Fidel Castros rise
Fidel Castro rose to power after his failed attempt to overthrow Cuba’s Dictator General Fulgencio Batista who undermined and violated the constitution of Cuba. Batista was the first president of Cuba and elected following new constitution. Political parties and a coalition as well as communists supported Batista. He took office in 1940 (Castro, 2007). Fidel formed a loose revolutionary organization comprising over 200 students. They bought weapons, short guns, caliber semi-automatic rifles from armories. They trained and planned to raid Monacada Garrisons as the major target.
The attack in Moncada Barracks occurred on 26 July 1953 and failed leading to attacks of most rebels who were killed, imprisoned, tortured, and captured. Fidel Castro was sentenced to 15 years in prison while Raul Castro was sentenced for 13 years. Fidel army was inexperienced and never understood the layout of the Santiago streets (James, 2016). Their reconnaissance was poor. However, the two only served for two years because they were Catholic Church members and Batista asked for their release. They were put to exile in Mexico. In exile, Castro joined with Cienfuegos and Che Guevara to form Granma crew, which was a yacht to sail to Cuba in December 1956 (Sweig, 2009).
It was the beginning of M-26-7 named after the dates when they experienced a failed attack in Mancada Barracks. After the landing of the crew carrying more than one hundred people, only less than twenty remained after the rest had been diminished. The dates and location of landing for Granma were already off leading to a throw of their meeting with llano (urban guerrilla) rebellion section. The surviving warriors retreated into Sierra Maestra making it their headquarters. Their battles with Cuban army, Castro Forces took the country (Rico, 2016). Batista fled in January 1, 1959 and fulfilled Castro’s promise of having the country by 1959.
Afterwards Castro set his revolutionary government, which incorporated sierra (mountain guerrilla) forces as the top government and became the head until February 2008. His relations with the Soviet Union dominated Castro’s rule during the cold War. His close relations with USSR led to adoption of hardline ideology of Marxist-Leninist, which was a response to United States actions to eliminate its trade with Cuba. Embargo, which was a trade between Cuba and US leaders, forced Cuba close to communism and USSR because the nation had a desperate need to get a trade partner (Logan, 2015). United States never supported the Embargo with OAS, EU, international organizations, and other countries.
Castro managed to rise to power after organizing and winning small battles against rural Guard patrols. Castro planned to attack men the men from in front and at the center and then ambush them as they began retreating (Deshazo, Forman, and McLean, 2009). However, Batista fought back by snuffing the uprising with a massive offensive, air force bombers, and naval offshore units. The Guerrillas raised a counter attack wrestling control from Batista on January 1; 1959.Castro took over as prime minister one week later. Revolutionary tribunals began executing members in the old regime because of their alleged war crimes.
Castro began ruling by nationalizing business owned by U.S. citizens such as oil refineries, casinos, and factories. United States was thus prompted to end diplomatic relations and impose a trade embargo. Cuban exiles approximate of 1400 trained through CIA funding stopped at Pigs bay with an aim of overthrowing Castro. More than one hundred were killed while the rest were captured. Castro publicly declared himself as a Marxist-Leninist in late 1961. Cuba was heavily dependent on the Soviet Union for military and economic support. Castro fought legal discrimination and installed electricity in the country (Suri, 2013).
He provided full education, health care, built new schools, medical facilities, and closed opposing newspapers. He jailed many political opponents, limited land ownership, abolished all privately owned businesses. Castro presided over consumer goods and housing (Mitchell Orenstein, 2012). Castro supplied finances and military to various Guerrilla movements in Latin America and Africa from 1960 to 1980s. Although the economy of Cuba collapsed in early 1990s, Castro identified new partners of trade who helped him cling to power.
Consolidation of power
Castro was sworn in as Prime minister of Cuba in February 16, 1959.The process was followed by a visit to the U.S. to Richard Nixon the vice president. Castro visited Canada, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. Castro attended an economic conference in Buenos Aires, and proposed a $30 billion Marshall Plan funded by U.S. for Latin America. Fidel Castro signed the First Agrarian Reform into law in May 1959. He set a landholding cap to 993 acres in single owners and prohibited foreigners from obtaining Cuban land ownership. Castro appointed himself as the president of National Tourist industry and introduced measures of encouraging tourism visits between African-American (Logan, 2015). The act advertised Cuba as a country free of racial discrimination. The payments for politicians and judges were reduced while payments for civil servants were raised.
Rents for persons paid for less than $100 each month were halved. Castro appointed Marxist in the senior government and allocated them senior military positions. Castro announced to resign as a prime minister blaming a complication of his government by Urrutia. However, more than 500,000 supporters of Castro demanded Urrutia to resign. After his resignation, Castro assumed office and Marxist Osvaldo Dorticos was appointed the president (Bax and Mieu, 2016).
The government of Castro lay special emphasis on social projects, which would improve Cuba way of living. Education program introduced led to opening of more classrooms and productive activities. There was nationalization of health care and expansion to rural areas (Prevost, 2012). Infrastructure was developed with roads more than 600 miles constructed across the island. More than $300 million was dedicated to water and projects of sanitation. More than 800 houses were constructed each month to reduce homelessness. Day-care centers were opened to assists children while centers were built for the disabled and elderly. Radios and television were used to dialogue with people as well as making provocative statements (Boline, 2015). Castro’s regime became popular with students, workers, and peasants. The middle class, engineers and doctors were major opposes. Together with doctors, they migrated to Florida in U.S. causing a brain drain of the economy. Moreover, there was a decline of productivity and financial reserves.
Cold war raged between United States and the soviet union USSR that was ruled by a communist party. Castro established relations with Marxists-Leninist states to express USSR ideas. The meeting with Soviet First deputy premier Anastas Mikoyan led to provision of hides, sugar, fruits, and fibers to USSR from Castro. Cuba gave an order to US refineries controlled by Esso, Shell and standard oil to process Soviet oil, which was declined under U.S. pressure (North, 2016).
Castro nationalized the refineries, which led to cancellation of importing Cuban sugar import. A French vessel, the Le Coubre, located in Havana harbor in 1960 was exploded, straining the relationship between Cuba and U.S. the ship had carried weapons bought from Belgium. Castro feared a Coup from U.S. in Cuba in 1959.he spent more than $120 million on Soviet, Belgian and French weaponry, and increased armed forces in Cuba twice. Castro’s government trained more. Than 50,000 civilians using combat techniques and formed military arming citizens for the upcoming revolution (Gomez, 2016).
A defense revolution committee was created to implement spying neighborhood and detect counter-revolutionary activities. It also organized education campaigns and health. The new administration proclaimed by Castro was declared a direct democracy for Cubans to assemble their demonstrations that would express democracy (A &E Television networks, 2017).The U.S. Secretary of state announced Cuba as a country adopting the soviet model of rule. A government that controlled the trade unions, one-party state, one that suppressed civil liberties and absent from press and speech (Gonzalez and McCarthy, 2004)..