutation. This would make the patients resistant to antibiotic treatment hence exposed to several other infections. Public health professionals have carried out research studies and determined that over-prescribing antibiotics to terminally ill patients because it would make them susceptible to other infections (Cook & Rocker, 2014).

Euthanasia

This is an ethical issue which allows a physician to actively or passively terminate the life of a terminally ill patient upon his or her consent or that of the family members. This method was designed due to the grief that struck family members whenever their patients were ill for a very long time. Passive euthanasia is mostly by physicians to terminate the life of their seriously ill patients to save them from continued suffering. It involves denying the patients important medical intervention such as services of life supporting machines. The society views passive euthanasia as way of allowing a patient to die in peace. Active euthanasia takes place when the physician takes physical actions when terminating the life of the patient. The most common action that physicians use to carry out active euthanasia is giving the seriously ill patients injection of lethal drug (Sprung et al., 2014).   

Some of the ethical issues on euthanasia include the following: it is not morally right to terminate the life of an individual even upon request; passive euthanasia is acceptable to the society in case continued life would cause more harm to the patient; euthanasia is perceived unethical in the modern society because it may open room for unfair and unjust practices; and violation of the patient’s right to life in case euthanasia is executed.

Advance Directives

These are documents prepared by patients and their family members giving specific instruction concerning their treatments. Palliative care and organ donation are some of the common advance directives across the world. Advance directives have been used by patients near end of life to request their health care providers to terminate their lives in order to avoid more suffering. They understand the fact that their health conditions cannot be reversed and their ultimate end is death. It is pointless for them to subject themselves to increased suffering while there is little hopes for normal life (Grace, 2013).

Advance Directives Ethical Issues

The following are some of the ethical issues pertaining to advance directives on patients near end of life/ dying care: patients who are not yet terminally ill may make advance directives that would compel their health care providers to stop providing necessary heath care services subjecting to early death and more suffering; advance directives require a lot understanding from healthcare providers hence wastage of time (Brinkman-Stoppelenburg, Rietjens & van der Heide, 2014).

Terminal Sedation

This is a method that is used by physicians to sedate patients who near end of life. It is used to ease their suffering from pains and sorrows they experience at their condition. Physicians administer sedatives to their patients who are seriously ill to a point whereby they become unconscious. These sedatives are administered to tranquilize the spinal cord and brain of the patient making them motionless and eventual death (Cook & Rocker, 2014).

The following are some of the ethical issues that are associated with terminal termination as an ethical issue: terminal sedation may cause the patients to die faster than anticipated; it does gives precedence to suffering rather than consciousness; it raises question on the extent to which individuals are willing to go in order to relieve themselves of sorrows associated with dying care; and finally it raises question whether the family members may abuse the right of the patient and seek for terminal sedation on their behalf (Cook & Rocker, 2014). 

Prognosis

This is a statement that is provided by the physicians offering either hospice or palliative care to patients near end of life. It states that a patient can only live for duration of not more than six months. It enables the patients to receive Medicare hospice benefit but it also raises ethical question whether it is accurate, or whether six month limitation is necessary (Grace, 2013).

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is difficult to decide on the best heath care method should be administered to patients near end of life. I believe that hospice health care is most suited for terminally or seriously patients. Euthanasia, sorrow management, terminal sedation, prognosis, advance directives and antibiotic treatment are some of the ethical issues which have been addressed in this paper. I agree with the thoughts of most of the healthcare professionals who think that despite these actions being of benefit to the patients who near end of life, they also have negative impacts on not only the patients but also their family members. Health care personnel should also review their ethical principles before they can practice these methods on their seriously ill patients. Finally, I would suggest that some of these ethical issues are more important in health care system and cannot be ignored. It is high time the contemporary societies recognize essentiality of these issues and accept them. They provide the desired solution to both the patient and his or her family members.

References