Job analysis is the process of collecting and recording data related to skills and knowledge required when performing certain jobs, responsibilities, and jobs involved.
Importance of job analysis
Job analysis gathers education qualifications, experience, emotional characteristics, and physical characteristics needed to perform jobs effectively. Job analysis collects information that will match employees and their jobs. The process assess the performance of an employee, determines the value of particular tasks, and analyzes training procedures and development needed for employee to deliver in certain jobs. Job analyses collects the location of the job, department, division, compensation grade, routine tasks, communication and physical skills, duties involved in the job, the structure of reporting to the job, MIS activities, ability of the employees to adapt to their work environments, licenses and certifications required and the ability to grow and close sales. It outlines methods of handling clients, subordinates, superiors, and personal presentation (Quirin, 2001).
Purpose of job analysis
According to Quirin (2001), job analysis is important in recruitment and selection, job designing, job evaluation, deciding compensation and benefit packages, performance appraisal, analyzing training and development needs, assessing the worth of a job and increasing personnel and organizational productivity.
Recruitment and selection
Job analysis determines attributes of people required to perform specific jobs. It lists various qualifications, experience level, technical skills, emotional and personal skills needed to perform the job in the desired fashion. Job analysis fits the right person with the right job and in the appropriate department. Job analysis process determines job duties included when advertising for vacant positions. It determines appropriate levels of salary and the position for each salary range. Minimum requirements in each position are determined such as experience and levels of education. Proper job analysis determines questions asked during the interview, selection tests and instruments, evaluation forms and orientation materials for new applicants (Quirin, 2001).
Jobs analysis checks whether objectives and goals of particular jobs are met. It decides upon performance standards, individual output, and evaluation criteria. Job analysis measures the performance of each employee and appraises him or her accordingly.
Training and development
Job analysis assesses the materials required when developing and training each employee according to their needs. It measures the difference between expected and actual output to affect appropriate training to each employee. Job analysis decides on training content required, equipment needed andtools to conduct training among employees. It determines appropriate methods of training small groups and big groups. It determines assessment tests that measure effectiveness, and whether to use computers, videos or classrooms for training (Society for human resource management, 2014).
Job analyses determines pay packages, extra perks, benefits, fixed and variable incentives awarded to each employee. The pay packages varies according to job position, title, duties, and responsibilities of the job. HR managers use job analyses as a guide to decide worth of each employee when positioning each employee.
Job analysis helps determine the level of skills, working environment (physical effort, attention, and hazards involved), responsibilities, and levels of education.
Job designing and redesigning
Job analysis streamlines human efforts to attain best output from each employee. It designs, redesigns, evaluates and cuts back or adds responsibilities. Job analysis enhances the satisfaction of employees. Job analysis fits the right talents at the appropriate place and time (Society for human resource management, 2014).
Principles of job analysis
Duties and responsibilities follow a logical order, stated clearly and concisely. The words should be limited. Specific details show the kind of work, complexities, and required skills. HR use action words such as analyze and gather. Updating and changing job descriptions according to the dynamic environment and health care agency. Periodic audits of all jobs are scheduled when updating job descriptions (Society for human resource management, 2014).
Methods of job analysis
HR persons interview unprepared persons in predetermined line of investigation. The interviewer explains the purpose of the study and the focus of the interview. The interviewer asks questions on the work done as they take notes. Responses and questions depends on roles and structure of the questions. Information is collected according to areas of exploration and depth of information required. Unstructured interviews contain free questions and responses. The interviewer listens, asks for clarification, and reflects on gathered information to perform an analysis.
Structured interviews assume formats such as charts of activities done by an employee, or a questionnaire. Notes and records are taken for analysis. Structured interviews are best when assessing job performance and staff appraisal because employee rate tasks they perform in their jobs in the questionnaire.
Interviews are good methods of generating descriptive data, which enable jobholders to interpret certain activities. They discuss sensitive areas in depth.
Various experts sourced from different departments give dependable information’s in relation to certain job. The panel is interviewed and their opinions analyze various jobs correctly.
Expert panels and unstructured interviews are best to perform a job analysis. The attached questionnaire guides the interviewer on information to gather. Expert panels provide information guided by the questionnaire.
Write a follow-up report to the head of department that lists your job analysis activities Job analysis activities
Job analysis activities includes examining activities done in particular jobs within an organization. Interviewers ask questions on tasks, competencies, roles of the job, knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform in certain jobs. The interviewer asks conditions required to perform certain activities (Society for human resource management, 2014).
The findings from a group of 100 respondents indicate that 96% had efficient knowledge, 95% was well equipped with skills, 92% had abilities to perform the job, and 90% were aware of tasks to perform. From the job analysis, methods such as interviews and observation proved the best when compared to structured questionnaires. Interviews demonstrated 50% effectiveness; observations showed 33% effectiveness and structured questionnaires showed 27% effectiveness (Society for human resource management, 2014).
Recommendations of what should be included in the job analysis in the job description the head of department is writing
Inclusions in the job analysis
A job analysis includes the elements of a job, the tasks performed, the duties involved, position held, type of job, job family, occupation, and career.
Inclusions in a job description
A job description must have the title of the job, main duties performed contribution of the role to the business, location of the work, remuneration, and a description of the business. Pay grades, reporting relationships such as hours and shifts and the presence of overtime. Qualifications for the position such as levels of education, training, experience, and necessary technical skills for entry in the job are listed. Extraordinary conditions required in the job are listed such as heavy lifting and prolonged standing (Society for human resource management, 2014).