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Why Do You Think Management Previously Ignore The Workers’ Illegal Punch-Out System?

Punch-Out System

Managers ignore workers illegal ‘punch-out’ because they are not accurate ways of measuring workers time in the business. Second, they avoid blames and lawsuits from employees due to lower and inappropriate payments. Third, they have to submit records that match with requirements of FLSA. The essay discusses that illegal punch-out system are inaccurate measures of time taken at work places.

According to SHRM, employers use Punch-out system to track working time among employees. Employees are directed to punch a time clock to record attendance patterns, maintain safety and security of workers inside the organization. Employers ignore illegal punch-out system to avoid blames that they pay their workers hourly and not monthly salaries. Salaried employees should not miss payments on basis of the punch-out system. The fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) states that employers track working hours per employee. As a result they have a responsibility of ensuring that records reflect time that employees have worked. Thus, employers ignore any illegal punch out system because they have to submit records that match with requirements of FLSA.

Employers ignore illegal ‘punch-out’ system to avoid wage and hour lawsuit such as claims that employers are failing to pay for total hours worked for. Employers following the punch-out system may be misled to pay less and be liable to pay for damages, back pay, attorney fees, criminal and civil penalties under federal and state laws. Employers ignore the punch-out system and personally supervise employees to ensure that time records are genuine. The practice minimizes liability during an audit from the department of labor.

Employers ignore illegal punch-out system because they lack well-developed policies and procedures for employees to follow. They do not communicate proactively with employees and are not present to monitor those policies and procedures of punching out are followed. Most companies do not evaluate circumstance related to FSLA Rules and regulations.

Employers ignore illegal ‘Punch out’ system since it can be a source of chaos and conflicts in the work place. Various employees over speed labor that was actually not performed, which leads to reduction in productivity and lower profits. Other employees game the system repeatedly in the course of the week. Example a fifteen minutes rounding rule allows employees to clock-in and out allowing employees to work for less hours than 40 hours required in a week. Refusing to follow illegal punch-out system protects employees through restriction of employer abuses of the time clock rounding policies, which do not offer accuracy when compensating employees. Employers aiming at avoiding abuses towards their employees do not concentrate on illegal punch-outs. Various employers effectively learn how to manipulate the punch system to their favor, which often affect the working of the employees leading to stress and depression in the work places.

Employers ignore illegal punch-out system steals money and time from the company. Some employers use roundness principle, which translates to equal numbers of early and late clock-in and out activities. As a result, some employees may have recorded illegally and thus demanding an overpay averaging to 1.2%. Such employees filter profits from the company illegally. The Company risks losing huge amounts of profits and productivity because of few workers who manipulate the clock for self-gain. Employers ignore illegal punch-out system since they create an atmosphere of objective verification instead of basing business on fundamental trust. The system interferes with relationship between employer and employee along with the process of goodwill. Employees required to punch the time clock believe that employers have no trust over their reporting hours. Such employees lose their self-esteem, under produce leading to loses. In conclusion, Punch-out systems are inaccurate measures of time taken at work places.

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Why Amazon Is One Of The Most Successful Companies In The World

Amazon has been a leading Company since 1990s. It began with selling books globally online which earned it more than $50 billion revenue. Jeff Bezos the Company CEO reports that it invented new options for their customer including Prime and bold bets in the physical worlds. The rapid expansion of new goods and services offered an opportunity for the retail business to offer more products in a faster and smarter way. The disciplined CEO follows six sigma-style of processes and decision driven from available data. The discussion outlines reasons why Amazon is the most successful company in the world.

Amazon aims at satisfying its customers

It trades off short-term profits to maintain customer loyalty over a long time.

It refunds its customers after delivering poor quality products such as poor video playback.

It places its customers in the front line.

Its products are offered at cheaper bargain able prices compared to other companies such as Netflix.

Delivery of products to customers is within two days free of charge.

Millions of products and items are transported to the doorsteps in one hour or less through Prime Now service.

It has now introduced one-hour delivery to restaurants, a free-book each month and ad-free video game streamed to customers for free viewing on Twitch channel. The fee is included in annual fee.

Amazon has best deals for diapers with 20% discount and a photo storage that is unlimited.

Customers with additional few dollars easily upgrade unlimited audiobooks, subscribe to HBO, and enjoy free delivery of grocery products.

The products offered are watched on Amazon’s fire TV streaming media player.

Amazon has the capability to cram more products and services into Prime, which attracts users that are more new and encourages old ones to renew their membership to buy more items.

Amazon gathers data from what products and services are sold often to determine what to offer and tastes preferred by their customers.

It has many services to spin new products and services including the dash button that replenishes popular ordered items with a tap and Alexa.

Prime has acted as the driving force in Amazon Company to move the company forward.

Amazon offers quality products and services

Media products

Amazon offers media products such as books, DVDs, music, videotapes, and software. It offers beauty products, baby products, apparel, health and personal care items, groceries, kitchen items, jewelry and watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, automotive items, games and toys.

Grocery

Amazon sells perishable and nonperishable foods delivered on order to customer’s doorsteps. The Vine.com is website where customers buy green products such as household items and apparel.

Baby products

Amazon sells nursery, gear, and feeding products. Quidsi Company bought by Amazon runs sites such as Diapers. Com (baby), YOYO.Com (toys), and Wag.com (pets).

Amazon save and subscribe program offers discounts on items sold in bulk and free shipping for every one, two, and three months.

Books

Amazon sells new and used books online and in bookstores.

Calendars, card decks, magazines, journals, sheet music among other publications.

Automotive and power sports

Amazon sells spare parts, tools, equipment, and accessories. It sells new parts, refurbished, used, and collectible items.

Beauty products

Amazon sells beauty products such as skin care products, hair care, health, and personal care, as well as bath and shower products.

Camera and photo

Amazon sells new, used, and refurbished cameras, Camcorders, and telescopes.

Clothing and accessories

Amazon Company sells new outerwear, innerwear, wallets, and belts.

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Analyzing The US Airways 1549 Crash

Airways 1549 Crash

The United States airway flight 1549 scheduled to fly on January 15, 2009 from New York City LaGuardia Airport (LGA) to Charlotte Douglas (CLT) and Seattle at Tacoma international airport in Washington State reported a crash. The airbus powered with two CFM56 turbofan engines, flew a direct onward service (Tail strike, 2017). The incident occurred on 15 January 2009. The plane took off in the fourth LaGuardia’s runway at 3:24:56 pm, and reported of being airborne at 700 feet and climbing. It struck a flock having Canadian geese at 2818 attitude (859m) northwest of the airport. The view of the pilot filled with large birds, as passengers reported loud bangs of birds and flames from the engines. The engine flame filled with silence and fuel odor. Sullen Berger controlled the plane after the shutdown of the engine as other skies attempted to restart the engine. A further climb could not save the situation, but only a glide descent to 1650 feet (Tail strike, 2017).

The call sign Cactus 1539 radioed New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON). He reported hitting birds and turning towards LaGuardia. The attempt to land in New Jersey was impossible. The plane ditched and in the middle of North River the section of Hudson tidal estuary. The landing speed was 240 km/h. Upon landing pilot Sulenberger ordered the passenger to evacuate through the cockpit door, which he opened. The four over wing windows served as exits for passengers into an inflatable slide/raft that was deployed from front right passenger door. Water entered through a rear door, a hole that passes fuel and cargo doors. The nearby boats facilitated the rescue procedure, a Jason cradle owned by Governor Thomas H. Kean, and ferry crew rescued passengers on the wings. Medical help from agencies treated the passengers. Fortunately, no passenger died from the incident (Tail strike, 2017).

The success of aircraft 1549 came from the skills of experienced cabin crew. The pilot (Chesley B.’Sully’ Sullenberger’), in command was 57 years old, with great experience since 1980. He had already logged 19,663 hours since he started working as a pilot, and additional 4765 hours in A320 flight. He was an established expert in the aviation safety. His training included 15,643 flight hours in A320 airbus where he qualified as a pilot. His qualification led to boarding of 150 passengers and three attendants in the flight.

The pilot directed the passengers to exit through cockpit door. The flight attendants directed passengers to keep calm and pass through appropriate exits. It is very possible that they had closed airplane valves, openings, and intakes that would have led water inside the plane. Most probably, they pushed the ditching button to seal the valves and openings that would have allowed water in the plane. They increased buoyancy of the plane allowing it to float on water long enough for everybody to move out.

The landing can be regarded as textbook since the pilot, Sullenberger landed on Hudson similar to the way he would land on a runway. It seems he had gained enough experience to manipulate some tactics of landing since there was no engine power. In addition, the pilot managed to fly the plane on water as slow as possible, a technique that is not possessed by many pilots. The landing was noted since the pilot did not panic which avoided many deaths. The skile officers performed their job of checking any error and restarting the engine within shortest time. They did not wait any minute but were quick to establish a safer place for the aircraft to land. Were it not for their quick steps the plane would have landed on a populated area.

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Based On What You Learned In Class, What Is The Best Description You Have For The Study Conducted By Dr. Simons And His Colleagues? Briefly Describe The Topic Of The Study. Name And Define Two Issues That Dr. Simons And His Colleagues Found

Study Conducted By Dr. Simons And His Colleagues

Brain Game Claims

Brain games involves introducing many games to the brain that changes the functioning of the brain. It is fun, relaxing, and healthy. Word games and puzzles challenge the intellectual ability of the brain. Engaging puzzles benefit the mind. Breaking out of the normal daily routine challenges the brain and forces it to think differently. They include taking a different route, experimenting differently; travelling to new places keeps the mind fresh and sprightly. Brain games increase thinking speed, rejuvenating memory, and promoting focus (Npr, 2017).

Hamilton (2016) in his study claims that scientific studies done on brain game do not help when it comes to solving brain related problems. Hamilton (2016) asserts that brain games should not be relied on to have smarter brains, increase focus and free brain problems that come with advancing in age. However, other studies found that brain games assist people to better specific tasks and delay aging effects. Simon his colleague supports him and states that there are no studies done showing real outcomes in the world (Npr, 2017). They conducted a study on brain games and cognitive functioning involving 130 participants.

The findings indicate that the portion that produced results found that brain games assist people to better specific tasks. Exercises such as scanning baggage at airports and looking for a lost knife are good at helping the brain increase its memory ability. Simon and other researchers pointed out those only wide skills did not improve memory while narrow skilled exercises did. Rebok a colleague researcher was positive on brain games and indicated that brain training games and exercises improve the functioning of the brain and delays aging effects (Npr, 2017). Rebok supports brain-training exercises in that it takes too much effort to get results, which improve the capacity of the brain.

The Atlantic monthly group supports that brain games are beneficial to humans. Repetition of specific mental tasks such as memorizing numbers strengthens the mind in its ability to recall numbers and facts. Simple video games boost the ability of the brain to pay attention and process at a faster speed. People become better at sporting objects in their environment. Playing brain games train the deepest mental abilities, which ends up in improving all aspects of life that depends on the abilities (The Atlantic monthly group, 2017). Products such as Brain HQ promotes visual processing speed two times faster than usual, increases memory ten years, and reduces medical costs. It reverses slowness of the mind related to age and increases self-confidence. The major disadvantage of brain games is that some are very costly. Some industry fail to pay users after supporting their products. People are not born with high levels of intelligence, simple targeted brain games helps to add intelligence in the brain. Brain training exercises helps it reach its full potential and become more attentive.

I have played with Sudoku since it the most common brain game and afforded at a cheaper price. While playing I realize that my mind gets better at thinking capacity trying to generate more answers and match with present letters. At first, the brain is challenged but after restructuring, I am good at the game. My experience with Sudoku has improved my brain and eased simple tasks such as remembering where I placed various items. Practice makes perfect, the more one trains with brain games, the more the mind gets better and improves its processing speed. Neuro nation (2017) is among companies offering brain games targeted to improve certain areas of the brain. Most people recommend it after attending various sessions. Brain games should not be restricted because they assist individuals in their cognitive thinking and physical activities.

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Reflection on Passing Strange

The play, ‘Passing Strange’ carries with it a major theme which is surrealism and this can also be termed as the main message in the entire play. The play depicts a cultural movement majorly as portrayed with the range of music that is put across over time and the majestic display of visual art. The play reveals life lived in chasing dreams to an extent that the dreams become part of the life and brings the feeling that an individual can as well life in a dream. In my personal life, there are those dreams that I have been, chasing one after another to the extent that I get the feeling that I leave a life full of dreams or driven by dreams.

A common feature of the play is the deep involvement of music in the play. There is a variety of music genres and these include punk, funk, rock, R & B and even gospel music. Inclusion of these genres helps in understanding the evolution of the storyline as various genres are associated with various parts. Examples of outstanding music in the play include music by Burt Bacharach and Kurt Weil.

There is the use of set and lights in the play and this contributes towards the audience experience with the play. This makes the play more of a memory play with the lights stressing the fact that characters are just but the essence of the persons they ought to be. A perfect example is in the character Stew. The set and the lights are used to construct the character of stew as the impressions made by them symbolises Stew recollecting what makes him, as all that is based on impressions.

Costumes are an important part of the play and they tell a lot about the characters. Characters in the play are chasers of dreams, they want to become something new at different stages and this is reflected in their costumes. The Youth for example thinks that there is something real. Thus the Youth strives to be that which is real until the target is achieved. However when such a target has been achieved, the Youth realises that that ‘Real’ belongs to someone else and another ‘Real’ has to be pursued. The costumes associated in the pursuit of the ‘Real’ helps explain the characters and the theme of the play.

The play ‘Passing Stranger’ has a number of similarities with a number of plays I have watched before in theatres. Among these include the artistic use of lights and costumes to help convey themes and messages in plays. Theatre is all about the visualization and when lights and costumes are used appropriately, then the message in plays are conveyed to the viewers just appropriately.

However, there is one clear difference between the play ‘Passing Strange’ and other plays I have watched theatres. The play heavily indulges music. A variety of genres are included in the play as described in this paper, a feature not so common with most plays as a few genres probably portraying a culture or two are include. However, this is understandable as the play is an explanation of a journey of dreams and self-discovery.

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Mission Command Analysis Of Battle Of Shenandoah

Battle Of Shenandoah

Sharpe and Creviston explain that mission command a philosophy combining intentions of army commanders, their mission, and subordinate initiative to win through application of united operations in the land. The doctrine guiding the commanders advocates for a shared understanding of commanders intention through trust from junior leaders1. According to Myers, leaders such as Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and Major general Thomas J. “stonewall” Jackson made use of similar concepts. The army commanders applied various principles to succeed in the war. They include building cohesive teams through mutual trust, providing a clear commander’s intent, exercising discipline initiative, and using mission orders. Integration of the identified techniques contributed varying levels of success during the campaigns 88.

The Shenandoah Valley campaign, 1862

Major general Thomas J. “stonewall” Jackson was the appointed commander of the valley district in Northern Virginia district in 1861, October. Mahle asserts that he was a direct subordinate staff to General Joseph E. Johnston, who was the overall Confederate field commander in chief in Northern Virginia. Jackson secured Shenandoah Valley against armies that were larger in Federal government. He was responsible of preventing them from strengthening union columns that were operating against Richmond. Jackson crisscrossed the valley in 1862 March to June and thwarted several operations of the union. He used his force to achieve strategic victories1-5.

Jackson applied the principles of building cohesive teams through mutual trust, exercising disciplined initiative and providing a clear commanders intent. The U.S Army and Confederate Army lacked formal guidance and doctrine to outline the leadership and management of its formations in the battlefield. It was during the civil war period7.

Army commanders established their own leadership styles from observations of other officers and applied their personal experience. Rommel spent a larger part of his career training his soldiers and leading them in German Reichswehr. The institution built on quality leadership advocated for decentralized decision-making. It was also empowering its leaders through Auftrastaktik. The German military had developed and published modern doctrinal manuals responding to various war lessons. The published documents stressed on benefits of the tank to modern battlefield. They advocated for use, and maneuvering of firepower to gain rapid success8-10.         

Many commissioned officers participated in the civil war because of the great necessity although only a small proportion had experience in the pre-war U.S. Army. As a result, military staffs influenced leadership styles. Jackson chose officers from able-bodied men in the staff according to their expertise and efficiency level. Example, Jedediah Hotchkiss had great expertise in cartography and reported to Jackson who immediately assigned him as one of his officer. Hotchkiss assigned the role of mapping; provided situational awareness and reports on reconnaissance throughout his campaign. Most of Jackson’s staff demonstrated proficiency in organizational duties and staff work. Rommel and Jackson were operational commanders held responsible of combining strategic goals with tactical actions. They autonomously operated to achieve success 15-20.

Jackson applied techniques in tactical manuals to offer him guidance of various actions in the battlefield. The manuals helped train tactics applied in basic weapons. Jackson applied a strict disciplinary and controlled leadership in the army. He was dedicated to discipline and order, which contributed, to his success. The seniors facilitated the process of following rules and regulations. The seniors executed orders to subordinates without explanation in the battlefield23.

Religious and leadership approaches

Captain Taylor influenced Jackson to live a Christian life. Jackson introduced his subordination to a religious life in the military and among leaders. Jackson watched Taylor’s leadership style for long, which strengthened his faith of following strict orders and subordination to the authority. Jackson leadership style demanded no need for social interaction. His orders were clear preventing closeness to subordinate leaders in the campaign. Many disliked his leadership since it was harsh and inflexible. He required the army to strictly follow regulations25-30. Jackson used mission orders with the help of a number of cadets and VMI faculty to control recruits scores who had joined the army without instructions. Advice to the new recruits included maintaining discipline and control in all military operations. Solutions to major confusions in the battle involved control of tactic movements and batteries from generals. Jackson directly controlled his regiments through shifting the brigade from given directions. Jackson gathered artillery batteries personally positioning them to appear having increased confederate strength. He maintained direct control of the units and advanced with them to overcome chaos. He thrust forward his brigade, which ended in success of capturing federal batteries (Floyd 10).

Direct control and discipline action solidified the dedication Jackson had to succeed. Subordination to authority principle guided Jackson in his valley campaign. Jackson used the principle of building cohesive teams through mutual trust after assigning. Stonewall Brigade. Jackson trusted in the unique capabilities of the group, which was naturally defensive. Jackson had a special urge to follow discipline. He identified its related problems that acted as obstacles to effective control and command. Jackson never explained his strict command. He introduced confident subordinates and complex situations in the battlefield, which led to a continuation of a strict and inflexible approach33-40.

The mission orders were applicable in the battle of Battle of Shenandoah where Major Jackson commanded for a clarification of the reporting channels. Upon arrival in the valley, Jackson found that reporting channels had no clear specifications. He commanded the valley district of Northern Virginia, an independent command that was directly subordinate to Johnston, to have all orders and guidance to have Johnston approve them. However, Johnston did not submit to Jackson’s request since he was attending other important issues. Commands from Jackson’s received dispatches from officials of the government directly. As a routine, the federal government responded to Jackson’s requests directly42-44.

Jackson combined with Ewell in the battle and had 17,000 men. Their mutual trust ended in a success that captured 700 prisoners in a short battle with two rifled artillery pieces. The solidified trust in the front Royal and cohesion between commanders and their forces brought success in the army. The continued trust built between Front Royal, Ewell and Jackson built a cohesive team that was rooted in mutual trust. The army had interpreted the intentions of Johnston and were now planning to throw the first blow at banks45.

Mutual trust in the battlefield ensured that orders were followed between Jackson and Ewell. Jackson gave orders to Ewel one early morning, which encouraged him and demonstrated his trust in him. The trust approved the trust that existed between them the orders were contained in a detailed map of Winchester directing him to attack at daylight. Ewell and Jackson gained success from fog of war, which they executed with skill and spirit. Jackson’s success at Winchster owed to Ewell initiative and his abilities as a commander. Jackson had moved Ewell from the upper valley. Jackson feared less at cross keys since he delegated the battle towards his trusted subordinates and was confident while exercising his disciplined initiative. Ewell had secured a good defensive position with wooded areas, which had greater command in the ground62-70. Final clarifications came from Jackson. Example brief disagreements with one Brigade commanders, Ewell referred him to Jackson to obtain final clarification. Jackson trusted Ewell and assumed a direct, inflexible, and clear leadership 71-79.

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During The Previous Decade, The United States Has Witnessed A Significant Increase In Opioid Use And Subsequent Deaths. In 2014, The Five States With The Highest Rates Of Death Due To Drug Overdose Were West Virginia, New Mexico, New Hampshire, Kentucky

Opioid Use

Opioid painkiller is a rapid growing addiction and a major problem in United States. The government has declared it an epidemic requiring lawmakers to get ways of ending its addiction. Opioid painkiller has resulted in over 14,000 deaths in 2014 due to its overdose. Common opioid medications prescribed to people include Vicodin, OxyContin, and Morphine. OxyContin painkiller treats chronic pains, physical injuries, cancer, and arthritis. Morphine is a strong painkiller treating severe pain in hospice setting among other hospitals (American Addiction Centers, 2017). Doctors introduce Vicodin to patients after an accident or surgery. Doctors prescribe Opioid drug to relieve pain. However, some people are addicted to the drug after its prescription leading to greater urge for the drug and ending up in overdose. This paper discusses symptoms of opioid overdose, strategies of preventing overdose, and strategies that positively affect population health outcomes in affected communities.

Symptoms of opiate overdose

They include confusion, acting drunk, mood swings, vomiting, nausea, and extreme constipation. The addicts have pinpointed pupils, get extreme sleep, and inability to wake up. They experience breathing problems such as irregular and stopped breathing; their skin becomes clammy and cold. The skin around the lips and fingernails turns bluish. Depressed breathing from insufficient oxygen leads to slower operation of the brain than normal since the drugs have attached to opiate receptors. The problem affects other organ systems such as kidneys and heart. Opioid overdose persons die when left alone and asleep. Their breathing gets depressed, ceases breathing causing the death of the person (American Addiction Centers, 2017).

Current Strategies preventing opioid overdose in the United States

A report published by the Trust for America’s health 2013 outlines two ways of preventing abuse and misuse of opioid and increasing access and support for services for substance abuse. Strategies include implementing and using PDMP initiatives, adoption of laws given by doctors when shopping for drugs and education laws from medical provider (American public health association, 2017). Implementing requirements of physical exam, increasing access and support services for substance abuse including adopting Good Samaritan laws supporting access to rescue drugs, among other programs reduce harm from Opioid drug. Counseling, treatments for opioid addiction using medicine reduce opioid overdose. Individual designed programs; detoxification and withdrawal practices supervised medically reduce abuse of opioid. Maintenance medications, psychosocial counseling, and treatment of disorders prevent opioid overdose. Vocational and rehabilitation services as well as case management services reduce misuse of opioid drug.

Strategies positively affecting population health outcomes in affected communities.

Substance abuse and mental health services Administration (2016) explains many strategies of affecting health outcomes of the population in affected communities. The first step is to encourage providers and high-risk families and persons to learn prevention methods and ways of managing opioid overdose. Providers should update their knowledge on evidence-based practices especially while using opioid analgesics in managing pain and directions for preventing and managing overdose of opioid drug. Second, accessing treatment toindividuals addicted and misusing opioids among other substances and ensuring ready access to naloxone improves health outcomes in affected communities. Naloxone is a drug that displaces opiates from their receptor sites such as the brain and end up reversing respiratory depression, which causes most deaths. Third strategy is encouraging the public to call 911 to receive immediate medical attention from persons with medical expertise. Fourth prescribers should be encouraged to use monitoring programs designed for prescription drugs to address misuse of opioids and prevent overdoses and deaths.

The National conference of state legislatures (2017) reports United States prescription drug monitoring programs (PMDPs) that prevent abuse of Opioid drug. PDMPs outlines strategies such as encouraging interstate exchange of PDMP data through development of interoperability standards with neighboring states. Lastly, the program encourages sharing of PDMP data among clinicians, law enforcement, researchers, Medicaid program integrity and licensure boards.

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Define theory and research methods. Define a hypothesis. Define how one might test a hypothesis.

Theory and research methods

The word theory originates from ‘thoros’ meaning a spectator. A theory is a group of assumptions and accepted facts that aim at providing rational explanation of cause and effect (causal relationships in groups of observed phenomenon. Deductive theory guide designs of a study and result interpretation. Researchers develop confidence in their conduct of empirical research and while testing a theory. They are convinced that some parts of the theory are true while others are false (Sunday, n.d). Inductive theory begins with assumptions and orientation concepts. Inductive theory begins as researchers gather and analyze data. Researchers combine knowledge from various studies and come up with an abstract theory.

Theories are descriptive or explanatory. Research designs testing theories are experimental, descriptive, and correlational. Descriptive theories describe dimensions and characteristics of events, groups, and situations (Sunday, n.d). Descriptive theory are important when there is little information known about the phenomenon. Descriptive theory is classified into classification and naming theory. Naming theory offers description and characteristics of phenomenon. Classification theory states dimensions of interrelated phenomenon. Descriptive research tests descriptive theories.

Relationship between Theory and research

Theory is a basic frame of what we observe and think. It is a summation of concepts and directions of important questions. It offers suggestions to make research data sensible. Theory increases awareness of researchers and helps them forecast issues. Theories are abstracts providing one-sided account of concrete world having many sides (Sunday, n.d). It allows researchers to link the abstract and concrete, empirical and theoretical, observations and thought statements. Social theory informs us of existing issues for research allowing researchers to make decisions making sense in the world. Theories are not fixed but are revised to be accurate and comprehensive. Theories interact with research findings (empirical data).

Research methods

Research methods are qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research understands and interprets social interactions in smaller groups not selected randomly. Qualitative research studies the whole and collects objects, images, and words. Qualitative research collects open-ended responses, observations from participants, field notes interviews and reflections. Data is analyzed using fetures, patterns and themes. Qualitative research involves researchers generating new hypothesis and theory from collected data. It studies behavior in their natural environment targeting multiple realities. A narrative report having contextual description is given as the final report. Qualitative research uses interviews, narratives, focus groups, document analysis, archival research, and participant observation to collect data.

Quantitative research observes causes and effects while testing hypothesis. The groups are larger and selected randomly. Specific variables are studied, with data and statistics collected. Structured and validated instruments collect data. Statistical relationships analyze data. The bias of the researcher is not known. The method uses confirmatory scientific methods through using data to test hypothesis and theory. The human behavior is predictable and regular. A specific hypothesis is tested. The final report is statistical with correlations and comparisons of means. Quantitative research uses interviews, objects, and images to collect data

(Xavier University, 2012).

Hypothesis

A hypothesis is a statement defining the relationship between variables. A null hypothesis states that our experiment does not have an observed effect. According to a null hypothesis there does not exists a relationship whether or not a person has stroke and whether or not a person lives with a smoker (the ratio is equal to one. It is denoted by Ho. Null hypothesis attempts to find evidence against a situation of research. The alternative hypothesis states presence of an observed effect in our experiment. Mathematical formulation of alternative hypothesis includes an inequality symbol. It is denoted by Ha. Alternative hypothesis attempts to describe an indirect way to test a hypothesis (the Pennsylvania state university, 2017). Alternative hypothesis indicates that there is a relationship between whether or not a person has a stroke and whether or not the person stays with the smoker.

Testing a hypothesis

Everett Community college tutoring center (n.d) indicates two ways of testing a hypothesis, the traditional and P-value.

Traditional method

Step 1 it involves identification of the null hypothesis Ho and the Alternative hypothesis Ha.

Step 2 it involves identification of α the level of significance.

Step 3. It involves finding the critical value(s).

Step four it involves finding the test statistic.

Step 5 Draw a graph and label the test statistic and critical value(s).

Step six making a decision to reject or accept the null hypothesis.

Reject Ho – The test statistic falls within the critical region.

Fail to reject Ho    – Test statistic does not fall within the critical region.

P-Value method

P-Value area is determined through

Left tail test: P-value area left of the statistic.

Right tail test: P-value is area to the right of test statistic.

Two tails Test: P-value is twice the area bounded by the test statistic.

A decision is then made to reject or accept the null hypothesis.

Reject Ho if p-value ≤α

Fail to reject Ho if p-value >α

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Write A 700- To 1,050-Word Script Describing What You Might Say About Adolescent Development In General, And Apply It To His Or Her Situation.

Adolescent Development: Stages of adolescent development

Adolescent is a period of growth among children of 12 to 18 years. Girls begin developing breast buds as early as eight years, pubic hair grows at the hair, armpit, and leg. Menstrual periods grow. The growth speeds up until sixteen years and slows at twelve years. Boy’s testicles and scrotum grow from ages nine while their penis enlarge and their genitals to ages nineteen. Pubic hair grows at the chest, face, and armpit. Wet dreams start at ages thirteen and continue to age seventeen. The voices deepen as the penis grow in size (American academy of child and adolescent’s facts for families, 2008).

Early adolescence

Early adolescence begins with growth of hair in private areas, increased perspiration, and production of oil in the skin and hair. Girls of approximately eleven to thirteen years of age develop hips and breast and begin experiencing menstruation. Boys of eleven to thirteen years’ experience growth of their testicles and penis. They have wet dreams and deepen their voices. They grow tremendous and gain weight. They develop greater interest in sex. Cognitive development during early adolescence begins with increased capacity for abstract thought, begin concentrating with the present, and have limited thoughts for the future. The intellectual interest expand and gain importance. Moral thinking becomes deeper (American academy of child and adolescent’s facts for families, 2008).

Social emotional development

Early stages of adolescence begins with struggle to get identity, and feeling awkward about their body and self-images. They realize the imperfect nature of their parents and increase their conflicts with them. They are greatly influenced by their peers and desire for independence. They get moody and often return to their childish behavior especially when under stress. The limit testing, rules, and are greatly interested in privacy (American academy of child and adolescent’s facts for families, 2008).

Middle adolescence

Middle adolescence begins at fourteen to eighteen ages, completing puberty stage where physical growth for girls slows and continues among boys. The cognitive development increases capacity for growth and abstract thought. The ability to set goals increases with interest in moral reasoning. They begin reasoning in the meaning of life. The social emotional development begins with intense self-involvement, poor self-concept, and high expectations. There is continued adjustment to changing body and increased worries on their normality. Middle adolescent tend to distance from parents as they aim to be independent. They are interested in making friends and rely greatly on them (American academy of child and adolescent’s facts for families, 2008). They have greater feelings of love and passion.

Late adolescence

Late adolescence begins from 19 -21 years where young women develop fully. They begin to gain weight, increase in muscle mass and body hair. Their cognition matures with the ability to think ideas, delay gratification, examining their inner experiences, and having increased concern for the future. The moral reasoning increases interest. The social emotional development has firmer sense of identity. They have increased emotional stability, and concern for others. The self-reliance is increased and independence. Their peer relationships stay important and serious. Cultural and social traditions regain their importance (American academy of child and adolescent’s facts for families, 2008).

Sexual development

  Adolescent’s skeletal growth begins at ages 10 to 12 among girls and 12 to 14 among boys. It completes at ages 17 to 19 years. Sexual maturation involves achieve of fertility, physical changes. Girls mature sexually at ages 10 where menstruation begins. Among boys testes enlarge with the first ejaculation occurs at ages 11 and 12. Secondary characteristics include body hair among boys, and changes in voice (American psychological Association, 2002).

Physical appearance and body image

Adolescents get concerned with changes in their physical appearances such as weight gain, facial features, acne, and enlargement of breasts. They spend time listening to others. Overweight adolescents suffer from discrimination from their peers. Most do not participate in physical education and take in unbalanced diets (American psychological Association, 2002). The disordered eating leads to others dieting to maintain a thin body. Eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, and nervosa are common.

Cognitive development

Cognitive development among adolescents changes the way they think, understand, and reason. They analyze various situations logically from their causes and effects in order to entertain hypothetical situations. They use symbols such as imaginations and metaphors. Their thinking ability is high enough to enable them evaluate various alternatives, set personal goals and evaluate them. They develop the ability to solve problems and plan for their future.

Decision-making

Adolescents make poor decisions, which lead them in risky behaviors such as abuse of alcohol and engaging in violent activities. Adolescent’s moral development grows with prosocial behaviors such as volunteerism, caring for others, helping, and honesty. Adolescents having learning disabilities report emotional distress than normal adolescents (American psychological Association, 2002).

Learning disabilities

Adolescents with learning disabilities experience problems with hearing, seeing and interpreting information. Moreover they experience problems with writing, spoken language and reading.

Low self-esteem

Problems with self-esteem affect most adolescents whose body organs have grown larger than their peers have. Low-esteemed adolescents feel depressed, lack energy, dislike their appearance, and reject compliments. They feel insecure and inadequate. Their expectations become unrealistic. Some become exceedingly shy and are unable to express their views. Some conform to other people’s wishes and their point of view (American psychological Association, 2002).

Emotional intelligence

Adolescents begin mastering emotional skills and ways of managing stress. Emotional intelligence involves self-awareness.

Pressures to engage in high-risk behavior

Most adolescents face great pressure to engage in risky behavior such as sexual relationships, intentional injuries, unintended pregnancies, infections from sexually transmitted diseases. Some abuse drugs (American psychological Association, 2002).

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Using a research journal database, such as CINAHL or MEDLINE, search for and identify a research article that uses the theory or model you selected. Reflect on how the theory or model provides structure to the research study described in the article.

Reflect on how the theory or model provides structure to the research study

Roy’s Adaptation model

Roy’s adaptation model explains that humans are bio psychosocial adaptive systems with the ability to cope with changes of the environment in their adaptation process. The human system has subsystems such as physiologic/physical, self-concept/group identity, role function, and interdependence. Adaptive modes in the subsystems have mechanisms to enable humans cope with the changes and stimuli in the environment. Health according to Roy’s adaptation model is a process of integration of the whole to reflect mutuality of persons and their environment. The nursing goal in Roy’s adaptation model is to promote adaptation of clients (Beck, 2011). Nursing regulates stimuli affecting adaptation. Interventions in nursing are increasing, decreasing, removing, modifying, and maintaining internal and external stimuli affecting adaptation.

Research problem (Stress and its causes)

Summary of the research article

Roy’s adaptation model in nursing process separates assessment into first level assessment of behavior and second assessment stimuli. First level assessment identifies behavior of each adaptation modes. Internal and external actions and reactions include physiologic-physical, self-concept-group identity, role function, and interdependence. Nursing history, physical examination, and ongoing assessments identify nursing behavior. Subjective behaviors are labelled as symptoms, objective behaviors are labelled as signs, adaptive behaviors are ones that promote integrity and ineffective behavior do not promote integrity (The nursing process and the Roy adaptation model, n.d).

Second level assessment; It involves identification of the stimuli influencing behaviors under assessment. The stimuli include focal, contextual, and residual. Active learning labels behaviors such as dry oral mucous membranes and feelings of nausea.

Development of a nursing plan

It involves diagnosis, goals, outcomes, interventions and their rationale and evaluation. Nurses are required to manage stimuli through elimination or modification of focal stimuli is the behavior is termed ineffective. Adaptive behavior is reinforced and supported in nursing. Roy’s adaptive model in nursing process includes; first level assessment where nurses assess behavior,2nd level assessment where nurses identify stimuli that is the why, Diagnosis: what does it all mean, and planning which involves nurses identifying what they want done. The implementation process involves thinking on what to do about diagnosed problem. The first intervention explains how nurses are to help patients meet the first goal (The nursing process and the Roy adaptation model, n.d). Evaluation process identifies how the process worked out and reports on what needs change and maintenance.

Strategies for locating and identifying a relevant theory or model for a research study.

Identifying and locating a theory or model for use when researching on stress and its causes involves stages such as selecting the best framework and searching through the internet on stress and coping methods.

Framework

Theoretical framework has concepts, identifications, and reference to relevant literature. It demonstrates understanding of theories and concepts relevant to topic under study. It is important to review course readings and research studies for theories and analytic models in context to the problem under investigation. The theory selected should be appropriate, easily applied and well understood. Theoretical frameworks includes assumptions critically evaluated. It connects researchers to existing knowledge through hypothesis and chosen research methods. Theoretical assumptions addresses questions of how and why permitting readers to transition from phenomenon description observed and leads to generalization of different aspects of the phenomenon. The theory will help in identifying limits of the generalizations. An appropriate theory explains the meaning and challenges of the phenomenon experienced.

Stages of developing the conceptual framework

Researchers begin with examining thesis title and research problem, which anchors the whole study. Brainstorming the key variables in the research answers questions factors contributing to the effect. Reviewing related literature investigates on ways used by other scholars to address a similar problem and builds various assumptions from the authors. The constructs and variables include dependent and dependent categories. Review of key social science theories introduces the reader to course readings and theories. The last step involves discussion of assumptions and propositions of theory relevant to the research.

Purpose

Theories are conceptual basis to help researchers understand, analyze, and design ways of investigating relationships in the social systems. Theories help discern certain facts, identifies means of interpreting research data and coding for future reference. It helps prescribe and evaluate solutions of research problems. Old data obtains a new meaning and interpretation.

Value of Basing Research on Established Model or Theory Conclusion

Explanation of Utilization of a Theory or Model from the Article

Usage of theories of stress in nursing

Response based model is theoretical in interpreting stress as a response. Selyein general adaptation syndrome explains that any factor can lead to stress affecting the balance in individuals. Stress in human beings is observed through changes occurring in the body due to the response of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).Certain hormones are released changing the structure and composition in the body. Moreover, a body organ can respond to stress (local adaptation syndrome (LAS). The models indicate that stress results in biological, metal, social, and mental consequences. It causes negative emotions, homeostasis problems, mental and social problems. Nursing interventions among stressed patients include reducing anxiety, managing anger and time, rest and sleep. Good nutrition and physical exercise reduce stress.

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